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"Body composition" and "evaluation" and "prediction"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208596/impact-of-early-nutrition-on-body-composition-in-children-aged-9-5-years-born-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#1
Sonja Stutte, Bettina Gohlke, Annika Peiler, Felix Schreiner, Mark Born, Peter Bartmann, Joachim Woelfle
To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203068/ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-patients-with-copd-an-eclipse-substudy
#2
Mickaël Martin, Natalie Almeras, Jean-Pierre Després, Harvey O Coxson, George R Washko, Isabelle Vivodtzev, Emiel Fm Wouters, Erica Rutten, Michelle C Williams, John T Murchison, William MacNee, Don D Sin, François Maltais
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195143/aging-and-serum-exomir-content-in-women-effects-of-estrogenic-hormone-replacement-therapy
#3
Reeta Kangas, Timo Törmäkangas, Vidal Fey, Juha Pursiheimo, Ilkka Miinalainen, Markku Alen, Jaakko Kaprio, Sarianna Sipilä, Anna-Marja Säämänen, Vuokko Kovanen, Eija K Laakkonen
Exosomes participate in intercellular messaging by transporting bioactive lipid-, protein- and RNA-molecules and -complexes. The contents of the exosomes reflect the physiological status of an individual making exosomes promising targets for biomarker analyses. In the present study we extracted exosome microRNAs (exomiRs) from serum samples of premenopausal women (n = 8) and monozygotic postmenopausal twins (n = 10 female pairs), discordant for the use of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in order to see whether the age or/and the use of HRT associates with exomiR content...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183364/growth-of-total-fat-and-lean-and-of-primal-cuts-is-affected-by-the-sex-type
#4
A Carabús, R D Sainz, J W Oltjen, M Gispert, M Font-I-Furnols
Knowledge of tissue and cuts growth depending on the sex could be used to improve performance and efficiency. Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive technology that enables the study of the body composition of live animals during growth. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate variation in the body composition of four sex types (SEX) of pigs (castrated males (CM), immunocastrated males (IM), entire males (EM) and females (FE)) at the live weight of 30, 70, 100 and 120 kg, assessed using CT; (2) to model the growth of the main tissues and cuts; and (3) to predict the mature BW (MBW) of the four SEX and establish the relationships between the growth models and the MBW...
February 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177726/vitamin-d-status-is-not-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-different-phenotypes-of-moderate-obesity
#5
Manal Al Masri, Ahmed Jerome Romain, Catherine Boegner, Laurent Maimoun, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Vincent Attalin, Elodie Leprieur, Marion Picandet, Antoine Avignon, Ariane Sultan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with obesity and could play a role in the occurrence of its complications such as insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the relationship between 25OHD status and phosphocalcic parameters differ between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and insulin-resistant obese (IRO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 158 consecutive adults (121 females) with obesity (BMI 35...
January 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161168/technical-note-evaluating-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-determining-body-composition-in-holstein-dairy-calves-using-deuterium-oxide-dilution-methods
#6
C E Chapman, P Stone Wilkinson, M R Murphy, P S Erickson
Deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods have been used to assess body composition in live animals. Estimated body water content can be used to predict body fat and protein, and thus, the amount of energy reserves. It is an alternative method to direct chemical analysis and considered a noninvasive technique that is economical and repeatable. Deuterium oxide use is considered easy, safe, and accurate; however, the traditional methods of analyzing D2O are expensive, tedious, and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine body composition in Holstein dairy heifers...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159559/blunting-of-adaptive-thermogenesis-as-a-potential-additional-mechanism-to-promote-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass
#7
Matthew G Browning, Charlotte Rabl, Guilherme M Campos
BACKGROUND: Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) is described as a change in resting metabolic rate (RMR) that is greater than would be predicted from changes in lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) alone during periods of energy imbalance. Whereas an AT-related downregulation of RMR has been implicated in suboptimal weight loss and weight regain after nonsurgical weight loss, defense against AT may underpin the durable weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and other bariatric surgeries...
