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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902680/multicountry-validation-of-samba-a-novel-molecular-point-of-care-test-for-hiv-1-detection-in-resource-limited-setting
#1
Johnson Ondiek, Zikulah Namukaya, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Suna Balkan, Ali Elbireer, Ines Ushiro Lumb, Charles Kiyaga, Neha Goel, Allyson Ritchie, Patience Ncube, Kenneth Omuomu, Kenneth Ndiege, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Douglas Mangwanya, Mary G Fowler, Lou Nadala, Helen Lee
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and the prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy are critical to achieving a reduction in the morbidity and mortality of infected infants. The Simple AMplification-Based Assay (SAMBA) HIV-1 Qual Whole Blood Test was developed specifically for early infant diagnosis and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs implemented at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We have evaluated the performance of this test run on the SAMBA I semiautomated platform with fresh whole blood specimens collected from 202 adults and 745 infants in Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#2
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886165/low-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-but-high-loss-to-follow-up-among-mothers-and-babies-in-mandalay-myanmar-a-cohort-study
#3
Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Myo Minn Oo, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khaing Hnin Phyo, Thet Ko Aung, Theingi Mya, Nilar Aung, Htun Nyunt Oo, Petros Isaakidis
INTRODUCTION: Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884524/hiv-transmission-and-retention-in-care-among-hiv-exposed-children-enrolled-in-malawi-s-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme
#4
Andreas D Haas, Joep J van Oosterhout, Lyson Tenthani, Andreas Jahn, Marcel Zwahlen, Malango T Msukwa, Mary-Ann Davies, Kali Tal, Nozgechi Phiri, Adrian Spoerri, Frank Chimbwandira, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
INTRODUCTION: In Malawi, HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women are offered lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 count or clinical stage (Option B+). Their HIV-exposed children are enrolled in the national prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme, but many are lost to follow-up. We estimated the cumulative incidence of vertical HIV transmission, taking loss to follow-up into account. METHODS: We abstracted data from HIV-exposed children enrolled into care between September 2011 and June 2014 from patient records at 21 health facilities in central and southern Malawi...
September 4, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#5
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880995/vitamin-a-supplements-for-reducing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Valantine N Ndze, Eugene J Kongnyuy, Muki S Shey
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874156/job-satisfaction-and-turnover-intentions-among-health-care-staff-providing-services-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#7
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Nicola Orsini, Till Bärnighausen, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV (i.e., lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV) was initiated in Tanzania in 2013. While there is evidence that this policy has benefits for the health of the mother and the child, Option B+ may also increase the workload for health care providers in resource-constrained settings, possibly leading to job dissatisfaction and unwanted workforce turnover...
September 6, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872276/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-hiv-1-diagnostic-challenges-during-universal-birth-testing-an-urban-south-african-observational-cohort
#8
Karl-Günter Technau, Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Louise Kuhn, Lucia Hans, Renate Strehlau, Elaine J Abrams, Martie Conradie, Ashraf Coovadia, Ndileka Mbete, Pamela M Murnane, Faeezah Patel, Stephanie Shiau, Caroline T Tiemessen, Gayle G Sherman
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing at birth aims to facilitate earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected neonates. Data from two years of universal birth testing implementation in a high-burden South African urban setting are presented to demonstrate the prevalence and outcomes of diagnostic challenges in this context. METHODS: HIV-exposed neonates born at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital between 5 June 2014 and 31 August 2016 were routinely screened at birth for HIV-1 on whole blood samples using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qualitative Test, version 2...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870180/awareness-attitudes-and-perceptions-regarding-hiv-and-pmtct-amongst-pregnant-women-in-guinea-bissau-a-qualitative-study
#9
Noel Vieira, Dlama Nggida Rasmussen, Inês Oliveira, Aureliano Gomes, Peter Aaby, Christian Wejse, Morten Sodemann, Lucy Reynolds, Holger W Unger
