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RNA nano material

Alexander I Taylor, Fabienne Beuron, Sew-Yeu Peak-Chew, Edward P Morris, Piet Herdewijn, Philipp Holliger
Nanoscale objects of increasing complexity can be constructed from DNA or RNA. However, the scope of potential applications could be enhanced by expanding beyond the moderate chemical diversity of natural nucleic acids. Here, we explore the construction of nano-objects made entirely from alternative building blocks: synthetic genetic polymers not found in nature, also called xeno nucleic acids (XNAs). Specifically, we describe assembly of 70 kDa tetrahedra elaborated in four different XNA chemistries (2'-fluro-2'-deoxy-ribofuranose nucleic acid (2'F-RNA), 2'-fluoroarabino nucleic acids (FANA), hexitol nucleic acids (HNA), and cyclohexene nucleic acids (CeNA)), as well as mixed designs, and a ∼600 kDa all-FANA octahedron, visualised by electron microscopy...
June 16, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Minzhi Zhao, Haiyun Li, Xiaochen Liu, Jie Wei, Jianguo Ji, Shu Yang, Zhiyuan Hu, Shicheng Wei
Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gang Zhou, George Wilson, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Aptamers, also known as chemical antibodies, are single-stranded nucleic acid oligonucleotides which bind to their targets with high specificity and affinity. They are typically selected by repetitive in vitro process termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Owing to their excellent properties compared to conventional antibodies, notably their smaller physical size and lower immunogenicity and toxicity, aptamers have recently emerged as a new class of agents to deliver therapeutic drugs to cancer cells by targeting specific cancer-associated hallmarks...
March 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Ali Dehshahri, Hossein Sadeghpour
In recent years, the discovery of novel nucleic acid-based drug candidates (e.g., siRNA and miRNA) and the groundbreaking studies for somatic cell reprogramming into a state of pluripotency have led to reconsideration for the use of human gene therapy as a new paradigm with great therapeutic potential. However, the success of gene therapy is dependent on overcoming intra- and extracellular barriers hampering the efficient delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics into the target cells or tissues. Despite relatively low transfection efficiency, great attention has been directed to cationic polymers and dendrimers due to their ability to condense DNA and RNA molecules into nano-sized particles which is a necessary prerequisite for efficient transfer of nucleic acids into cells...
August 1, 2015: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Deepti Singh, Sung Soo Han, Eun Joo Shin
Nanocarriers have shown tremendous potential for the target-specific delivery of proteins, genes and drugs. Nanoparticles are fabricated using different natural and synthetic polymers. Natural polysaccharides are often used as building block for developing nano-sized drug delivery vehicles. The physicochemical properties of these materials, such as excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, surface charges that interact with DNA, protein and RNA, and cost effectiveness, make them exceptional base materials for nanocarrier fabrication...
September 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Federico Iacovelli, Mattia Falconi
DNA and RNA are large and flexible polymers selected by nature to transmit information. The most common DNA three-dimensional structure is represented by the double helix, but this biopolymer is extremely flexible and polymorphic, and can easily change its conformation to adapt to different interactions and purposes. DNA can also adopt singular topologies, giving rise, for instance, to supercoils, formed because of the limited free rotation of the DNA domain flanking a replication or transcription complex. Our understanding of the importance of these unusual or transient structures is growing, as recent studies of DNA topology, supercoiling, knotting and linking have shown that the geometric changes can drive, or strongly influence, the interactions between protein and DNA, so altering its own metabolism...
September 2015: FEBS Journal
Dong-Sic Choi, Yong Song Gho
Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized lipid bilayer vesicles released from most cells, including archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells. These membrane vesicles play multiple roles in cell-to-cell communication, including immune modulation, angiogenesis, and transformation of cells by transferring genetic material and functional proteins. They contain specific subsets of proteins, DNA, RNA, and lipids that represent their cellular status. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles are enriched in cell type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins, especially plasma membrane proteins, which have pathophysiological functions; these vesicular proteins are considered novel diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susanne G van der Grein, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen
A newly uncovered means of communication between cells involves intercellular transfer of nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EV), composed of lipids, proteins, and genetic material. EV released by cells of the immune system can play a regulatory role in the induction and suppression of immune responses. These functions may be mediated not only by the bioactive lipids and proteins present in EV but also by EV-associated RNAs. The RNA in EV mainly consists of microRNAs and a large range of other small non-coding RNA species...
