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Congenital toxoplasmosis

Espérance Moine, Nathalie Moiré, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Kévin Brunet, William Couet, Cyril Colas, Nathalie Van Langendonck, Cécile Enguehard-Gueiffier, Alain Gueiffier, Bruno Héraut, Caroline Denevault-Sabourin, Françoise Debierre-Grockiego
The current therapeutic arsenal for toxoplasmosis is restricted to drugs non-specific to the parasite which cause important side effects. Development of more efficient and specific anti-Toxoplasma compounds is urgently needed. Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines (IPs) designed to inhibit the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgCDPK1) and effective against tachyzoite growth in vitro at submicromolar ranges were modified into hydrochloride salts to be administered in vivo in a mouse model of acute toxoplasmosis...
March 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Yvon Sterkers, Marina Perrotte, Patrick Bastien
Toxoplasmosis is generally a benign infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii but can have severe consequences in fetuses of mothers infected during pregnancy (congenital toxoplasmosis) and immunocompromised individuals. PCR-based diagnostic tests have become crucial for its diagnosis. However, this molecular diagnosis essentially relies upon laboratory-developed methods and suffers from a lack of standardization, leading to great variation in methods and performance among laboratories. With the need for accreditation of clinical microbiological laboratories, the use of commercial PCR kits has become an attractive alternative; but thorough evaluation of newly commercialized kits by proficient groups is necessary before any recommendation can be made to parasitology laboratories by health authorities or learned societies...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Martine Wallon, François Peyron
Maternal infection by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may have serious consequences for the fetus, ranging from miscarriage, central nervous system involvement, retinochoroiditis, or subclinical infection at birth with a risk of late onset of ocular diseases. As infection in pregnant women is usually symptomless, the diagnosis relies only on serological tests. Some countries like France and Austria have organized a regular serological testing of pregnant women, some others have no prenatal program of surveillance...
February 23, 2018: Pathogens
Sanaz Jafarpour Azami, Amir Amani, Hossein Keshavarz, Roqya Najafi-Taher, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Saeedeh Shojaee
Treatment of toxoplasmosis is necessary in congenital form and immunocompromised patients. Atovaquone is a powerful suppressor of protozoan parasites with a broad-spectrum activity, but an extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. In this study, nanoemulsion of this drug was prepared with grape seed oil using spontaneous emulsification method to increase bioavailability and efficacy of atovaquone for treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro activity of atovaquone nanoemulsion against T. gondii, RH and Tehran strains, was assessed in HeLa cell culture...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Igor Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcia Regina de Andrade, Janaína de Moraes Silva, Zenira Martins Silva, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Costa, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Guimarães, Marcelo Yoshito Wada, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016. METHODS: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH)...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Hélène Yera, Louise Ménégaut, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Feriel Touafek, Patrick Bastien, Frédéric Dalle
OBJECTIVES: Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii plays a crucial role in the prenatal and neonatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Sensitivity of this diagnosis is partly related to the efficiency of parasite DNA extraction and amplification. DNA extraction methods with automated platforms have been developed. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate them in combination with adequate PCR amplification assays. METHODS: In this multisite study, we investigated the suitability of two recent automated procedures for the isolation of Toxoplasma DNA from amniotic fluid (AF) (Magtration system 12GC, PSS® and Freedom EVO VacS, Tecan®), as compared to three other automated procedures (MagNAPure Compact, Roche®, BioRobot EZ1, Qiagen® and modified NucliSens easyMAG, bioMérieux®) and to the manual DNA extraction QIAamp DNA Mini kit (Qiagen®)...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ali Rostami, Panagiotis Karanis, Shirzad Fallahi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is worldwide distributed zoonotic infection disease with medical importance in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and congenitally infected newborns. Having basic information on the traditional and new developed methods is essential for general physicians and infectious disease specialists for choosing a suitable diagnostic approach for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease and, consequently, timely and effective treatment. METHODS: We conducted English literature searches in PubMed from 1989 to 2016 using relevant keywords and summarized the recent advances in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
January 12, 2018: Infection
Biswajyoti Borkakoty, Dipankar Biswas, Aniruddha Jakharia, Jagadish Mahanta
Objective: Toxoplasma gondii infection is primarily asymptomatic and one third of world's population is estimated to be infected by this protozoan parasite. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among pregnant women from north east India, where data on this important parasitic infection is scanty. Methods: A total of 1141 serum archival samples collected from antenatal clinic attendees in 2007-09, were screened for T. gondii IgG by ELISA and analyzed with their socio demographic information...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
T Abdellaoui, N Laaribi, Y Ajhoun, R Zerrouk, F Elasri, K Reda, A Oubaaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Helieh S Oz
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important causes of foodborne illnesses and inflammatory complications, as well as congenital disorders. Promiscuous Toxoplasma is transmitted by contaminated food and animal produce, water, vegetations, fruits and sexually through semen. Toxoplasma infects nucleated cells with a unique tropism for muscles and central nervous system and a mind bugging malicious effect. Pregnant women with acute or reactivated toxoplasmosis can transmit Toxoplasma via transplacental to the fetus...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
S Fallahi, A Rostami, M Nourollahpour Shiadeh, H Behniafar, S Paktinat
