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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046161/technical-note-estimating-body-weight-and-body-composition-of-beef-cattle-trough-digital-image-analysis
#1
R A Gomes, G R Monteiro, G J F Assis, K C Busato, M M Ladeira, M L Chizzotti
The use of digital images could be a faster and cheaper alternative technique to assess BW, HCW, and body composition of beef cattle. The objective of this study was to develop equations to predict body and carcass weight and body fat content of young bulls using digital images obtained through a Microsoft Kinect device. Thirty-five bulls with an initial BW of 383 (±5.38) kg (20 Black Angus, 390 [±7.48] kg initial BW, and 15 Nellore, 377 [±8.66] kg initial BW) were used. The Kinect sensor, installed on the top of a cattle chute, was used to take infrared light-based depth videos, recorded before the slaughter...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039606/development-of-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-approach-to-predict-the-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-septic-patients
#2
Christian Radke, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Björn Ellger, Michaela Meyer, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is characterised by an excessive release of inflammatory mediators substantially affecting body composition and physiology, which can be further affected by intensive care management. Consequently, drug pharmacokinetics can be substantially altered. This study aimed to extend a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for healthy adults based on disease-related physiological changes of critically ill septic patients and to evaluate the accuracy of this PBPK model using vancomycin as a clinically relevant drug...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035770/validation-of-body-condition-indices-and-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-in-estimating-body-composition-in-a-small-lizard
#3
Daniel A Warner, Maria S Johnson, Tim R Nagy
Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual's quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length-mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018712/spectral-spatial-fusion-model-for-robust-blood-pulse-waveform-extraction-in-photoplethysmographic-imaging
#4
Robert Amelard, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998701/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-obese-adolescent-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, SoJung Lee, Alexis Nasr, Silva Arslanian
PURPOSE: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is proposed as a biomarker of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated: (1) AMH concentrations in obese adolescents with PCOS versus without PCOS; (2) the relationship of AMH to sex steroid hormones, adiposity, and insulin resistance; and (3) the optimal AMH value and the multivariable prediction model to determine PCOS in obese adolescents. METHODS: AMH levels were measured in 46 obese PCOS girls and 43 obese non-PCOS girls...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990194/predictors-of-bone-status-by-quantitative-ultrasound-measurements-in-a-mountain-village-in-japan
#6
Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takashi Ohsawa, Noboru Oya, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
BACKGROUND: It seems to be important to recognize predictors of bone health condition in Japanese super-aged society. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the speed of sound (SOS) of calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound measurements of mountain village residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical examinations were conducted on 214 participants (69 men, 145 women; average age of 63.6 years). Each had completed a self-administered questionnaire including items such as gender, dominant hand, occupation, and history of smoking and drinking alcohol, experience of falls, and the EuroQol-5-dimensions-3-level Japanese version and a 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914496/computed-tomography-derived-skeletal-muscle-index-a-novel-predictor-of-frailty-and-hospital-length-of-stay-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#7
Vishal Dahya, Jingjie Xiao, Carla M Prado, Penny Burroughs, Dan McGee, Aline C Silva, Julian E Hurt, Shafi G Mohamed, Thomas Noel, Wayne Batchelor
: To determine the prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and whether skeletal muscle mass measured from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images provides value in predicting postoperative length of stay (LOS). BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of body composition as a frailty measure in TAVR patients and no studies have determined if this measure predicts LOS. METHODS: We studied 104 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at Tallahassee Memorial Hospital from 2012 to 2016...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901177/agreement-between-bmi-and-body-fat-obesity-definitions-in-a-physically-active-population
#8
Luiz Guilherme G Porto, Rosenkranz M Nogueira, Eugênio C Nogueira, Guilherme E Molina, Andrea Farioli, Luiz Fernando Junqueira, Stefanos N Kales
Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used proxy of body composition (BC). Concerns exist regarding possible BMI misclassification among active populations. We compared the prevalence of obesity as categorized by BMI or by skinfold estimates of body fat percentage (BF%) in a physically active population. Subjects and methods: 3,822 military firefighters underwent a physical fitness evaluation including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) by the 12 min-Cooper test, abdominal strength by sit-up test (SUT) and body composition (BC) by BF% (as the reference), as well as BMI...
November 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900103/muscle-wasting-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-mtor-inhibitors
#9
Bishal Gyawali, Tomoya Shimokata, Kazunori Honda, Chihiro Kondoh, Naomi Hayashi, Yasushi Yoshino, Naoto Sassa, Yasuyuki Nakano, Momokazu Gotoh, Yuichi Ando
Some targeted therapies alter muscle mass due to interference with pathways of muscle metabolism. The effects of mammalian target of ra pamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on muscle mass have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the computerized tomography (CT) scans of patients receiving mTOR inhibitors for at least 6 months taken at baseline and post-therapy were retrospectively retrieved, and body composition analyses were performed using the software, sliceOmatic version 5.0 (TomoVision, Inc., Magog, QC, Canada)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894750/risk-factors-for-autonomic-and-somatic-nerve-dysfunction-in-different-stages-of-glucose-tolerance
#10
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Velina Guergueltcheva, Ivailo Tournev, Nevena Chakarova, Greta Grozeva, Lilia Dakovska
AIM: The present study evaluates autonomic and somatic nerve function in different stages of glucose tolerance and its correlation with different cardio-metabolic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four hundred seventy-eight subjects, mean age 49.3±13.7years and mean BMI 31.0±6.2kg/m2, divided according to glucose tolerance: 130 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 227 with prediabetes (125 with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 102 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT)), and 121 with newly-diagnosed T2D (NDT2D), were enrolled...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869360/association-between-ratio-indexes-of-body-composition-phenotypes-and-metabolic-risk-in-italian-adults
#11
M Powell, J Lara, G Mocciaro, C M Prado, A Battezzati, A Leone, A Tagliabue, R de Amicis, L Vignati, S Bertoli, M Siervo
The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography...
