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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795252/ipet-study-an-flt-pet-window-study-to-assess-the-activity-of-the-steroid-sulfatase-inhibitor-irosustat-in-early-breast-cancer
#1
Carlo Palmieri, Richard Szydlo, Marie Miller, Laura Barker, Neva H Patel, Hironobu Sasano, Tara Barwick, Henry Tam, Dimitri Hadjiminas, Jasmin Lee, Abeer Shaaban, Hanna Nicholas, R Charles Coombes, Laura M Kenny
BACKGROUND: Steroid sulfatase (STS) is involved in oestrogen biosynthesis and irosustat is a first generation, irreversible steroid sulfatase inhibitor. A pre-surgical window-of-opportunity study with irosustat was undertaken in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer to assess the effect of irosustat on tumour cell proliferation as measured by 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine uptake measured by PET scanning (FLT-PET) and Ki67. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with untreated ER+ early breast cancer were recruited, and imaged with FLT-PET at baseline and after at least 2 weeks treatment with irosustat, 40 mg once daily orally...
August 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790338/statistical-analysis-of-mutant-allele-frequency-level-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-and-blood-cells-in-healthy-individuals
#2
Ligang Xia, Zhoufang Li, Bo Zhou, Geng Tian, Lidong Zeng, Hongyu Dai, Xiaohua Li, Chaoyu Liu, Shixin Lu, Feiyue Xu, Xiaonian Tu, Fang Deng, Yuancai Xie, Weiren Huang, Jiankui He
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma has emerged as a potential important biomarker in clinical diagnostics, particularly in cancer. However, somatic mutations are also commonly found in healthy individuals, which interfere with the effectiveness for cancer diagnostics. This study examined the background somatic mutations in white blood cells (WBC) and cfDNA in healthy controls based on sequencing data from 821 non-cancer individuals and several cancer samples with the aim of understanding the patterns of mutations detected in cfDNA...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775319/circulating-tumour-cell-release-after-cement-augmentation-of-vertebral-metastases
#3
Malte Mohme, Sabine Riethdorf, Marc Dreimann, Stefan Werner, Cecile L Maire, Simon A Joosse, Frederic Bludau, Volkmar Mueller, Rui P L Neves, Nikolas H Stoecklein, Katrin Lamszus, Manfred Westphal, Klaus Pantel, Harriet Wikman, Sven O Eicker
Cement augmentation via percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treatment of spinal metastasis is a well-established treatment option. We assessed whether elevated intrametastatic pressure during cement augmentation results in an increased dissemination of tumour cells into the vascular circulation. We prospectively collected blood from patients with osteolytic spinal column metastases and analysed the prevalence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) at three time-points: preoperatively, 20 minutes after cement augmentation, and 3-5 days postoperatively...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772284/diagnostic-value-of-ca19-9-circulating-tumour-dna-and-circulating-tumour-cells-in-patients-with-solid-pancreatic-tumours
#4
David Sefrioui, France Blanchard, Emmanuel Toure, Paul Basile, Ludivine Beaussire, Claire Dolfus, Anne Perdrix, Marianne Paresy, Michel Antonietti, Isabelle Iwanicki-Caron, Raied Alhameedi, Stephane Lecleire, Alice Gangloff, Lilian Schwarz, Florian Clatot, Jean-Jacques Tuech, Thierry Frébourg, Fabrice Jardin, Jean-Christophe Sabourin, Nasrin Sarafan-Vasseur, Pierre Michel, Frédéric Di Fiore
BACKGROUND: The direct comparison of CA19.9, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has never been performed for the diagnosis of solid pancreatic tumours (SPTs). METHODS: We included 68 patients with a SPT referred for EUS-FNA. CTCs were analysed using size-based platform and ctDNA using digital PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were evaluated for each marker and their combination...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753792/interrogating-metastatic-prostate-cancer-treatment-switch-decisions-a-multi-institutional-survey
#5
David Lorente, Praful Ravi, Niven Mehra, Carmel Pezaro, Aurelius Omlin, Alexa Gilman, Miguel Miranda, Pasquale Rescigno, Michael Kolinsky, Nuria Porta, Diletta Bianchini, Nina Tunariu, Raquel Perez, Joaquin Mateo, Heather Payne, Leon Terstappen, Maarten IJzerman, Emma Hall, Johann de Bono
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of responses to treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains challenging. Consensus criteria based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and clinical and radiologic biomarkers are inconsistently utilized. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts can inform prognosis and response, but are not routinely used. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of biomarkers and trends in clinical decision-making in current mCRPC treatment...