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is one of the most prevalent infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Congenital toxoplasmosis is annually responsible for 1.20 million disability-adjusted life years around the world, but often it is overlooked many countries. METHODS: We performed an updated review to summarize the current researches on fetal, neonatal and maternal consequences of T. gondii infection and also adverse effects of toxoplasmosis on women reproductive organs...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Majda Laboudi
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a protozoal parasite: Toxoplasma gondii . This infection can cause severe illness when the organism is contracted congenitally or when it is reactivated in immunosuppressed people. In this paper we review for the first time prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii among pregnant women and HIV-infected adults in Morocco. A systematic review methodology was used to consult three databases: Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar dated until 2015, regarding prevalence data and risk factors of infection among pregnant women and people living with HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Meriem El Bahloul, Fouad Chraïbi, Marrakchi Mohammed, Meriem Abdellaoui, Idriss Benatiya
Macular coloboma is a congenital condition characterized by failure of closure of the fetal intraocular fissure which may have a hereditary origin. Clinically, it is characterized by decreased visual acuity with macular excavated lesion characterized by missing or rudimentary retinal tissue and scleral ectasia. Macular OCT strongly supports the diagnosis and electrophysiology examination, if requested, is altered. Differential diagnosis includes pathologies causing atrophic and excavated macular lesion, in particular congenital toxoplasmosis...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Jorge L Alvarado-Socarras, Keyla Meneses-Silvera, Andrea Carolina Zarate-Vergara, Carlos Guerrero-Gomez, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be a public health threat. Even existing guidelines, publicly known, its implementation and lack of appropriate interpretation of serological tests in pregnancy is often observed. This leds to failure in opportunities for positive and known interventions to decrease the fetal risk due to Toxoplasma gondii infection. We reported herein a case series, with variable neurological and systemic compromise (respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, enterocolitis, brain calcifications, thrombocytopenia, ascites, shock), even fatal, calling for awareness about the fact that despite the Zika epidemics in 2015-2016 in Brazil, Colombia and other countries, precisely toxoplasmosis, is a differential diagnosis still prevalent in these territories, that can leds to severe consequences, with neurological disability and risk of ocular damage, even lately...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres, Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno, Héctor Luna-Pastén, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Valeria Gómez-Toscano, Lorena Hernández-Delgado, Mónica Patricia Escobedo-Torres, Dolores Correa
Mexico presents high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection, including the congenital form, but there are few data about the genetic diversity of the parasite, so we attempted parasite isolation and genotyping in nine mother/children pairs with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), living in the Valley of Mexico, who were part of a 30 cases cohort that started 12 years ago. They were recruited through research projects which included pre- and postnatal screening of congenital infections or directly CT, and cases referred to INP for management because they had clinical abnormalities...
February 2018: Acta Tropica
Iêda M Orioli, Helen Dolk, Jorge S Lopez-Camelo, Daniel Mattos, Fernando A Poletta, Maria G Dutra, Flavia M Carvalho, Eduardo E Castilla
Objective  To describe the prevalence and clinical spectrum of microcephaly in South America for the period 2005-14, before the start of the Zika epidemic in 2015, as a baseline for future surveillance as the Zika epidemic spreads and as other infectious causes may emerge in future. Design  Prevalence and case-control study. Data sources  ECLAMC (Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) database derived from 107 hospitals in 10 South American countries, 2005 to 2014. Data on microcephaly cases, four non-malformed controls per case, and all hospital births (all births for hospital based prevalence, resident within municipality for population based prevalence)...
November 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Deborah Levine, Jacques C Jani, Ilse Castro-Aragon, Mieke Cannie
The acronym TORCH is used to refer to congenital infections, such as toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphillis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The classic findings in patients with TORCH infections include rash in the mother during pregnancy and ocular findings in the newborn. Zika virus has emerged as an important worldwide congenital infection. It fits well with other congenital TORCH infections since there is a rash in the mother and there are commonly ocular abnormalities in the newborn...
December 2017: Radiology
Meryem Çetin, Şirin Çetin
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic infection affecting approximately one-third of the world population. T.gondii infections are usually acquired by ingesting raw or insufficiently cooked meat and from unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated with soil or water with cat feces. Primary infection acquired during pregnancy can cause severe congenital abnormalities in the fetus such as neurologic and ocular malformations, abortion, or stillbirth according to the degree of infection...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Beatriz Eugenia Fuentes-Castro, Juan Gerardo Reyes-García, María Teresa Valenzuela-Vargas, Federico Martínez-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) contain molecules smaller than 10 kDa with biological activity in receptor organisms. Primarily, they participate in the regulation of the Th1 immune response, which is essential for the control of several intracellular infections, such as toxoplasmosis. This disease is associated with congenital infection, encephalitis or systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The clinical course of this infection fundamentally depends on a well-regulated immune response and timely treatment with the appropriate drugs...
November 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Thibaud Mathis, Benoit Delaunay, Armelle Cahuzac, Vivien Vasseur, Martine Mauget-Faÿsse, Laurent Kodjikian
BACKGROUND: Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an inflammatory disease that can be associated with choroidalneovascularisation (CNV). However, few studies in the literature have described the occurrence of MEWDS in association with CNV. This paper discusses whether CNV can trigger MEWDS in a predisposed eye. METHODS: A retrospective multicentric case series of six eyes in six patients with acute onset of MEWDS and evidence of previous CNV was conducted between January 2015 and January 2017...
September 28, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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