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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#1
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759567/epcam-duality-becomes-this-molecule-in-a-new-dr-jekyll-and-mr-hyde-tale
#2
REVIEW
Alejandro Herreros-Pomares, Cristóbal Aguilar-Gallardo, Silvia Calabuig-Fariñas, Rafael Sirera, Eloísa Jantus-Lewintre, Carlos Camps
EpCAM, known as an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, plays an essential role in cell adhesion, migration, metastasis and cell signalling. Rather than acting as an apoptosis antagonist, it induces cellular proliferation that impacts the cell cycle, and as a signalling transducer it uses and enhances the Wnt pathway, which is significantly relevant in cell renewal and cancer. EpCAM has become a marker of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in lung cancer due to its specificity, and its high and stable expression level...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759151/circulating-tumour-dna-for-detecting-minimal-residual-disease-in-multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Trevor J Pugh
Circulating tumor DNA faithfully recapitulates somatic mutations detected in bone marrow aspirates from patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed or recurrent myeloma. Extending these methods to enable detection of minimal residual disease will require increased sensitivity and breadth of genomic assays to maximize information content from small quantities of cell-free DNA; as well as definition of a clinically meaningful ctDNA concentration in comparison with conventional bone marrow cell-count thresholds...
January 2018: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745729/anti-proliferate-and-apoptosis-triggering-potential-of-methotrexate-transferrin-conjugate-encapsulated-plga-nanoparticles-with-enhanced-cellular-uptake-by-high-affinity-folate-receptors
#4
Ankush Parmar, Atul Jain, Shivani Uppal, S K Mehta, Khuswinder Kaur, Bhupinder Singh, Rajat Sandhir, Shweta Sharma
The objective of the present study is to enhance the permeation of bioactive molecules across highly lipophilic insurmountable blood brain barrier (BBB) using folic acid (FA) functionalized poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (FA-PNPs) coated with non-ionic surfactant, Polysorbate 80 (P80 ). The developed Mtx-Tf loaded folic acid anchored PNPs formulation depicted particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 109 ± 2.3 nm, -9.38 ± 0.9 mV and 71.0 ± 0.6%, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732003/single-cell-genetic-analysis-validates-cytopathological-identification-of-circulating-cancer-cells-in-patients-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Lucile Broncy, Basma Ben Njima, Arnaud Méjean, Christophe Béroud, Khaled Ben Romdhane, Marius Ilie, Veronique Hofman, Jane Muret, Paul Hofman, Habiba Chaabouni Bouhamed, And Patrizia Paterlini-Bréchot
Context: Circulating Rare Cells (CRC) are non-haematological cells circulating in blood. They include Circulating Cancer Cells (CCC) and cells with uncertain malignant features (CRC-UMF) according to cytomorphology. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas frequently bear a mutated Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Aim: To match blind genetic analysis of CRC and tumor samples with CRC cytopathological diagnosis. Results: 29/30 patients harboured CRC (20 harboured CCC, 29 CRC-UMF) and 25/29 patients carried VHL mutations in their tumour...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731846/the-clinical-value-of-detecting-circulating-tumour-cells-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients
#6
Zhuo Chen, Lu Xu, Xinhua Xu, Chen Yuan
The aim of the present study as to analyse the associations between circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and the clinical parameters of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Peripheral blood (7.5 ml) from 68 first-diagnosed NPC patients was collected to detect and identify CTCs by cluster of differentiation (CD)45 immunomagnetic separation. Immunofluorescent staining of cytokeratin-18, CD45 and DAPI, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were combined with the centromere of chromosome 8 (CEP8) probe method to analyse the associations between CTCs and clinical parameters...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719432/evidence-based-best-practices-for-egfr-t790m-testing-in-lung-cancer-in-canada
#7
T Stockley, C A Souza, P K Cheema, B Melosky, S Kamel-Reid, M S Tsao, A Spatz, A Karsan
Epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) are recommended as first-line systemic therapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) having mutations in the EGFR gene. Resistance to tkis eventually occurs in all nsclc patients treated with such drugs. In patients with resistance to tkis caused by the EGFR T790M mutation, the third-generation tki osimertinib is now the standard of care. For optimal patient management, accurate EGFR T790M testing is required. A multidisciplinary working group of pathologists, laboratory medicine specialists, medical oncologists, a respirologist, and a thoracic radiologist from across Canada was convened to discuss best practices for EGFR T790M mutation testing in Canada...
