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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793164/childhood-socioeconomic-status-and-longitudinal-patterns-of-alcohol-problems-variation-across-etiological-pathways-in-genetic-risk
#1
Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792582/advancing-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-in-schools-an-exploration-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-enough-online-training-program-for-k-12-teachers
#2
Melinda Gushwa, Jetta Bernier, David Robinson
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One hundred and thirty-four teachers from three school districts participated in a study to examine the effectiveness of the program in terms of knowledge awareness, including prevalence rates, types of CSA behaviors, impact of CSA on children, signs and symptoms, reporting responsibilities and responses to suspected abuse...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792518/it-is-the-family-context-that-matters-concurrent-and-predictive-effects-of-aspects-of-parent-child-interaction-on-video-gaming-related-problems
#3
Angel Yee-Lam Li, Barbara Chuen-Yee Lo, Cecilia Cheng
Studies have shown that children frequently experiencing poor parent-child interaction are prone to video gaming-related problems, but it is unclear which specific aspects of such an interaction play a predictive role in the problems. To extend previous research that relies primarily on the self-report method to assess parent-child interaction, we conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study. In a laboratory setting, three major aspects of interaction (i.e., affectivity, cohesiveness, and parental behavior) were observed in 241 parent-child dyads (Children: 43 percent female, age range = 8-15, Mage  = 12...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792491/does-oral-language-underpin-the-development-of-later-behavior-problems-a-longitudinal-meta-analysis
#4
Jason C Chow, Erik Ekholm, Heather Coleman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to estimate the overall weighted mean effect of the relation between early language skills and later behavior problems in school-aged children. METHOD: A systematic literature search yielded 19,790 unduplicated reports, and a structured search strategy and identification procedure yielded 25 unique data sets, with 114 effect sizes for analysis. Eligible reports were then coded, and effect sizes were extracted and synthesized via robust variance estimation and random-effects meta-analytic techniques...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792482/discrimination-and-externalizing-problems-among-moroccan-and-romanian-origin-early-adolescents-in-italy-moderating-role-of-cultural-orientations-and-impulse-control
#5
Diana Miconi, Gianmarco Altoè, Silvia Salcuni, Daniela Di Riso, Sami Schiff, Ughetta Moscardino
OBJECTIVE: Although discrimination is a common stressor in the everyday life of immigrant youth, individuals are not equally susceptible to its adverse effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine whether cultural orientation preferences and impulse control (IC) moderate the association between perceived discrimination and externalizing problems among Moroccan- and Romanian-origin early adolescents in Italy. METHOD: The sample included 126 Moroccan and 126 Romanian youths (46% girls, 42% first-generation) aged 11-13 years and their parents...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792294/training-working-memory-in-adolescents-using-serious-game-elements-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Wouter J Boendermaker, Thomas E Gladwin, Margot Peeters, Pier J M Prins, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Working memory capacity has been found to be impaired in adolescents with various psychological problems, such as addictive behaviors. Training of working memory capacity can lead to significant behavioral improvements, but it is usually long and tedious, taxing participants' motivation to train. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether adding game elements to the training could help improve adolescents' motivation to train while improving cognition...