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major cause of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) strategies have proven effective in decreasing the number of children infected in utero, intrapartum and during the breastfeeding period. This qualitative study explores knowledge and perceptions of HIV amongst pregnant women, healthcare workers' experiences of the national PMTCT services, and barriers to PMTCT, during a period of programme scale-up in urban Guinea-Bissau (2010-11)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859083/short-term-effectiveness-of-a-community-health-worker-intervention-for-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-tanzania-to-improve-treatment-adherence-and-retention-in-care-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Nerissa Nance, Prosper Pendo, Joseph Masanja, David Paul Ngilangwa, Karen Webb, Rita Noronha, Sandra I McCoy
INTRODUCTION: Community health workers (CHWs) are lay workers who have the potential to enhance services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and improve the health of women living with HIV infection. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of an intervention to integrate CHWs with 'Option B+' PMTCT services in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania. METHODS: The intervention was implemented for 11 months and included four integrated components: 1) formal linkage of CHWs to health facilities; 2) CHW-led antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence counseling; 3) loss to follow-up tracing by CHWs; and 4) distribution of Action Birth Cards (ABCs), a birth planning tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857649/immune-responses-to-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-zimbabwean-infants
#11
James A Church, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Marya P Carmolli, Sean A Diehl, Bernard Chasekwa, Robert Ntozini, Kuda Mutasa, Jean H Humphrey, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Andrew J Prendergast
It remains uncertain whether HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have impaired responses to oral vaccines. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 6-month-old infants recruited at birth to the ZVITAMBO trial in Zimbabwe between 1997-2001, prior to introduction of prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions. We measured poliovirus-specific IgA to type 1-3 polio strains by semi-quantitative capture ELISA in cryopreserved serum samples collected from 85 HEU and 101 HIV-unexposed infants at 6 months of age, one month after their last immunisation with trivalent OPV...
August 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855305/field-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-alere-and-cepheid-qualitative-hiv-assays-for-paediatric-point-of-care-testing-in-a-soweto-academic-hospital-south-africa
#12
Tanya Y Murray, Gayle G Sherman, Firdose Nakwa, William B MacLeod, Nosisa Sipambo, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sergio Carmona
Point-of-care (POC) technologies for HIV diagnosis in infants have the potential to overcome logistical challenges that delay treatment initiation and prevent improvements in morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of two POC technologies against the current standard of care (SOC) laboratory-based assay in South Africa, when operated by nurses in a hospital environment. Children <18 months of age that were treatment naïve (excluding prophylaxis) and in whom an HIV PCR test was indicated, were eligible for the study...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854944/hiv-status-disclosure-and-associated-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-enrolled-in-antiretroviral-therapy-in-uganda-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Rose Naigino, Fredrick Makumbi, Aggrey Mukose, Esther Buregyeya, Jim Arinaitwe, Joshua Musinguzi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: Disclosure of HIV positive status to sexual partners is promoted by HIV prevention programs including those targeting the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Among other benefits, disclosure may enhance spousal support and reduce stigma, violence and discrimination. HIV status disclosure and associated outcomes were assessed among a cohort of women, newly initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy in Uganda between October 2013 and May 2014. METHODS: This was a mixed method study, drawing data from a prospective cohort study of 507 HIV positive pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy, who were followed for four months to determine disclosure and its outcomes...
August 30, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851384/health-related-quality-of-life-in-pregnant-women-living-with-hiv-a-comparison-of-eq-5d-and-sf-12
#14
Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Ling Zhou, Jiarui Zheng, Xiumin Liang, Zhanqin Li, Hongzhuan Luo, Yuyan Yang, Liyuan Yang, Ting Tan, Jun Yu, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: This paper investigates the properties and performance of the two generic measures, EQ-5D and SF-12, for Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessments of pregnant women living with HIV in Kunming City, Yiliang County, Daguan County, Longchuan County, Tengchong County, Longling County and Fengqing County in Yunnan Province, China. METHODS: As part of a screening programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), a retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in the seven Maternal and Infant Health Care centers in Yunnan Province, China, between April and June of 2016...