November 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132008/compensatory-changes-in-energy-balance-during-dapagliflozin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-energize-study-protocol
#8
Surya Panicker Rajeev, Victoria S Sprung, Carl Roberts, Jo A Harrold, Jason C G Halford, Andrej Stancak, Emma J Boyland, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson, John P H Wilding
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110029/clinical-impact-of-sarcopenia-on-prognosis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Go Ninomiya, Tsutomu Fujii, Suguru Yamada, Norimitsu Yabusaki, Kojiro Suzuki, Naoki Iwata, Mitsuro Kanda, Masamichi Hayashi, Chie Tanaka, Goro Nakayama, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Masahiko Koike, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Kodera
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the body composition such as skeletal muscle, visceral fat and body mass index (BMI) on patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: A total of 265 patients who underwent curative surgery for PDAC were examined in this study. The total skeletal muscle and fat tissue areas were evaluated in a single image obtained at the third lumber vertebra during a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The patients were assigned to either the sarcopenia or non-sarcopenia group based on their skeletal muscle index (SMI) and classified into high visceral fat area (H-VFA) or low VFA (L-VFA) groups...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046161/technical-note-estimating-body-weight-and-body-composition-of-beef-cattle-trough-digital-image-analysis
#10
R A Gomes, G R Monteiro, G J F Assis, K C Busato, M M Ladeira, M L Chizzotti
The use of digital images could be a faster and cheaper alternative technique to assess BW, HCW, and body composition of beef cattle. The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict body and carcass weight and body fat content of young bulls using digital images obtained through a Microsoft Kinect device. Thirty-five bulls with an initial BW of 383 (±5.38) kg (20 Black Angus, 390 [±7.48] kg initial BW, and 15 Nellore, 377 [±8.66] kg initial BW) were used. The Kinect sensor, installed on the top of a cattle chute, was used to take infrared light-based depth videos, recorded before the slaughter...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039606/development-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-approach-to-predict-the-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-septic-patients
#11
Christian Radke, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Björn Ellger, Michaela Meyer, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is characterised by an excessive release of inflammatory mediators substantially affecting body composition and physiology, which can be further affected by intensive care management. Consequently, drug pharmacokinetics can be substantially altered. This study aimed to extend a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for healthy adults based on disease-related physiological changes of critically ill septic patients and to evaluate the accuracy of this PBPK model using vancomycin as a clinically relevant drug...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035770/validation-of-body-condition-indices-and-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-in-estimating-body-composition-in-a-small-lizard
#12
Daniel A Warner, Maria S Johnson, Tim R Nagy
Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018712/spectral-spatial-fusion-model-for-robust-blood-pulse-waveform-extraction-in-photoplethysmographic-imaging
#13
Robert Amelard, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998701/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-obese-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, SoJung Lee, Alexis Nasr, Silva Arslanian
PURPOSE: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is proposed as a biomarker of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated: (1) AMH concentrations in obese adolescents with PCOS versus without PCOS; (2) the relationship of AMH to sex steroid hormones, adiposity, and insulin resistance; and (3) the optimal AMH value and the multivariable prediction model to determine PCOS in obese adolescents. METHODS: AMH levels were measured in 46 obese PCOS girls and 43 obese non-PCOS girls...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990194/predictors-of-bone-status-by-quantitative-ultrasound-measurements-in-a-mountain-village-in-japan
#15
Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takashi Ohsawa, Noboru Oya, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
BACKGROUND: It seems to be important to recognize predictors of bone health condition in Japanese super-aged society. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the speed of sound (SOS) of calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound measurements of mountain village residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical examinations were conducted on 214 participants (69 men, 145 women; average age of 63.6 years). Each had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items such as gender, dominant hand, occupation, and history of smoking and drinking alcohol, experience of falls, and the EuroQol-5-dimensions-3-level Japanese version and a 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914496/computed-tomography-derived-skeletal-muscle-index-a-novel-predictor-of-frailty-and-hospital-length-of-stay-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#16
Vishal Dahya, Jingjie Xiao, Carla M Prado, Penny Burroughs, Dan McGee, Aline C Silva, Julian E Hurt, Shafi G Mohamed, Thomas Noel, Wayne Batchelor
: To determine the prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and whether skeletal muscle mass measured from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images provides value in predicting postoperative length of stay (LOS). BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of body composition as a frailty measure in TAVR patients and no studies have determined if this measure predicts LOS. METHODS: We studied 104 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at Tallahassee Memorial Hospital from 2012 to 2016...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901177/agreement-between-bmi-and-body-fat-obesity-definitions-in-a-physically-active-population
#17
Luiz Guilherme G Porto, Rosenkranz M Nogueira, Eugênio C Nogueira, Guilherme E Molina, Andrea Farioli, Luiz Fernando Junqueira, Stefanos N Kales
Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used proxy of body composition (BC). Concerns exist regarding possible BMI misclassification among active populations. We compared the prevalence of obesity as categorized by BMI or by skinfold estimates of body fat percentage (BF%) in a physically active population. Subjects and methods: 3,822 military firefighters underwent a physical fitness evaluation including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by the 12 min-Cooper test, abdominal strength by sit-up test (SUT) and body composition (BC) by BF% (as the reference), as well as BMI...
November 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900103/muscle-wasting-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-mtor-inhibitors
#18
Bishal Gyawali, Tomoya Shimokata, Kazunori Honda, Chihiro Kondoh, Naomi Hayashi, Yasushi Yoshino, Naoto Sassa, Yasuyuki Nakano, Momokazu Gotoh, Yuichi Ando
Some targeted therapies alter muscle mass due to interference with pathways of muscle metabolism. The effects of mammalian target of ra pamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on muscle mass have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the computerized tomography (CT) scans of patients receiving mTOR inhibitors for at least 6 months taken at baseline and post-therapy were retrospectively retrieved, and body composition analyses were performed using the software, sliceOmatic version 5.0 (TomoVision, Inc., Magog, QC, Canada)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894750/risk-factors-for-autonomic-and-somatic-nerve-dysfunction-in-different-stages-of-glucose-tolerance
#19
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Velina Guergueltcheva, Ivailo Tournev, Nevena Chakarova, Greta Grozeva, Lilia Dakovska
AIM: The present study evaluates autonomic and somatic nerve function in different stages of glucose tolerance and its correlation with different cardio-metabolic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four hundred seventy-eight subjects, mean age 49.3±13.7years and mean BMI 31.0±6.2kg/m2, divided according to glucose tolerance: 130 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 227 with prediabetes (125 with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 102 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT)), and 121 with newly-diagnosed T2D (NDT2D), were enrolled...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869360/association-between-ratio-indexes-of-body-composition-phenotypes-and-metabolic-risk-in-italian-adults
#20
M Powell, J Lara, G Mocciaro, C M Prado, A Battezzati, A Leone, A Tagliabue, R de Amicis, L Vignati, S Bertoli, M Siervo
The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
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