May 23, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792242/testing-a-stepped-care-model-for-binge-eating-disorder-a-two-step-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Giorgio A Tasca, Diana Koszycki, Agostino Brugnera, Livia Chyurlia, Nicole Hammond, Kylie Francis, Kerri Ritchie, Iryna Ivanova, Genevieve Proulx, Brian Wilson, Julie Beaulac, Hany Bissada, Erin Beasley, Nancy Mcquaid, Renee Grenon, Benjamin Fortin-Langelier, Angelo Compare, Louise Balfour
BACKGROUND: A stepped care approach involves patients first receiving low-intensity treatment followed by higher intensity treatment. This two-step randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a sequential stepped care approach for the psychological treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). METHODS: In the first step, all participants with BED (n = 135) received unguided self-help (USH) based on a cognitive-behavioral therapy model. In the second step, participants who remained in the trial were randomized either to 16 weeks of group psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) (n = 39) or to a no-treatment control condition (n = 46)...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791740/the-irie-classroom-toolbox-developing-a-violence-prevention-preschool-teacher-training-program-using-evidence-theory-and-practice
#8
Helen Baker-Henningham
In this paper, I describe the development of the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a school-based violence prevention, teacher training program for use with children aged 3-6 years. In-depth interviews were conducted with Jamaican preschool teachers, who had participated in a trial of a classroom behavior management program, at posttest (n = 35) and 5 years later (n = 20). An on-going process evaluation was also conducted. Teachers' preferred behavior management strategies and training methods were documented, and enablers and barriers to implementation were identified...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791236/the-anthropocene-generalized-evolution-of-exo-civilizations-and-their-planetary-feedback
#9
A Frank, Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, M Alberti, A Kleidon
We present a framework for studying generic behaviors possible in the interaction between a resource-harvesting technological civilization (an exo-civilization) and the planetary environment in which it evolves. Using methods from dynamical systems theory, we introduce and analyze a suite of simple equations modeling a population which consumes resources for the purpose of running a technological civilization and the feedback those resources drive on the state of the host planet. The feedbacks can drive the planet away from the initial state the civilization originated in and into domains that are detrimental to its sustainability...
May 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791165/effect-of-polymer-chain-length-on-the-physical-stability-of-amorphous-drug-polymer-blends-at-ambient-pressure
#10
Justyna Pacułt, Marzena Rams-Baron, Beata Chrząszcz, Renata Jachowicz, Marian Paluch
Rational selection of polymers for amorphous drug stabilization is necessary for further successful development of solid dispersion technology. In this paper we investigated the effect of polymer chain length on the inhibition of amorphous drug recrystallization. To consider this problem we prepared a drug-polymer blends (in 10:1 drug to polymer ratio) containing bicalutamide (BIC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with different chain lengths K10, K30, K90. We applied broadband dielectric spectroscopy to compare the molecular dynamics of investigated samples and thoroughly recognize their crystallization tendencies from supercooled liquid state...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790988/evaluation-of-a-music-therapy-social-skills-development-program-for-youth-with-limited-resources
#11
Varvara Pasiali, Cherie Clark
Background: Children living in low-resource communities are at risk for poorer socio-emotional development and academic performance. Emerging evidence supports use of group music therapy experiences to support social development through community afterschool programming. Objective: To examine the potential benefit of a music therapy social skills development program to improve social skills and academic performance of school-aged children with limited resources in an afterschool program...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790813/-express-increased-nav1-7-expression-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-pain-hypersensitivity-after-plantar-incision-in-rats
#12
Jiaoli Sun, Ningbo Li, Guangyou Duan, Yi Liu, Shanna Guo, Cong Wang, Changmao Zhu, Xianwei Zhang
Postoperative pain remains a complex problem that is difficult to manage in the clinical context, seriously affecting rehabilitation and the quality of life of patients after surgery. Nociceptors, of which the cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), are crucial for initiating and conducting the pain signal. The peripheral voltage-gated sodium channels, including Nav1.7, which is mainly expressed in the DRG, are key to understanding the mechanism underlying postoperative pain. Nav1.7, in particular, of which mutations in the encoding gene (SCN9A) can determine whether pain occurs, has aroused most attention...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790145/-nursing-experience-of-using-mirror-visual-feedback-for-a-schizophrenia-patient-with-visual-hallucinations
#13
Shu-Ling Lan, Yu-Chi Chen, Hsiu-Ju Chang
The aim of this paper was to describe the nursing application of mirror visual feedback in a patient suffering from long-term visual hallucinations. The intervention period was from May 15th to October 19th, 2015. Using the five facets of psychiatric nursing assessment, several health problems were observed, including disturbed sensory perceptions (prominent visual hallucinations) and poor self-care (e.g. limited abilities to self-bathe and put on clothing). Furthermore, "caregiver role strain" due to the related intense care burden was noted...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790069/antidepressant-effects-of-the-ginsenoside-metabolite-compound-k-assessed-by-behavioral-despair-test-and-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-model
#14
Wu Song, Yan Guo, Shuang Jiang, Lin Wei, Zhi Liu, Xiaoyan Wang, Ying Su
Depression is a major social and health problem worldwide. Compound K (CK), an intestinal metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides, has been demonstrated to possess significant pharmacological effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we set up this study to investigate the antidepressant effect of CK, and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this activity. The behavioral despair model and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model were established in mice or rats, respectively. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity were performed in mice, while the open-field test, food consumption and sucrose preference were assessed in rats...
