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Health policy

Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Marco Bonaudo, Maria Pia Fantini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the trajectories of antibiotic consumption using different indicators of patients' socioeconomic status, category and age-group of physicians. METHODS: This study uses a pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis. The data focus on 22 European countries from 2000 to 2014 and were obtained from the European Center for Disease and Control, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Eurostat and Global Economic Monitor...
2018: PloS One
Aled Jones, Ben Hannigan, Michael Coffey, Alan Simpson
CONTEXT: In response to political and social factors over the last sixty years mental health systems internationally have endeavoured to transfer the delivery of care from hospitals into community settings. As a result, there has been increased emphasis on the need for better quality care planning and care coordination between hospital services, community services and patients and their informal carers. The aim of this systematic review of international research is to explore which interventions have proved more or less effective in promoting personalized, recovery oriented care planning and coordination for community mental health service users...
2018: PloS One
John Kandulu, Peter Thorburn, Jody Biggs, Kirsten Verburg
Use of chemical agricultural inputs such as nitrogen fertilisers (N) in agricultural production can cause diffuse source pollution thereby degrading the health of coastal and marine ecosystems in coastal river catchments. Previous reviewed economic assessments of N management in agricultural production seldom consider broader environmental impacts and uncertain climatic and economic conditions. This paper presents an economic risk framework for assessing economic and environmental trade-offs of N management strategies taking into account variable climatic and economic conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Donna Angelina Rade, Gemma Crawford, Roanna Lobo, Corie Gray, Graham Brown
The number of migrants has increased globally. This phenomenon has contributed to increasing health problems amongst migrants in high-income countries, including vulnerability for HIV acquisition and other sexual health issues. Adaptation processes in destination countries can present difficulties for migrants to seek help from and gain access to health services. This study examined migrants’ from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South East Asia (SEA) sexual health help-seeking behavior in high-income countries with universal health coverage...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
David A Marker, Russ Mardon, Frank Jenkins, Joanne Campione, Jennifer Nooney, Jane Li, Sharon Saydeh, Xuanping Zhang, Sundar Shrestha, Deborah Rolka
Many statisticians and policy researchers are interested in using data generated through the normal delivery of health care services, rather than carefully designed and implemented population-representative surveys, to estimate disease prevalence. These larger databases allow for the estimation of smaller geographies, for example, states, at potentially lower expense. However, these health care records frequently do not cover all of the population of interest and may not collect some covariates that are important for accurate estimation...
June 22, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Robert McSherry, Fiona Timmins, Jan M A de Vries, Wilfred McSherry
BACKGROUND: Following declining health care practices at one UK health care site the subsequent and much publicized Francis Report made several far-reaching recommendations aimed at recovering optimal levels of care including stringent monitoring of practice. The aftermath of these deliberations have had resounding consequences for quality care both nationally and internationally. DESIGN: A reflective qualitative appreciative qualitative inquiry using a hybrid approach combining case study and thematic analysis outlines the development and analysis of a solution-focused intervention aimed at restoring staff confidence and optimal care levels at one key UK hospital site...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
S Zwakhalen, R E Docking, I Gnass, E Sirsch, C Stewart, N Allcock, P Schofield
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the existing use of pain assessment tools and guidelines, and develop understanding of the practical considerations required to facilitate their use within the nursing home, hospital and community settings. METHODS: A self-administered web-based survey was conducted with nurses, health and social care workers with an interest in the assessment of pain in older adults with cognitive impairment. The survey was distributed to participants in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and United Kingdom...
June 21, 2018: Der Schmerz
Adam Bertscher, Leslie London, Marsha Orgill
Alcohol is a major contributor to the Non-Communicable Disease burden in South Africa. In 2000, 7.1% of all deaths and 7% of total disability-adjusted life years were ascribed to alcohol-related harm in the country. Regulations proposed to restrict alcohol advertising in South Africa present an evidence-based upstream intervention. Research on policy formulation in low- and middle-income countries is limited. This study aims to describe and explore the policy formulation process of the 2013 draft Control of Marketing of Alcoholic Beverages Bill in South Africa between March 2011 and May 2017...
June 21, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Vincent Rusanganwa, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Innocent Nzabahimana, Jean Marie Vianney Ngendakabaniga, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Magnus Evander
Objectives: We investigated the quality system performance in Rwandan referral laboratories to determine their progress toward accreditation. Methods: We conducted audits across five laboratories in 2017, using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation checklist. Laboratories were scored based on the World Health Organization grading scale (0-5 stars scale) and compared with earlier audits. Results: Between 2012 and 2017, only one laboratory progressed (from four to five stars)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Michael Stoto, Gareth Parry, Lucy Savitz
The last in a series of four papers on how learning health systems can use routinely collected electronic health data (EHD) to advance knowledge and support continuous learning, this review describes how delivery system science provides a systematic means to answer questions that arise in translating complex interventions to other practice settings. When the focus is on translation and spread of innovations, the questions are different than in evaluative research. Causal inference is not the main issue, but rather one must ask: How and why does the intervention work? What works for whom and in what contexts? How can a model be amended to work in new settings? In these settings, organizational factors and design, infrastructure, policies, and payment mechanisms all influence an intervention's success, so a theory-driven formative evaluation approach that considers the full path of the intervention from activities to engage participants and change how they act to the expected changes in clinical processes and outcomes is needed...
