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"Body composition" and "evaluation" and "prediction"

Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
C Lindqvist, A Majeed, S Wahlin
BACKGROUND: It is challenging to identify malnutrition, which is a risk factor for poor outcome in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition among patients listed for liver transplantation, as assessed by different methods, and also to relate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to short-term post-transplant outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of 106 patients who underwent liver transplantation in 2009-2012...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Eun Young Kim, Nambeom Kim, Young Saing Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Inkeun Park, Hee Kyung Ahn, Yu Mi Jeong, Jeong Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. METHODS: L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR...
2016: PloS One
Sidnei Jorge Fonseca-Junior, Aldair J Oliveira, Luiz Lannes Loureiro, Anna Paola Trindade Pierucci
PURPOSE: Body composition of adolescent athletes is often evaluated scientifically and in sports by using reference equations developed from non-athlete adolescent populations. The aim of this study was to analyse the validity of predictive equations based on skinfold measurements, as compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat in adolescent modern pentathlon athletes. METHODS: 51 athletes, 27 male (mean age=15.1 years; standard deviation, SD=1...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
M Bohac, M Palkovic, J Fedeles, J Hodosy
BACKGROUND: Gracilis muscle and its motor nerve belongs to most commonly used flap for facial reanimation. However, it is performed in two steps, which is time consuming. One stage technique can be also performed, but the length of the motor nerve cannot be currently determined before surgery. AIM: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the body composition on the length and suitability of the motor nerve of gracilis muscle for one stage facial reanimation...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Paik Seong Lim, Chang Hsu Chen, Fansan Zhu, Peter Kotanko, Yachung Jeng, Chun Yu Hu, Li Shu Chiu, Hui-Chen Chang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is becoming increasingly common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with inflammation and increased mortality. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the bioimpedance device in measuring body fat in Taiwanese dialysis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: One hundred twenty-two adult patients receiving HD in a single hospital in Taiwan. SETTING: We compared the results of fat mass (FM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy device (Body composition monitor, BCM)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
A J S Araújo, A C O Santos, W L Prado
BACKGROUND: The association between obesity during adolescence and the increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases indicates the need to identify reproducible and cost effective methods for identifying individuals who are at increased risk of developing diseases. The present cross-sectional study investigated the occurrence of metabolic consequences of obesity in adolescents and the use of adiposity indicators as predictors of cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: A fasting blood sample was taken in 93 pubertal obese adolescents aged 13-18 years old (39 males, 54 females) for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk markers (glucose, lipid profiles, insulin resistence, and inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers)...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato
The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions...
August 27, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Colin P Hawkes, Babette S Zemel, Mairead Kiely, Alan D Irvine, Louise C Kenny, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. METHODS: Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days)...
August 25, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Irene Jansen, Matthias Prager, Luzia Valentini, Carsten Büning
Malnutrition is a frequent feature in Crohn's disease (CD), affects patient outcome and must be recognised. For chronic inflammatory diseases, recent guidelines recommend the development of combined malnutrition and inflammation risk scores. We aimed to design and evaluate a new screening tool that combines both malnutrition and inflammation parameters that might help predict clinical outcome. In a prospective cohort study, we examined fifty-five patients with CD in remission (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) <200) at 0 and 6 months...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Noboru Kurinami, Seigo Sugiyama, Akira Yoshida, Kunio Hieshima, Fumio Miyamoto, Keizo Kajiwara, Tomio Jinnouchi, Hideaki Jinnouchi
AIMS: Fat deposition and obesity are crucial pathological components of diabetes mellitus (DM). In clinical practice, assessment of insulin resistance is important. We hypothesized that body muscle and fat composition might be a key factor for insulin resistance in patients with type 2 DM. METHODS: Subjects included 61 untreated DM patients. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp examination was performed to calculate the M/I value as the insulin resistance reference indicator...
October 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Shiri Sherf Dagan, Tali Ben Tovim, Andrei Keidar, Asnat Raziel, Oren Shibolet, Shira Zelber-Sagi
BACKGROUND: Low postoperative protein intake may represent a modifiable risk factor that leads to fat free mass (FFM) loss postlaparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), but data concerning this phenomenon is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between daily protein intake and relative FFM loss at 6 (M6) and 12 (M12) months after LSG surgery. SETTINGS: Private hospital and university hospital. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with 12 months follow-up of 77 patients who underwent LSG surgery...