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
H Yildirim Erbil
Control of stain geometry by drop evaporation of surfactant containing dispersions is an important topic of interest because it plays a crucial role in many applications such as forming templates on solid surfaces, in ink-jet printing, spraying of pesticides, micro/nano material fabrication, thin film coatings, biochemical assays, deposition of DNA/RNA micro-arrays, and manufacture of novel optical and electronic materials. This paper presents a review of the published articles on the diffusive drop evaporation of pure liquids (water), the surfactant stains obtained from evaporating drops that do not contain dispersed particles and deposits obtained from drops containing polymer colloids and carbon based particles such as carbon nanotubes, graphite and fullerenes...
August 2015: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Kiran Kumar Bokara, Gopi Suresh Oggu, Aditya Josyula Vidyasagar, Amit Asthana, Jong Eun Lee, Ch Mohan Rao
Stem cells, either neural [NSCs] or mesenchymal [MSCs], possess tremendous untapped potential for cell therapy. Unlike the NSCs, MSCs are multi-potent and they have high self-renewal capability and broad tissue distribution. Since they do not produce significant immune rejection on post-transplantation; they are better suited for cell-based therapies. However, several critical issues need to be addressed to maximize stem cell-derived therapeutic effects. The key factor affecting the therapeutic application of stem cells is exposure to hostile conditions in vivo such as oxidative stress, which results in considerably low survival rate of these cells at transplanted sites, thereby reducing the therapeutic efficiency...
2014: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Young Sook Lee, Sung Wan Kim
Most currently available cationic polymers have significant acute toxicity concerns such as cellular toxicity, aggregation of erythrocytes, and entrapment in the lung capillary bed, largely due to their poor biocompatibility and non-degradability under physiological conditions. To develop more intelligent polymers, disulfide bonds are introduced in the design of biodegradable polymers. Herein, the sustained innovations of biomimetic nano-sized constructs with bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s demonstrate a viable clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, anemia, diabetes, and cancer...
September 28, 2014: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kohta Mohri, Makiya Nishikawa, Yuki Takahashi, Yoshinobu Takakura
Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, not only allow transfer and replication of densely coded genetic information, but also act as danger signals triggering innate immune response. Recent progress in the design and construction of nano-sized structures using DNA has opened a new field of nanotechnology. The unique properties of nano-sized DNA constructs can be exploited to develop programmable materials for efficient delivery of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in DNA nanotechnology and its applications as delivery systems are summarized...
July 16, 2014: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Meike van der Zande, Rob J Vandebriel, Maria J Groot, Evelien Kramer, Zahira E Herrera Rivera, Kirsten Rasmussen, Jan S Ossenkoppele, Peter Tromp, Eric R Gremmer, Ruud J B Peters, Peter J Hendriksen, Hans J P Marvin, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Ad A C M Peijnenburg, Hans Bouwmeester
BACKGROUND: Synthetic Amorphous Silica (SAS) is commonly used in food and drugs. Recently, a consumer intake of silica from food was estimated at 9.4 mg/kg bw/day, of which 1.8 mg/kg bw/day was estimated to be in the nano-size range. Food products containing SAS have been shown to contain silica in the nanometer size range (i.e. 5-200 nm) up to 43% of the total silica content. Concerns have been raised about the possible adverse effects of chronic exposure to nanostructured silica. METHODS: Rats were orally exposed to 100, 1000 or 2500 mg/kg bw/day of SAS, or to 100, 500 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day of NM-202 (a representative nanostructured silica for OECD testing) for 28 days, or to the highest dose of SAS or NM-202 for 84 days...