October 10, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743036/recist-response-and-variation-of-circulating-tumour-cells-in-phase-1-trials-a-prospective-multicentric-study
#6
Christophe Massard, Isabelle Borget, Françoise Farace, Sandrine Aspeslagh, Marie-Cécile Le Deley, Christophe Le Tourneau, François-Clement Bidard, Jean-Yves Pierga, Veronique Dieras, Paul Hofman, Jean-Philippe Spano, Charles Ferte, Ludovic Lacroix, Jean-Charles Soria
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour cell (CTC) counting could be a new biomarker for better evaluation of tumour response to molecules tested in phase I trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consenting patients with advanced metastatic cancer referred to various phase I units were enrolled prospectively in this study. CTCs from 7.5 ml of whole blood drawn at baseline and after starting experimental therapy were counted using the CellSearch system, and tumour response was assessed using RECIST 1...
July 22, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741788/molecular-analysis-of-single-circulating-tumour-cells-following-long-term-storage-of-clinical-samples
#7
Barbara Mesquita, Dominic G Rothwell, Deborah J Burt, Francesca Chemi, Fabiola Fernandez-Gutierrez, Daniel Slane-Tan, Jenny Antonello, Mathew Carter, Louise Carter, Marina Parry, Lynsey Franklin, Richard Marais, Fiona Blackhall, Caroline Dive, Ged Brady
The CellSearch® semi-automated CTC enrichment and staining system has been established as the "gold standard" for CTC enumeration with CellSearch® CTC counts recognized by the FDA as prognostic for a number of cancers. We and others have gone on to show that molecular analysis of CellSearch® CTCs isolated shortly after CellSearch® enrichment provides another valuable layer of information that has potential clinical utility including predicting response to treatment. Although CellSearch® CTCs can be readily isolated after enrichment, the process of analysing a single CellSearch® patient sample, which may contain many CTCs, is both time consuming and costly...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737696/targeting-platelets-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Omar Elaskalani, Michael C Berndt, Marco Falasca, Pat Metharom
The majority of cancer-associated mortality results from the ability of tumour cells to metastasise leading to multifunctional organ failure and death. Disseminated tumour cells in the blood circulation are faced with major challenges such as rheological shear stresses and cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by natural killer cells. Nevertheless, circulating tumour cells with metastatic ability appear equipped to exploit host cells to aid their survival. Despite the long interest in targeting tumour-associated host cells such as platelets for cancer treatment, the clinical benefit of this strategy is still under question...
July 22, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726521/polymer-donors-of-nitric-oxide-improve-the-treatment-of-experimental-solid-tumours-with-nanosized-polymer-therapeutics
#9
Milada Šírová, Veronika Horková, Tomáš Etrych, Petr Chytil, Blanka Říhová, Martin Studenovský
Polymer carriers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers with incorporated organic nitrates as nitric oxide (NO) donors were designed with the aim to localize NO generation in solid tumours, thus highly increasing the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The NO donors were coupled to the polymer carrier either through a stable bond or through a hydrolytically degradable, pH sensitive, bond. In vivo, the co-administration of the polymer NO donor and HPMA copolymer-bound cytotoxic drug (doxorubicin; Dox) resulted in an improvement in the treatment of murine EL4 T-cell lymphoma...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723516/the-molecular-evolution-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Yvonne Ceder, Anders Bjartell, Zoran Culig, Mark A Rubin, Scott Tomlins, Tapio Visakorpi
CONTEXT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the backbone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) nearly invariably develops through a range of different molecular mechanisms accompanied by progression to a more aggressive phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To understand the key molecular mechanisms leading to CRPC and the functional implications of this progression. Understanding molecular evolutionary mechanisms in CRPC is essential for the development of novel curative therapeutic approaches...