May 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789275/perceived-expressed-emotion-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-and-self-esteem-in-obese-adolescents-a-case-control-study
#15
Merve Çolpan, Şafak Eray, Erdal Eren, Ayşe Pınar Vural
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a chronic disease which causes medical and psychiatric complications. Family climate is also a critical factor in the presence and treatment of obesity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In our study, perceived expressed emotion (EE), psychopathology, self-esteem and emotional and behavioural problems among obese adolescents will be investigated by comparison with their non-obese peers. METHODS: This study was carried out with 49 obese adolescents and 47 non-obese adolescents as a control group...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788795/distress-tolerance-intervention-for-improving-self-management-of-chronic-conditions-a-systematic-review
#16
Beth S Russell, Courtney R Lincoln, Angela R Starkweather
BACKGROUND: The inability to tolerate distress can negatively influence effective self-management (SM) of chronic conditions by interfering with the ability to focus on illness needs and impairing problem-solving and prioritizing capabilities, as well as engagement in SM activities. Interventions to increase distress tolerance offer a holistic approach to chronic disease SM and may enhance the individual's ability to apply SM skills and resources to improve quality of life and overall health...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788762/distinct-patterns-of-internet-and-smartphone-related-problems-among-adolescents-by-gender-latent-class-analysis
#17
Seung-Yup Lee, Donghwan Lee, Cho Rong Nam, Da Yea Kim, Sera Park, Jun-Gun Kwon, Yong-Sil Kweon, Youngjo Lee, Dai Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Background and objectives The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788756/correlates-of-frequent-gambling-and-gambling-related-chasing-behaviors-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#18
Igor Yakovenko, Rebecca Fortgang, Jennifer Prentice, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
Background and aims Published research on the relationship between disordered gambling and schizophrenia is limited. However, existing data suggest that individuals with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder may have a high prevalence of co-occurring disordered gambling. As such, effective strategies for screening and assessing gambling-related problems in individuals with psychosis are needed. The goal of this study was to explore the correlates of increased gambling frequency and chasing behavior, a hallmark feature of gambling disorder, in a sample of individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788721/vanishing-thermal-conductance-of-carbon-nanotube-upon-encapsulation-by-zig-zag-sulfur-chain
#19
Sayantanu Koley, Sabyasachi Sen, Swapan Chakrabarti
Herein we report an unprecedented enhancement of thermoelectric properties of a single walled carbon nanotube upon encapsulation of a zig-zag sulfur chain inside the nanocore. Our calculations on a 70 Å long [5; 5] carbon nanotube reveals that the encapsulation of zig-zag sulfur chain will lead to 107% increase in the thermoelectric gure of merit and concomitant quenching of thermal conductance by 90%. We have noticed that finite transmission gradient at the Fermi level combined with destructive quantum interference at the sulfur sites and structural conformation dependent scattering induced damping of phonon transmission are attributed to the dramatic improvement of thermoelectric behavior of this material...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788261/behavior-change-techniques-used-in-digital-behavior-change-interventions-to-reduce-excessive-alcohol-consumption-a-meta-regression
#20
Claire V Garnett, David Crane, Jamie Brown, Eileen F S Kaner, Fiona R Beyer, Colin R Muirhead, Matthew Hickman, Emma Beard, James Redmore, Frank de Vocht, Susan Michie
Background: Digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs) appear to reduce alcohol consumption, but greater understanding is needed of their mechanisms of action. Purpose: To describe the behavior change techniques (BCTs) used in DBCIs and examine whether individual BCTs, the inclusion of more BCTs or more Control Theory congruent BCTs is associated with increased effectiveness. Methods: Forty-one randomized control trials were extracted from a Cochrane review of alcohol reduction DBCIs and coded for up to 93 BCTs using an established and reliable method...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
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