April 2018: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717268/adrenomedullary-function-obesity-and-permissive-influences-of-catecholamines-on-body-mass-in-patients-with-chromaffin-cell-tumours
#8
Yaxin An, Manja Reimann, Jimmy Masjkur, Katharina Langton, Mirko Peitzsch, Timo Deutschbein, Martin Fassnacht, Natalie Rogowski-Lehmann, Felix Beuschlein, Stephanie Fliedner, Anthony Stell, Aleksander Prejbisz, Andrzej Januszewicz, Jacques Lenders, Stefan R Bornstein, Graeme Eisenhofer
BACKGROUND: Obesity-associated activation of sympathetic nervous outflow is well documented, whereas involvement of dysregulated adrenomedullary hormonal function in obesity is less clear. This study assessed relationships of sympathoadrenal function with indices of obesity and influences of circulating catecholamines on body mass. METHODS: Anthropometric and clinical data along with plasma and 24-h urine samples were collected from 590 volunteers and 1368 patients tested for phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL), among whom tumours were diagnosed in 210 individuals...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707308/the-clinical-value-of-circulating-tumour-cells-ctcs-in-patients-undergoing-pulmonary-metastasectomy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#9
Masaki Hashimoto, Fumihiro Tanaka, Kazue Yoneda, Teruhisa Takuwa, Ayumi Kuroda, Seiji Matsumoto, Yoshitomo Okumura, Nobuyuki Kondo, Tohru Tsujimura, Takashi Nakano, Seiki Hasegawa
Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are a potential surrogate for distant metastasis and are considered a useful clinical prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This prospective study evaluated the preoperative CTC count as a prognostic factor for pulmonary metastasectomy in mCRC patients. Methods: Seventy-nine mCRC patients who underwent curative-intent pulmonary metastasectomy were included. Preoperatively, 7.5 mL of peripheral blood from each patient was quantitatively evaluated for CTCs with the CellSearch® system...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705685/translational-genomics-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-review-with-re-analysis-of-tcga-dataset
#10
REVIEW
Jeffery Ho, Xianchun Li, Lin Zhang, Yonghao Liang, Wei Hu, Johnny C W Yau, Hung Chan, Tony Gin, Matthew T V Chan, Gary Tse, William K K Wu
Malignancy of the pancreas is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the highest case-fatality of all cancers. Nevertheless, the lack of sensitive biomarkers and presence of biological heterogeneity precludes its early detection and effective treatment. The recent introduction of next-generation sequencing allows characterization of multiple driver mutations at genome- and exome-wide levels. Sequencing of DNA and RNA from circulating tumour cells has also opened an exciting era of non-invasive procedures for tumour detection and prognostication...
April 25, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696080/therapeutic-effects-of-serum-extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-fibrosis
#11
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Sherri Kemper, Min Cong, Hong You, David R Brigstock
The lack of approved therapies for hepatic fibrosis seriously limits medical management of patients with chronic liver disease. Since extracellular vesicles (EVs) function as conduits for intercellular molecular transfer, we investigated if EVs from healthy individuals have anti-fibrotic properties. Hepatic fibrogenesis or fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )- or thioacetic acid-induced liver injury models in male or female mice were suppressed by serum EVs from normal mice (EVN) but not from fibrotic mice (EVF)...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695770/systemic-immune-response-induced-by-oxaliplatin-based-neoadjuvant-therapy-favours-survival-without-metastatic-progression-in-high-risk-rectal-cancer
#12
Erta Kalanxhi, Sebastian Meltzer, Jakob Vasehus Schou, Finn Ole Larsen, Svein Dueland, Kjersti Flatmark, Benny Vittrup Jensen, Knut Håkon Hole, Therese Seierstad, Kathrine Røe Redalen, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Anne Hansen Ree
BACKGROUND: Systemic failure remains a challenge in rectal cancer. We investigated the possible systemic anti-tumour immune activity invoked within oxaliplatin-based neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: In two high-risk patient cohorts, we assessed the circulating levels of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a factor reflecting both therapy-induced myelosuppression and activation of tumour antigen-presenting dendritic cells, at baseline and following induction chemotherapy and sequential chemoradiotherapy, both modalities containing oxaliplatin...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695766/vinorelbine-cyclophosphamide-and-5-fu-effects-on-the-circulating-and-intratumoural-landscape-of-immune-cells-improve-anti-pd-l1-efficacy-in-preclinical-models-of-breast-cancer-and-lymphoma
#13
Stefania Orecchioni, Giovanna Talarico, Valentina Labanca, Angelica Calleri, Patrizia Mancuso, Francesco Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors (CIs) are clinically active in many types of cancer. However, only a minority of patients achieve a complete and/or long-lasting clinical response. We studied the effects of different doses of three widely used, orally active chemotherapeutics (vinorelbine, cyclophosphamide and 5-FU) over local and metastatic tumour growth, and the landscape of circulating and tumour-infiltrating immune cells involved in CI activity. METHODS: Immunocompetent Balb/c mice were used to generate models of breast cancer (BC) and B-cell lymphoma...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685037/acetylation-and-amination-protect-angiotensin-1-7-from-physiological-hydrolyzation-and-therefore-increase-its-anti-tumour-effects-on-lung-cancer
#14
Xiaowen Ma, Zhijun Pang, Jiming Zhou, Lei He, Qiang Hao, Weina Li, Kuo Zhang, Shuning Wang, Wangqi Zhang, Xiaochang Xue, Wei Zhang, Yingqi Zhang, Cun Zhang, Meng Li