December 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714465/enhanced-anti-tumour-immunity-requires-the-interplay-between-resident-and-circulating-memory-cd8-t-cells
#11
Michel Enamorado, Salvador Iborra, Elena Priego, Francisco J Cueto, Juan A Quintana, Sarai Martínez-Cano, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Mariano Esteban, Ignacio Melero, Andrés Hidalgo, David Sancho
The goal of successful anti-tumoural immunity is the development of long-term protective immunity to prevent relapse. Infiltration of tumours with CD8(+) T cells with a resident memory (Trm) phenotype correlates with improved survival. However, the interplay of circulating CD8(+) T cells and Trm cells remains poorly explored in tumour immunity. Using different vaccination strategies that fine-tune the generation of Trm cells or circulating memory T cells, here we show that, while both subsets are sufficient for anti-tumour immunity, the presence of Trm cells improves anti-tumour efficacy...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714000/circulating-levels-of-angiogenesis-related-growth-factors-in-breast-cancer-a-study-to-profile-proteins-responsible-for-tubule-formation
#12
Gemma A Barron, Marie Goua, Klaus W J Wahle, Giovanna Bermano
The present study exploited a versatile in vitro endothelial cell/fibroblast co-culture cell system to investigate the association between angiogenesis and breast cancer by comparing the capacity of plasma from women with breast cancer and age-matched controls, to influence tubule formation and modulate angiogenesis in vitro, and to identify plasma circulating factors which might be responsible. Plasma from women with breast cancer (n=8) (added on day 7 after co-culture establishment) significantly increased tubule formation by 57% (P<0...
July 11, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713015/folate-conjugated-and-ph-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-target-cell-specific-anticancer-drug-delivery
#13
Jiao Guan, Zun-Qiang Zhou, Mao-Hua Chen, Hui-Yan Li, Da-Nian Tong, Jun Yang, Jing Yao, Zheng-Yun Zhang
In this study, we developed a folate (FA)-conjugated and pH-responsive active targeting micellar system for anti-cancer drug delivery. In this system, FA was attached to the terminal of the hydrophilic segment of poly(lactic acid)-poly(L-lysine) (PLA-PLL), and PLL was modified by a citric acid group. The FA receptor-mediated active targeting and electrostatic interaction between micelles and cell membrane due to a negative-to-positive charge reversal was combined in one micellar anti-cancer drug delivery system to enhance the tumour targeting and cellular internalisation of micelles...
July 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700326/isolation-and-detection-of-circulating-tumour-cells-from-metastatic-melanoma-patients-using-a-slanted-spiral-microfluidic-device
#14
Carlos A Aya-Bonilla, Gabriela Marsavela, James B Freeman, Chris Lomma, Markus H Frank, Muhammad A Khattak, Tarek M Meniawy, Michael Millward, Majid E Warkiani, Elin S Gray, Mel Ziman
Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) are promising cancer biomarkers. Several methods have been developed to isolate CTCs from blood samples. However, the isolation of melanoma CTCs is very challenging as a result of their extraordinary heterogeneity, which has hindered their biological and clinical study. Thus, methods that isolate CTCs based on their physical properties, rather than surface marker expression, such as microfluidic devices, are greatly needed in melanoma. Here, we assessed the ability of the slanted spiral microfluidic device to isolate melanoma CTCs via label-free enrichment...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698647/identification-of-fbxl4-as-a-metastasis-associated-gene-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Elzbieta Stankiewicz, Xueying Mao, D Chas Mangham, Lei Xu, Marc Yeste-Velasco, Gabrielle Fisher, Bernard North, Tracy Chaplin, Bryan Young, Yuqin Wang, Jasmin Kaur Bansal, Sakunthala Kudahetti, Lucy Spencer, Christopher S Foster, Henrik Møller, Peter Scardino, R Tim Oliver, Jonathan Shamash, Jack Cuzick, Colin S Cooper, Daniel M Berney, Yong-Jie Lu
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among western men, with a significant mortality and morbidity reported for advanced metastatic disease. Current understanding of metastatic disease is limited due to difficulty of sampling as prostate cancer mainly metastasizes to bone. By analysing prostate cancer bone metastases using high density microarrays, we found a common genomic copy number loss at 6q16.1-16.2, containing the FBXL4 gene, which was confirmed in larger series of bone metastases by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695294/the-role-of-mhc-genes-in-contagious-cancer-the-story-of-tasmanian-devils