December 2016: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856115/exercise-capacity-heart-failure-risk-and-mortality-in-older-adults-the-health-abc-study
#12
Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Ritam Chowdhury, José Nilo G Binongo, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Nicolas Rodondi, Eleanor M Simonsick, Tamara Harris, Anne B Newman, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Javed Butler
INTRODUCTION: Data on the association between exercise capacity and risk for heart failure (HF) in older adults are limited. METHODS: This study examined the association of exercise capacity, and its change over time, with 10-year mortality and incident HF in 2,935 participants of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study without HF at baseline (age, 73.6 [SD=2.9] years; 52.1% women; 41.4% black; 58.6% white). This cohort was initiated in 1997-1998 and exercise capacity was evaluated with a long-distance corridor walk test (LDCW) at baseline and Year 4...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828939/determinants-of-body-composition-in-breastfed-infants-using-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-and-ultrasound-skinfolds-methods-comparison
#13
Zoya Gridneva, Anna R Hepworth, Leigh C Ward, Ching T Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
BACKGROUND: Accurate, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods are required to measure infant body composition. Ultrasound (US) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) have been validated in adults and introduced in pediatric populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of both methods in determining percentage fat mass (%FM) in breastfed infants. METHODS: %FM of 2, 5, 9, and 12 mo-old healthy, breastfed term infants (n = 58) was calculated using BIS-derived total body water equations and skinfold equations then compared with reference models...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816311/the-diagnosis-of-sarcopenia-is-mainly-driven-by-muscle-mass-in-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Stanislas Bataille, Marianne Serveaux, Elisa Carreno, Nathalie Pedinielli, Patrice Darmon, Alain Robert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia is a well-known complication of protein energy wasting in hemodialysis patients. Its diagnosis requires measurements of muscle mass and muscle function. Few studies have reported its prevalence in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we report the prevalence of sarcopenia in this population and evaluate the performance of other parameters for its diagnosis. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, data from hemodialysis patients from our nephrology department were recorded...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798329/a-whole-grain-diet-reduces-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
John P Kirwan, Steven K Malin, Amanda R Scelsi, Emily L Kullman, Sankar D Navaneethan, Mangesh R Pagadala, Jacob M Haus, Julianne Filion, Jean-Philippe Godin, Sunil Kochhar, Alastair B Ross
BACKGROUND: Increased dietary whole-grain intake may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of whole grains compared with refined grains on body composition, hypertension, and related mediators of CVD in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover trial in 40 overweight or obese men and women aged <50 y with no known history of CVD...
November 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766132/physical-fitness-and-self-image-an-evaluation-of-the-exercise-self-schema-questionnaire-using-direct-measures-of-physical-fitness
#16
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709718/body-composition-assessed-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-predicts-early-infectious-complications-after-liver-transplantation
#17
C Lindqvist, A Majeed, S Wahlin
BACKGROUND: It is challenging to identify malnutrition, which is a risk factor for poor outcome in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition among patients listed for liver transplantation, as assessed by different methods, and also to relate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to short-term post-transplant outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of 106 patients who underwent liver transplantation in 2009-2012...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706243/prognostic-significance-of-modified-advanced-lung-cancer-inflammation-index-ali-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer_-comparison-with-original-ali
#18
Eun Young Kim, Nambeom Kim, Young Saing Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Inkeun Park, Hee Kyung Ahn, Yu Mi Jeong, Jeong Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. METHODS: L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705535/validity-of-skinfold-equations-against-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-predicting-body-composition-in-adolescent-pentathletes
#19
Sidnei Jorge Fonseca-Junior, Aldair J Oliveira, Luiz Lannes Loureiro, Anna Paola Trindade Pierucci
PURPOSE: Body composition of adolescent athletes is often evaluated scientifically and in sports by using reference equations developed from non-athlete adolescent populations. The aim of this study was to analyse the validity of predictive equations based on skinfold measurements, as compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat in adolescent modern pentathlon athletes. METHODS: 51 athletes, 27 male (mean age=15.1 years; standard deviation, SD=1...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677201/body-proportions-as-possible-predictors-for-free-gracilis-one-stage-facial-reanimation
#20
M Bohac, M Palkovic, J Fedeles, J Hodosy
BACKGROUND: Gracilis muscle and its motor nerve belongs to most commonly used flap for facial reanimation. However, it is performed in two steps, which is time consuming. One stage technique can be also performed, but the length of the motor nerve cannot be currently determined before surgery. AIM: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the body composition on the length and suitability of the motor nerve of gracilis muscle for one stage facial reanimation...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
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