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"Body composition" and "evaluation" and "prediction"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291490/proposing-using-waist-to-height-ratio-as-the-initial-metric-for-body-fat-assessment-standards-in-the-u-s-army
#1
Stephen A Bernstein, Michael Lo, W Sumner Davis
OBJECTIVES: Soldiers failing to meet Army Regulation 600-9 (AR 600-9) for weight-to-height standards are required to undergo body fat taping assessment. This article describes a clinical performance improvement project in which battalion medical staff identified a simpler way to improve on meeting AR 600-9 standards with proposing to use the waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in place of the current methodology. METHODS: During a yearlong combat deployment to Iraq from 2009 to 2010, 42 Soldiers (34 males, 8 females) were evaluated and monitored by battalion medical staff for weight and body fat loss...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291054/progression-of-atherosclerosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-prospective-data-from-an-asian-cohort
#2
Grace Lui, Ronald Cw Ma, Ping Chook, Chun-Kwok Wong, Claudia Ht Tam, Michael Hm Chan, Shui-Shan Lee, Rity Yk Wong, Catherine Sk Cheung, Kin-Wing Choi, Ping-Chung Leung, Ka-Hing Wong, Kenny Cw Chan, Nelson Lee
BACKGROUND: The magnitude and risk factors of progression of atherosclerosis in Asian HIV-infected individuals were unknown. This study aimed to evaluate: (1) the rate of progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals, and (2) metabolic and inflammatory parameters that may predict atherosclerosis progression in HIV-infected individuals in an Asian cohort. SETTING: A prospective, longitudinal study was performed among adults attending an HIV Metabolic clinic in Hong Kong...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244124/visceral-adiposity-predicts-post-operative-crohn-s-disease-recurrence
#3
D Q Holt, G T Moore, B J G Strauss, A L Hamilton, P De Cruz, M A Kamm
BACKGROUND: Excessive visceral adipose tissue has been associated with poorer outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. AIM: To determine whether body composition is associated with outcome in a prospective study of post-operative Crohn's disease patients. METHODS: The POCER study evaluated management strategies for prevention of post-operative Crohn's disease recurrence; subjects were enrolled after resection of all macroscopic Crohn's disease and were randomised to early endoscopy and possible treatment escalation, or standard care...
February 28, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228420/body-composition-changes-in-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-long-term-effects-of-reducing-intake-of-energy-calerie-2-study-a-2-y-randomized-controlled-trial-of-calorie-restriction-in-nonobese-humans
#4
Sai Krupa Das, Susan B Roberts, Manjushri V Bhapkar, Dennis T Villareal, Luigi Fontana, Corby K Martin, Susan B Racette, Paul J Fuss, William E Kraus, William W Wong, Edward Saltzman, Carl F Pieper, Roger A Fielding, Ann V Schwartz, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition.Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220040/associations-between-physical-activity-and-bmi-body-fatness-and-visceral-adiposity-in-overweight-or-obese-latino-and-non-latino-adults
#5
N Cameron, J Godino, J F Nichols, D Wing, L Hill, K Patrick
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have reported associations between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), body fatness and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the extent to which associations differ among Latinos and non-Latinos remains unclear. This study evaluated the associations between body composition and MVPA in Latino and non-Latino adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline data collected from 298 overweight adults enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of text messaging to improve weight loss...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208596/impact-of-early-nutrition-on-body-composition-in-children-aged-9-5-years-born-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#6
Sonja Stutte, Bettina Gohlke, Annika Peiler, Felix Schreiner, Mark Born, Peter Bartmann, Joachim Woelfle
To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203068/ectopic-fat-accumulation-in-patients-with-copd-an-eclipse-substudy
#7
Mickaël Martin, Natalie Almeras, Jean-Pierre Després, Harvey O Coxson, George R Washko, Isabelle Vivodtzev, Emiel Fm Wouters, Erica Rutten, Michelle C Williams, John T Murchison, William MacNee, Don D Sin, François Maltais
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195143/aging-and-serum-exomir-content-in-women-effects-of-estrogenic-hormone-replacement-therapy
#8
Reeta Kangas, Timo Törmäkangas, Vidal Fey, Juha Pursiheimo, Ilkka Miinalainen, Markku Alen, Jaakko Kaprio, Sarianna Sipilä, Anna-Marja Säämänen, Vuokko Kovanen, Eija K Laakkonen
Exosomes participate in intercellular messaging by transporting bioactive lipid-, protein- and RNA-molecules and -complexes. The contents of the exosomes reflect the physiological status of an individual making exosomes promising targets for biomarker analyses. In the present study we extracted exosome microRNAs (exomiRs) from serum samples of premenopausal women (n = 8) and monozygotic postmenopausal twins (n = 10 female pairs), discordant for the use of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in order to see whether the age or/and the use of HRT associates with exomiR content...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183364/growth-of-total-fat-and-lean-and-of-primal-cuts-is-affected-by-the-sex-type
#9
A Carabús, R D Sainz, J W Oltjen, M Gispert, M Font-I-Furnols
Knowledge of tissue and cuts growth depending on the sex could be used to improve performance and efficiency. Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive technology that enables the study of the body composition of live animals during growth. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate variation in the body composition of four sex types (SEX) of pigs (castrated males (CM), immunocastrated males (IM), entire males (EM) and females (FE)) at the live weight of 30, 70, 100 and 120 kg, assessed using CT; (2) to model the growth of the main tissues and cuts; and (3) to predict the mature BW (MBW) of the four SEX and establish the relationships between the growth models and the MBW...