The recently reported inhibitory effects of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang-(1-7)) on various cancers indicate its potential use as a therapeutic agent for primary and metastatic cancers. However, its extremely short half-life in the circulation greatly compromises its potential applications. We reported an Ang-(1-7) analogue peptide with the amino and carboxy termini protected by acetylation and amination. The in vitro and in vivo degradation of the resulting analogue, Ang-AA, were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684744/the-role-of-circulating-tumour-cells-and-nucleic-acids-in-blood-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Pramit Khetrapal, Matthew Wei Liang Lee, Wei Shen Tan, Liqin Dong, Patricia de Winter, Andrew Feber, John D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Blood-based biomarkers are a neglected resource in bladder cancer, where the mainstay of focus has been on urinary biomarkers. However, blood-based biomarkers are gaining popularity in other solid cancers, particularly circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and circulating nucleic acids. In this systematic review, we identify and discuss the diagnostic value of CTC, cell-free DNA and RNA based biomarkers in bladder cancer. METHODS: A MEDLINE/Pubmed systematic search was performed using the following keywords: (bladder cancer) AND (blood OR plasma OR serum) AND biomarker AND (DNA OR RNA OR cfDNA OR cell-free DNA OR RNA OR CTC)...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679068/profiling-of-179-mirna-expression-in-blood-plasma-of-lung-cancer-patients-and-cancer-free-individuals
#16
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Evgeny S Morozkin, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Y Rykova, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Aleksandr A Zheravin, Oksana A Pashkovskaya, Evgeny A Pokushalov, Valentin V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Lung cancer is one of major cancers, and survival of lung cancer patients is dictated by the timely detection and diagnosis. Cell-free circulating miRNAs were proposed as candidate biomarkers for lung cancer. These RNAs are frequently deregulated in lung cancer and can persist in bodily fluids for extended periods of time, shielded from degradation by membrane vesicles and biopolymer complexes. To date, several groups reported the presence of lung tumour-specific subsets of miRNAs in blood. Here we describe the profiling of blood plasma miRNAs in lung cancer patients, healthy individuals and endobronchitis patients using miRCURY LNA miRNA qPCR Serum/Plasma Panel (Exiqon)...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662344/manipulating-nanoparticle-transport-within-blood-flow-through-external-forces-an-exemplar-of-mechanics-in-nanomedicine
#17
REVIEW
Huilin Ye, Zhiqiang Shen, Le Yu, Mei Wei, Ying Li
A large number of nanoparticles (NPs) have been raised for diverse biomedical applications and some of them have shown great potential in treatment and imaging of diseases. Design of NPs is essential for delivery efficacy due to a number of biophysical barriers, which prevents the circulation of NPs in vascular flow and their accumulation at tumour sites. The physiochemical properties of NPs, so-called '4S' parameters, such as size, shape, stiffness and surface functionalization, play crucial roles in their life journey to be delivered to tumour sites...
March 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662054/characterising-the-phenotypic-evolution-of-circulating-tumour-cells-during-treatment
#18
Simon Chang-Hao Tsao, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon, Matt Trau
Real-time monitoring of cancer cells' phenotypic evolution during therapy can provide vital tumour biology information for treatment management. Circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis has emerged as a useful monitoring tool, but its routine usage is restricted by either limited multiplexing capability or sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of antibody-conjugated and Raman reporter-coated gold nanoparticles for simultaneous labelling and monitoring of multiple CTC surface markers (named as "cell signature"), without the need for isolating individual CTCs...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658031/fully-automated-on-site-isolation-of-cfdna-from-whole-blood-for-cancer-therapy-monitoring
#19
Chi-Ju Kim, Juhee Park, Vijaya Sunkara, Tae-Hyeong Kim, Yongjin Lee, Kyusang Lee, Mi-Hyun Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
The potential utility of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in patient blood for cancer diagnostics and real-time monitoring of disease progression is highly recognized. However, the lack of automated and efficient methods for cell-free DNA (cfDNA) isolation from peripheral blood has remained a challenge for broader acceptance of liquid biopsy in general clinical settings. Here, we demonstrate a lab-on-a-disc system equipped with newly developed, electromagnetically actuated, and reversible diaphragm valves that allows fully automated and rapid (<30 min) isolation of cfDNA from whole blood (>3 ml) to achieve high detection sensitivity by minimizing the degradation of fragile ctDNA as well as contamination of wild-type DNA from abundant blood cells...
May 1, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642948/sex-and-interleukin-6-are-prognostic-factors-for-autoimmune-toxicity-following-treatment-with-anti-ctla4-blockade
#20
Sara Valpione, Sandro Pasquali, Luca Giovanni Campana, Luisa Piccin, Simone Mocellin, Jacopo Pigozzo, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is a licensed immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma patients and, in the US, as adjuvant treatment for high risk melanoma radically resected. The use of ipilimumab is associated with a typical but unpredictable pattern of side effects. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical features and blood biomarkers capable of predicting ipilimumab related toxicity. METHODS: We performed a prospective study aimed at analyzing potential clinical and biological markers associated with immune-related toxicity in patients treated with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg, q3w)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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