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RNA nano material

Naohiro Terasaka, Yusuke Azuma, Donald Hilvert
Viruses are remarkable nanomachines that efficiently hijack cellular functions to replicate and self-assemble their components within a complex biological environment. As all steps of the viral life cycle depend on formation of a protective proteinaceous shell that packages the DNA or RNA genome, bottom-up construction of virus-like nucleocapsids from nonviral materials could provide valuable insights into virion assembly and evolution. Such constructs could also serve as safe alternatives to natural viruses for diverse nano- and biotechnological applications...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christy Y Hui, Meng Liu, Yingfu Li, John D Brennan
We report a paper-based aptasensor platform that uses two reaction zones and a connecting bridge along with printed multifunctional bio/nano materials to achieve molecular recognition and signal amplification. Upon addition of analyte to the first zone, a fluorescently labelled DNA or RNA aptamer is desorbed from printed graphene oxide, rapidly producing an initial fluorescence signal. The released aptamer then flows to the second zone where it reacts with printed reagents to initiate rolling circle amplification, generating DNA amplicons containing a peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme, which produces a colorimetric readout that can be read in an equipment-free manner or with a smartphone...
April 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ying Hao, Wei Li, XingLi Zhou, Fan Yang, ZhiYong Qian
A microneedle (MN) is a micron-sized needle with a height of 10-2000 μm and a width of 10-50 μm, which can penetrate through the epidermis layer to dermal tissue directly without pain. Microneedles are widely used in transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) because they are efficient, safe, convenient and painless. Morphologically, microneedles are divided into four types: solid microneedles, coated microneedles, dissolving microneedles, and hollow microneedles. Different types of microneedles play different roles in different research fields...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Ahruem Baek, Yu Mi Baek, Hyung-Mo Kim, Bong-Hyun Jun, Dong-Eun Kim
Graphene oxide (GO) is known to strongly bind single-stranded nucleic acids with fluorescence quenching near the GO surface. However, GO exhibits weak biocompatibility characteristics, such as low dispersibility in cell culture media and significant cytotoxicity. To improve dispersibility in cell culture media and cell viability of GO, we prepared nanosized GO (nGO) constructs and modified the nGO surface using polyethylene glycol (PEG-nGO). Single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was adsorbed onto the PEG-nGO and was readily desorbed by adding complementary RNA or under low pH conditions...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Cody Geary, Arkadiusz Chworos, Erik Verzemnieks, Neil R Voss, Luc Jaeger
Natural stable RNAs fold and assemble into complex three-dimensional architectures by relying on the hierarchical formation of intricate, recurrent networks of noncovalent tertiary interactions. These sequence-dependent networks specify RNA structural modules enabling orientational and topological control of helical struts to form larger self-folding domains. Borrowing concepts from linguistics, we defined an extended structural syntax of RNA modules for programming RNA strands to assemble into complex, responsive nanostructures under both thermodynamic and kinetic control...
November 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Marta M Alves, Ons Bouchami, Ana Tavares, Laura Córdoba, Catarina F Santos, Maria Miragaia, Maria de Fátima Montemor
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are arising as promising novel antibiotics toward device-related infections. The surface functionalization of Zn, a novel resorbable biomaterial, with ZnO NPs could present an effective solution to overcome such a threat. In this sense, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of nano- and microsized ZnO coatings was studied against clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bacterial viability of planktonic and biofilm cells together with the corresponding biofilm structures revealed that only the nanosized ZnO coating had an antibiofilm effect...