August 30, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841701/pregnancy-outcomes-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-young-women-in-madrid-spain-2000-2015
#15
Luis M Prieto, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Patricia Rojas, Diana Mazariegos, Eloy Muñoz, Maria José Mellado, África Holguín, María Luisa Navarro, María Isabel González-Tomé, José Tomás Ramos
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are reaching adulthood and becoming pregnant. Most PHIV women have been exposed to a high number of antiretroviral regimens, and they may have difficulties to achieve viral suppression. Psychosocial problems are not uncommon and could be an important barrier for treatment adherence. The effects of chronic HIV infection and long-term exposure to antiretroviral treatment of PHIV women cause concerns on the developing fetus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841399/infant-and-young-child-feeding-decision-making-and-practices-malawian-mothers-and-fathers-roles-in-the-context-of-hiv
#16
Nainisha Chintalapudi, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Suzanne Maman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Valerie L Flax
BACKGROUND: Few studies in low- and middle-income countries have examined the roles of couples in infant and young child feeding decision making and practices, and there is no corresponding data in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research aim: This study aimed to explore mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their roles in feeding decision making and practices. METHODS: The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 15 mothers and their male partners, recruited from the catchment areas of two urban and two rural government clinics in Lilongwe District, Malawi...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839513/knowledge-and-awareness-of-mtct-and-pmtct-post-natal-follow-up-services-among-hiv-infected-mothers-in-the-mankweng-region-south-africa
#17
Refilwe Ramoshaba, Sello Levy Sithole
BACKGROUND: The pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the most severe health challenge affecting children across the world. It is estimated that more than 90% of all HIV infections in children result from Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT). Poor knowledge and awareness of MTCT and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) among HIV positive mothers and their babies is a major setback to the success of the PMTCT programmes. METHODS: A qualitative approach and a cross-sectional design were applied in this study...
2017: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837563/demographic-clinical-and-behavioural-determinants-of-hiv-serostatus-non-disclosure-to-sex-partners-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-eastern-cape-south-africa
#18
Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Nonkosi Selanto-Chairman, Daniel Ter Goon, Gerry Boon, Yusimi Ordaz Fuentes, George Justus Hofmeyr, Gordana Avramovic, Craig Carty, John Lambert
OBJECTIVES: Drawing from a baseline sample of a cohort study, the study examines the extent and correlates of serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners and family members, and reasons for non-disclosure among HIV-infected pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study recruited 1709 pregnant women living with HIV who attended three of the largest maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, for delivery between September 2015 and May 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834955/higher-transplacental-pathogen-specific-antibody-transfer-among-pregnant-women-randomized-to-triple-antiretroviral-treatment-versus-short-course-zidovudine
#19
Rose Bosire, Carey Farquhar, Ruth Nduati, Kristina Broliden, Stanley Luchters, Philippe Van de Perre, Isabelle De Vincenzi, Michele Merkel, Veronicah Wachuka, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Grace John-Stewart, Barbara Lohman-Payne, Marie Reilly
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection may impair transplacental antibody transfer to infants. The impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment (ART) given during pregnancy on transplacental antibody transport is unknown. METHODS: HIV-1 infected pregnant women with CD4 counts between 200 - 500 were randomized to short-course zidovudine (ZDV) or triple ART at 32 weeks gestation for prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Levels of maternal antibody against measles, pneumococcus and rotavirus at delivery, and antibody transfer to the baby through cord blood, were compared between trial arms...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819511/male-partner-involvement-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-in-mwanza-region-tanzania
#20
Munda Elias, Elia John Mmbaga, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 3.3 million children < 15 years of age living with HIV infection. About 95% of HIV infected children have acquired infection from their mothers. Although new pediatric HIV infection in Tanzania has declined by 48% and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) coverage of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has increased to 77%, the MTCT rate remains high (15%). Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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