June 2, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Nazeem Ishrat Siddiqui, Sarfaraz Alam Khan, Mohammad Shoeb, Sukhwant Bose
INTRODUCTION: Phase Angle (PhA) is a ratio of whole body reactance and resistance obtained from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). It indicates cellular health and integrity and is considered as prognostic tool in medical disorders. In spite of prognostic potentials of PhA, it has limited usefulness in clinical practice and in population studies because of non-availability of normal population reference limits for comparison. Moreover, it is influenced by various factors like age, sex, race and body composition (i...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Maggie Tabberer, Sebastian Gonzalez-McQuire, Hana Muellerova, Andrew Briggs, Maureen Rutten-van Molken, Mike Chambers, David A Lomas
BACKGROUND: To develop and validate a new conceptual model (CM) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for use in disease progression and economic modeling. The CM identifies and describes qualitative associations between disease attributes, progression and outcomes. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify any published CMs or literature reporting the impact and association of COPD disease attributes with outcomes. After critical analysis of the literature, a Steering Group of experts from the disciplines of health economics, epidemiology and clinical medicine was convened to develop a draft CM, which was refined using a Delphi process...
August 2, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
J W Bea, R M Blew, S B Going, C-H Hsu, M C Lee, V R Lee, B J Caan, M L Kwan, T G Lohman
: Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. METHODS: Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n = 103)...
July 15, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
S A Purcell, S A Elliott, V E Baracos, Q S C Chu, C M Prado
Great discrepancies exist in the reported prevalence of altered energy metabolism (hypo- or hypermetabolism) in cancer patients, which is likely due to the vast array of phenomena that can affect energy expenditure in these patients. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate key determinants of energy expenditure in cancer and the relevance for clinical practice. Resting energy expenditure (REE) is the largest and most commonly measured component of total energy expenditure. In addition to the energetic demand of the tumor itself, REE may be increased due to changes in inflammation, body composition and brown adipose tissue activation...
June 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kei Endo, Keisuke Kakisaka, Kanta Oikawa, Ryujin Endo, Yasuhiro Takikawa
The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in Western and Asian countries, including Japan. NAFLD includes the condition of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to end-stage liver disease. Weight reduction based on basal energy expenditure (BEE) is considered to be the only established treatment for patients with NAFLD. However, a formula that is suitable for predicting BEE in Japanese patients with NAFLD remains to be determined. We enrolled 77 Japanese patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD according to histological findings...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Yasunobu Takeoka, Kazuki Sakatoku, Akiko Miura, Ryosuke Yamamura, Taku Araki, Hirotaka Seura, Terue Okamura, Hideo Koh, Hirohisa Nakamae, Masayuki Hino, Kensuke Ohta
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that decreased skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) or adipose tissue assessed using computed tomography (CT) predicts negative outcomes in patients with solid tumors. However, the prognostic value of such an assessment in multiple myeloma (MM) remains unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic MM were retrospectively analyzed. The cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles and subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue was measured using CT...
August 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Marta Sandini, Davide P Bernasconi, Davide Fior, Matilde Molinelli, Davide Ippolito, Luca Nespoli, Riccardo Caccialanza, Luca Gianotti
OBJECTIVE: Complication rates after pancreatic resections remain high despite improvement in perioperative management. The effects of body composition and the relationship among different body compartments on surgical morbidity are not comprehensively investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether the evaluation of different body compartments and their relationship was associated with the development of major postoperative complications after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for cancer...
November 2016: Nutrition
Fiona Simpson, Gordon S Doig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight emerging techniques used to determine body composition early in ICU stay, their prediction of poor outcome, and what is required before they can be more widely used. RECENT FINDINGS: Opportunistic use of imaging techniques to assess muscle mass shows promise with regard to predicting patient outcomes; however, some of these techniques are expensive. Mid-arm muscle circumference and physical assessments of muscle wasting and subcutaneous fat loss using the subjective global assessment (SGA) are simple cheap tools that can be undertaken at the ICU patient bedside...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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