August 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chunmei Gong, Linqing Yang, Jichang Zhou, Xiang Guo, Zhixiong Zhuang
Nano-SiO2 materials play a significant role in the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) field. The ease of their production as well as their relatively low cost has promoted the wide use of these products in many fields. Nano-SiO2 exposure is known to cause severe DNA damage; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In a previous study, we found that nano-SiO2 exposure regulate the expression of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1), a pivotal DNA repair gene, in human HaCaT cells. Here, we employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down PAPR-1 expression in HaCaT cells and explored the potential role of PARP-1 in nano-SiO2 induced cytotoxicity...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Yoo Kyung Kang, Kyu Kwon, Jea Sung Ryu, Ha Neul Lee, Chankyu Park, Hyun Jung Chung
The overuse of antibiotics plays a major role in the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A molecularly targeted, specific treatment method for bacterial pathogens can prevent this problem by reducing the selective pressure during microbial growth. Herein, we introduce a nonviral treatment strategy delivering genome editing material for targeting antibacterial resistance. We apply the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which has been recognized as an innovative tool for highly specific and efficient genome engineering in different organisms, as the delivery cargo...
April 19, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hiroki Tanaka, Sho Oasa, Masataka Kinjo, Kota Tange, Yuta Nakai, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hidetaka Akita
Lipids functionalized with tertiary amines (ionizable lipids) for a pH-dependent positive charge have been developed extensively as a carrier material for delivering nucleic acids. We previously developed an SS-cleavable proton-activated lipid-like material (ssPalm) as a component of a functionalized lipid envelope structure of a nanoparticle that encapsulated plasmid DNA and short interfering RNA. In this study, we report on the unique characteristics of such an ionizable lipid: the formation of a nano-sized emulsion (ave...
March 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alexander I Taylor, Fabienne Beuron, Sew-Yeu Peak-Chew, Edward P Morris, Piet Herdewijn, Philipp Holliger
Nanoscale objects of increasing complexity can be constructed from DNA or RNA. However, the scope of potential applications could be enhanced by expanding beyond the moderate chemical diversity of natural nucleic acids. Here, we explore the construction of nano-objects made entirely from alternative building blocks: synthetic genetic polymers not found in nature, also called xeno nucleic acids (XNAs). Specifically, we describe assembly of 70 kDa tetrahedra elaborated in four different XNA chemistries (2'-fluro-2'-deoxy-ribofuranose nucleic acid (2'F-RNA), 2'-fluoroarabino nucleic acids (FANA), hexitol nucleic acids (HNA), and cyclohexene nucleic acids (CeNA)), as well as mixed designs, and a ∼600 kDa all-FANA octahedron, visualised by electron microscopy...
June 16, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Minzhi Zhao, Haiyun Li, Xiaochen Liu, Jie Wei, Jianguo Ji, Shu Yang, Zhiyuan Hu, Shicheng Wei
Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK...
March 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gang Zhou, George Wilson, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Aptamers, also known as chemical antibodies, are single-stranded nucleic acid oligonucleotides which bind to their targets with high specificity and affinity. They are typically selected by repetitive in vitro process termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Owing to their excellent properties compared to conventional antibodies, notably their smaller physical size and lower immunogenicity and toxicity, aptamers have recently emerged as a new class of agents to deliver therapeutic drugs to cancer cells by targeting specific cancer-associated hallmarks...
March 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Ali Dehshahri, Hossein Sadeghpour
In recent years, the discovery of novel nucleic acid-based drug candidates (e.g., siRNA and miRNA) and the groundbreaking studies for somatic cell reprogramming into a state of pluripotency have led to reconsideration for the use of human gene therapy as a new paradigm with great therapeutic potential. However, the success of gene therapy is dependent on overcoming intra- and extracellular barriers hampering the efficient delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics into the target cells or tissues. Despite relatively low transfection efficiency, great attention has been directed to cationic polymers and dendrimers due to their ability to condense DNA and RNA molecules into nano-sized particles which is a necessary prerequisite for efficient transfer of nucleic acids into cells...
August 1, 2015: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Deepti Singh, Sung Soo Han, Eun Joo Shin
Nanocarriers have shown tremendous potential for the target-specific delivery of proteins, genes and drugs. Nanoparticles are fabricated using different natural and synthetic polymers. Natural polysaccharides are often used as building block for developing nano-sized drug delivery vehicles. The physicochemical properties of these materials, such as excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, surface charges that interact with DNA, protein and RNA, and cost effectiveness, make them exceptional base materials for nanocarrier fabrication...