#16
REVIEW
Alison Caldwell, Hannah V Siddle
The Tasmanian devil, a marsupial species endemic to the island of Tasmania, harbours two contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour 1 (DFT1) and Devil Facial Tumour 2 (DFT2). These cancers pass between individuals in the population via the direct transfer of tumour cells, resulting in the growth of large tumours around the face and neck of affected animals. While these cancers are rare, a contagious cancer also exists in dogs and five contagious cancers circulate in bivalves. The ability of tumour cells to emerge and transmit in mammals is surprising as these cells are an allograft and should be rejected due to incompatibility between Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes...
July 11, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694026/nano-technology-based-carriers-for-nitrogen-containing-bisphosphonates-delivery-as-sensitisers-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#17
Naomi O Hodgins, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) including zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALD) inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and have been shown to have a cytotoxic affect against cancer cells as a monotherapy and to also sensitise tumour cells to destruction by γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a subset of human T lymphocytes and have a diverse range of roles in the immune system including the recognition and destruction of cancer cells. This property of γδ T cells can be harnessed for use in cancer immunotherapy through in vivo expansion or the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated γδ T cells...
July 7, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687339/inflammation-and-myointimal-hyperplasia-correlation-with-hemodynamic-forces
#18
Antonio V Sterpetti, Alessandra Cucina, Valeria Borrelli, Marco Ventura
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to correlate flow dynamics and the release of inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1, 2, 6, TNF (Tumour Necrosis Factor) alfa, both in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endothelial cells were exposed to laminar flow (6dyne/cm(2)) in an in vitro circulatory system and the release of Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa was quantified by ELISA. Interleukin 1, 2, 6 and TNF alfa release was also assessed in vein grafts implanted in the arterial circulation of Lewis rats...
July 5, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683469/lurbinectedin-reduces-tumour-associated-macrophages-and-the-inflammatory-tumour-microenvironment-in-preclinical-models
#19
Cristina Belgiovine, Ezia Bello, Manuela Liguori, Ilaria Craparotta, Laura Mannarino, Lara Paracchini, Luca Beltrame, Sergio Marchini, Carlos M Galmarini, Alberto Mantovani, Roberta Frapolli, Paola Allavena, Maurizio D'Incalci
BACKGROUND: Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent currently undergoing late-stage (Phase II /III) clinical evaluation in platinum-resistant ovarian, BRCA1/2-mutated breast and small-cell lung cancer. Lurbinectedin is structurally related to trabectedin and it inhibits active transcription and the DNA repair machinery in tumour cells. METHODS: In this study we investigated whether lurbinectedin has the ability to modulate the inflammatory microenvironment and the viability of myeloid cells in tumour-bearing mice...
July 6, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683468/correlation-between-circulating-mutant-dna-and-metabolic-tumour-burden-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#20
Anne Winther-Larsen, Christina Demuth, Joan Fledelius, Anne Tranberg Madsen, Karin Hjorthaug, Peter Meldgaard, Boe Sandahl Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Mutated circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been suggested as a surrogate marker of tumour burden and aggressiveness of disease. We examined the association between the level of plasma mutant cfDNA and metabolic tumour burden (MTB) measured by (18)F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT). Furthermore, the presence of mutant cfDNA was correlated with patient survival. METHODS: Forty-six advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were included...
July 6, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
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