2014: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Zhongliang Wang, Zhe Wang, Dingbin Liu, Xuefeng Yan, Fu Wang, Gang Niu, Min Yang, Xiaoyuan Chen
RNA interference (RNAi) is an RNA-dependent gene silencing approach controlled by an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Herein, we present a synthetic RISC-mimic nanocomplex, which can actively cleave its target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. With high enzymatic stability and efficient self-delivery to target cells, the designed nanocomplex can selectively and potently induce gene silencing without cytokine activation. These nanocomplexes, which target multidrug resistance, are not only able to bypass the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, due to their nano-size effect, but also effectively suppress Pgp expression, thus resulting in successful restoration of drug sensitivity of OVCAR8/ADR cells to Pgp-transportable cytotoxic agents...
February 10, 2014: Angewandte Chemie
Sabine Eiben, Nina Stitz, Fabian Eber, Jerrit Wagner, Petia Atanasova, Joachim Bill, Christina Wege, Holger Jeske
Due to its small dimensions and high stability, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used as nano-scaffold frequently. Its surface can be engineered to meet specific needs for technical, medical or materials applications. However, not all technically desirable TMV coat protein (CP) mutants can be propagated in plants successfully, if they change the efficiency of virion assembly. In order to circumvent this problem, a novel wild type (wt) CP-assisted and RNA-directed assembly procedure was designed for a recalcitrant CP mutant: Although pure hexahistidine-tagged CP cannot form particles on its own with TMV RNA in vitro, it was integrated into full-length particles if blended with wt CP in different proportions...
February 13, 2014: Virus Research
(no author information available yet)
The seventh in the series of ETP Symposia (see Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2012, 26, 1515-1518 for a description and report on the 6(th) Symposium) was held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto, Canada, on 30 April to 1 May, 2013, and was chaired by Professor Daniel Figeys, Ottawa Institute for Systems Biology, University of Ottawa. The purpose of these symposia is to convene meetings of scientists and engineers from universities, government laboratories, industry and manufacturers of scientific instrumentation, to discuss novel technologies and methodologies applicable to research in molecular biology...
November 30, 2013: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Wataru Hatakeyama, Masayuki Taira, Naoyuki Chosa, Hidemichi Kihara, Akira Ishisaki, Hisatomo Kondo
The development of new osteoconductive bone substitute materials is expected in medicine. In this study, we attempted to produce new hydroxylapatite (HAP)/collagen (Col) composites using two HAP particles of different sizes and porcine type I collagen. The two HAP particles were either nano-sized (40 nm in average diameter; n-HAP) or had macro-pore sizes of 0.5‑1.0 mm in length with fully interconnected pores (m-HAP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apatite particle size in two HAP/Col composites on the osteogenic differentiation profile in osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2)...
December 2013: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Henry C Fisher, Marco Smith, Alison E Ashcroft
RATIONALE: The use of RNAi for new therapeutics is becoming more widespread. To improve the development and quality control of such materials there is a need for rapid, accurate and meaningful analyses. Here, the use of negative ion nano-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry with ion mobility spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS-IMS-MS) is shown to simplify data interpretation and lead to higher sequence coverage. METHODS: A set of 20-nucleotide RNA molecules was analysed using nESI-MS/MS and their sequences determined manually with the aid of the Simple Oligonucleotide Sequencer (SOS) program...
October 30, 2013: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jie Zhu, Xiaolu Feng, Jingyu Lou, Weidong Li, Sheng Li, Hongxin Zhu, Lun Yang, Aiping Zhang, Lin He, Can Li
DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology...
2013: PloS One
Abdul R Sheik, Corina P D Brussaard, Gaute Lavik, Phyllis Lam, Niculina Musat, Andreas Krupke, Sten Littmann, Marc Strous, Marcel M M Kuypers
The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal cells shaped North Sea bacterial community composition and enhanced bacterial substrate assimilation. Infected algal cultures of Phaeocystis globosa grown in coastal North Sea water contained gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes that were distinct from those in the non-infected control cultures 5 h after infection...
January 2014: ISME Journal
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