September 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Federico Iacovelli, Mattia Falconi
DNA and RNA are large and flexible polymers selected by nature to transmit information. The most common DNA three-dimensional structure is represented by the double helix, but this biopolymer is extremely flexible and polymorphic, and can easily change its conformation to adapt to different interactions and purposes. DNA can also adopt singular topologies, giving rise, for instance, to supercoils, formed because of the limited free rotation of the DNA domain flanking a replication or transcription complex. Our understanding of the importance of these unusual or transient structures is growing, as recent studies of DNA topology, supercoiling, knotting and linking have shown that the geometric changes can drive, or strongly influence, the interactions between protein and DNA, so altering its own metabolism...
September 2015: FEBS Journal
Dong-Sic Choi, Yong Song Gho
Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized lipid bilayer vesicles released from most cells, including archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells. These membrane vesicles play multiple roles in cell-to-cell communication, including immune modulation, angiogenesis, and transformation of cells by transferring genetic material and functional proteins. They contain specific subsets of proteins, DNA, RNA, and lipids that represent their cellular status. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles are enriched in cell type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins, especially plasma membrane proteins, which have pathophysiological functions; these vesicular proteins are considered novel diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Susanne G van der Grein, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen
A newly uncovered means of communication between cells involves intercellular transfer of nano-sized extracellular vesicles (EV), composed of lipids, proteins, and genetic material. EV released by cells of the immune system can play a regulatory role in the induction and suppression of immune responses. These functions may be mediated not only by the bioactive lipids and proteins present in EV but also by EV-associated RNAs. The RNA in EV mainly consists of microRNAs and a large range of other small non-coding RNA species...
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
H Yildirim Erbil
Control of stain geometry by drop evaporation of surfactant containing dispersions is an important topic of interest because it plays a crucial role in many applications such as forming templates on solid surfaces, in ink-jet printing, spraying of pesticides, micro/nano material fabrication, thin film coatings, biochemical assays, deposition of DNA/RNA micro-arrays, and manufacture of novel optical and electronic materials. This paper presents a review of the published articles on the diffusive drop evaporation of pure liquids (water), the surfactant stains obtained from evaporating drops that do not contain dispersed particles and deposits obtained from drops containing polymer colloids and carbon based particles such as carbon nanotubes, graphite and fullerenes...
August 2015: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Kiran Kumar Bokara, Gopi Suresh Oggu, Aditya Josyula Vidyasagar, Amit Asthana, Jong Eun Lee, Ch Mohan Rao
Stem cells, either neural [NSCs] or mesenchymal [MSCs], possess tremendous untapped potential for cell therapy. Unlike the NSCs, MSCs are multi-potent and they have high self-renewal capability and broad tissue distribution. Since they do not produce significant immune rejection on post-transplantation; they are better suited for cell-based therapies. However, several critical issues need to be addressed to maximize stem cell-derived therapeutic effects. The key factor affecting the therapeutic application of stem cells is exposure to hostile conditions in vivo such as oxidative stress, which results in considerably low survival rate of these cells at transplanted sites, thereby reducing the therapeutic efficiency...
2014: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Young Sook Lee, Sung Wan Kim
Most currently available cationic polymers have significant acute toxicity concerns such as cellular toxicity, aggregation of erythrocytes, and entrapment in the lung capillary bed, largely due to their poor biocompatibility and non-degradability under physiological conditions. To develop more intelligent polymers, disulfide bonds are introduced in the design of biodegradable polymers. Herein, the sustained innovations of biomimetic nano-sized constructs with bioreducible poly(disulfide amine)s demonstrate a viable clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, anemia, diabetes, and cancer...
September 28, 2014: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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