February 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177726/vitamin-d-status-is-not-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-different-phenotypes-of-moderate-obesity
#10
Manal Al Masri, Ahmed Jerome Romain, Catherine Boegner, Laurent Maimoun, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Vincent Attalin, Elodie Leprieur, Marion Picandet, Antoine Avignon, Ariane Sultan
Low plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with obesity and could play a role in the occurrence of complications such as insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether the relationship between 25OHD status and phosphocalcic parameters differs between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and insulin-resistant obese (IRO). This cross-sectional study included 158 consecutive adults (121 females) with obesity (body mass index (BMI) 35...
January 3, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161168/technical-note-evaluating-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-determining-body-composition-in-holstein-dairy-calves-using-deuterium-oxide-dilution-methods
#11
C E Chapman, P Stone Wilkinson, M R Murphy, P S Erickson
Deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods have been used to assess body composition in live animals. Estimated body water content can be used to predict body fat and protein, and thus, the amount of energy reserves. It is an alternative method to direct chemical analysis and considered a noninvasive technique that is economical and repeatable. Deuterium oxide use is considered easy, safe, and accurate; however, the traditional methods of analyzing D2O are expensive, tedious, and time consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to determine body composition in Holstein dairy heifers...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159559/blunting-of-adaptive-thermogenesis-as-a-potential-additional-mechanism-to-promote-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass
#12
Matthew G Browning, Charlotte Rabl, Guilherme M Campos
BACKGROUND: Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) is described as a change in resting metabolic rate (RMR) that is greater than would be predicted from changes in lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) alone during periods of energy imbalance. Whereas an AT-related downregulation of RMR has been implicated in suboptimal weight loss and weight regain after nonsurgical weight loss, defense against AT may underpin the durable weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and other bariatric surgeries...
November 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132008/compensatory-changes-in-energy-balance-during-dapagliflozin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-energize-study-protocol
#13
Surya Panicker Rajeev, Victoria S Sprung, Carl Roberts, Jo A Harrold, Jason C G Halford, Andrej Stancak, Emma J Boyland, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson, John P H Wilding
INTRODUCTION: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110029/clinical-impact-of-sarcopenia-on-prognosis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Go Ninomiya, Tsutomu Fujii, Suguru Yamada, Norimitsu Yabusaki, Kojiro Suzuki, Naoki Iwata, Mitsuro Kanda, Masamichi Hayashi, Chie Tanaka, Goro Nakayama, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Masahiko Koike, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Kodera
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the body composition such as skeletal muscle, visceral fat and body mass index (BMI) on patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: A total of 265 patients who underwent curative surgery for PDAC were examined in this study. The total skeletal muscle and fat tissue areas were evaluated in a single image obtained at the third lumber vertebra during a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The patients were assigned to either the sarcopenia or non-sarcopenia group based on their skeletal muscle index (SMI) and classified into high visceral fat area (H-VFA) or low VFA (L-VFA) groups...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046161/technical-note-estimating-body-weight-and-body-composition-of-beef-cattle-trough-digital-image-analysis
#15
R A Gomes, G R Monteiro, G J F Assis, K C Busato, M M Ladeira, M L Chizzotti
The use of digital images could be a faster and cheaper alternative technique to assess BW, HCW, and body composition of beef cattle. The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict body and carcass weight and body fat content of young bulls using digital images obtained through a Microsoft Kinect device. Thirty-five bulls with an initial BW of 383 (±5.38) kg (20 Black Angus, 390 [±7.48] kg initial BW, and 15 Nellore, 377 [±8.66] kg initial BW) were used. The Kinect sensor, installed on the top of a cattle chute, was used to take infrared light-based depth videos, recorded before the slaughter...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039606/development-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-approach-to-predict-the-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-septic-patients
#16
Christian Radke, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Björn Ellger, Michaela Meyer, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is characterised by an excessive release of inflammatory mediators substantially affecting body composition and physiology, which can be further affected by intensive care management. Consequently, drug pharmacokinetics can be substantially altered. This study aimed to extend a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for healthy adults based on disease-related physiological changes of critically ill septic patients and to evaluate the accuracy of this PBPK model using vancomycin as a clinically relevant drug...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035770/validation-of-body-condition-indices-and-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-in-estimating-body-composition-in-a-small-lizard
#17
Daniel A Warner, Maria S Johnson, Tim R Nagy
Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018712/spectral-spatial-fusion-model-for-robust-blood-pulse-waveform-extraction-in-photoplethysmographic-imaging
#18
Robert Amelard, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998701/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-obese-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#19
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, SoJung Lee, Alexis Nasr, Silva Arslanian
PURPOSE: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is proposed as a biomarker of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated: (1) AMH concentrations in obese adolescents with PCOS versus without PCOS; (2) the relationship of AMH to sex steroid hormones, adiposity, and insulin resistance; and (3) the optimal AMH value and the multivariable prediction model to determine PCOS in obese adolescents. METHODS: AMH levels were measured in 46 obese PCOS girls and 43 obese non-PCOS girls...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990194/predictors-of-bone-status-by-quantitative-ultrasound-measurements-in-a-mountain-village-in-japan
#20
Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takashi Ohsawa, Noboru Oya, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
BACKGROUND: It seems to be important to recognize predictors of bone health condition in Japanese super-aged society. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the speed of sound (SOS) of calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound measurements of mountain village residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical examinations were conducted on 214 participants (69 men, 145 women; average age of 63.6 years). Each had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items such as gender, dominant hand, occupation, and history of smoking and drinking alcohol, experience of falls, and the EuroQol-5-dimensions-3-level Japanese version and a 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
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