December 7, 2017: EGEMS
Sara Nieuwoudt, Lenore Manderson
Background: Mothers rely heavily on health worker advice to make infant feeding decisions. Confusing or misleading advice can lead to suboptimal feeding practices. From 2001, HIV positive mothers in South Africa were counseled to choose either exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding to minimize vertical HIV transmission. On the basis of revised World Health Organization guidelines, the government amended this policy in 2011, by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and discontinuing the provision of free formula...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
R Z Jing, H Y Zhang, T T Xu, L Y Zhang, H Fang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comprehensive technical efficiency of the tertiary public hospitals in Beijing between 2006 and 2015 and explore its influencing factors, so as to propose corresponding policy suggestions. METHODS: The data envelopment analysis was employed to evaluate the comprehensive technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of the tertiary public hospitals in Beijing. Malmquist index model was used to analyze the changes of the above three dynamic efficiencies...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Rebeka Amin, Kunichika Matsumoto, Hiroka Hosaka, Takefumi Kitazawa, Shigeru Fujita, Kanako Seto, Tomonori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Leukemia is a deadly hematological malignancy that usually affects all age groups and imposes significant burden on public funds and society. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost of illness (COI) of leukemia, and to mark out the underlying driving factors, in Japan. METHODS: COI method was applied to the data from government statistics. We first summed up the direct and indirect costs from 1996 to 2014; then future COI for the year 2017-2029 was projected...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Gulhan Erkus, Leyla Dinc
This study aimed to examine the professional values of nurses in Turkey. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 310 nurses employed at public, university, and private hospitals between May-June 2015. Data were collected using a data collection form and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale-Revised, and they were analysed using descriptive statistics. Associations between socio-demographic variables and mean scores were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Nurses had higher scores on perception of professional values, and education level and years of professional experience were associated with higher scores...
May 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Deborah Sikes, Patricia Francis-Johnson, Melinda Mitchell Jones, Laura Opton, Deborah Casida, Patricia E Allen
A grant driven partnership among a west Texas university, Texas Workforce Commission's College Credits for Heroes, and the Health Resources and Services Administration provided the funding needed to create a competency based education (CBE) model for recognizing military veteran service training and experience. Through this model, we call Competency Assessment Placement (CAP), prior learning credits can be awarded for upper division nursing courses leading to a Bachelor of Science in Nursing. The process used by faculty to create this direct assessment method for awarding credit, performance data of Cohort I using the CAP, and our initial "lessons learned" are provided...
May 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Ohad Green, Liat Ayalon
BACKGROUND: Home care workers work in an isolated environment, with limited supervision and guidance which makes them more prone to abuse and exploitation. While past research focused mostly on the well-being of care recipients, this study aimed to shed light on the care workers' daily reality and explore if and how boundaries of professional care work are blurred. Our primary aim was to assess the working conditions and the prevalence of abuse and exploitation among live-in migrant home care workers and live-out local home care workers...
June 21, 2018: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Christine Marquez, Alekhya Mascarenhas Johnson, Sabrina Jassemi, Jamie Park, Julia E Moore, Caroline Blaine, Gertrude Bourdon, Mark Chignell, Moriah E Ellen, Jacques Fortin, Ian D Graham, Anne Hayes, Jemila Hamid, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Michael Hillmer, Bev Holmes, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Linda Hubert, Brian Hutton, Monika Kastner, John N Lavis, Karen Michell, David Moher, Mathieu Ouimet, Laure Perrier, Andrea Proctor, Thomas Noseworthy, Victoria Schuckel, Sharlene Stayberg, Marcello Tonelli, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are infrequently used by health care managers (HCMs) and policy-makers (PMs) in decision-making. HCMs and PMs co-developed and tested novel systematic review of effects formats to increase their use. METHODS: A three-phased approach was used to evaluate the determinants to uptake of systematic reviews of effects and the usability of an innovative and a traditional systematic review of effects format. In phase 1, survey and interviews were conducted with HCMs and PMs in four Canadian provinces to determine perceptions of a traditional systematic review format...
June 22, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Yan Wang, Huiyun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Currently, hospital nursing care workers (hereafter referred to as HNCWs) have become an important part of the healthcare system in China. They exist in nearly all of the public hospitals and in some private hospitals, making up 20 to 30% of the total nursing staff and providing 30 to 40% of basic nursing care for patients. However, many studies have shown that the turnover rate of HNCWs is very high, with average annual rates of 20 to 45%. We conducted this survey to explore their turnover intentions and related factors and present some suggestions to improve their retention rate...
June 22, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Hwey-Fang Liang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Pau-Chung Chen, Hsing-Chun Kuo, Chia-Hao Chang, Ying-Hsiang Wang, Kuang-Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used by Chinese patients and in many other countries worldwide. However, epidemiological reports and prescription patterns on children are few. METHODS: A cohort of 178,617 children aged 18 and under from one million randomly sampled cases of the National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed for TCM prescription patterns. SAS 9.1 was applied and descriptive medicine utilization patterns were presented...
June 22, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
James F Phillips, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Ayaga A Bawah, Belinda Afriyie Nimako, Nicholas S Kanlisi, Mallory C Sheff, Patrick O Asuming, Pearl E Kyei, Adriana Biney, Elizabeth F Jackson
BACKGROUND: The completion of an implementation research project typically signals the end of research. In contrast, the Ghana Health Service has embraced a continuous process of evidence-based programming, wherein each research episode is followed by action and a new program of research that monitors and guides the utilization of lessons learned. This paper reviews the objectives and design of the most recent phase in this process, known as a National Program for Strengthening the Implementation of the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Initiative in Ghana (CHPS+)...
June 22, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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