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HIV mother to child transmission

L Carey, C Desouza, A Moorcroft, A Elgalib
The aim of this study was to describe the obstetrical and virological outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women who delivered at a district general hospital in south London in the period from 2008 to 2014. Our review identified 137 pregnancies; most (60%, 63/105) of them were unplanned. The commonest mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (42%, 48/114) followed by emergency Caesarean section (32%, 36/114). Gestational age at delivery was ≥37 weeks in most (84%, 91/106) of the cases. Maternal HIV VL at or closest to delivery was undetectable (<40 copies/mL), <400 copies/mL and >1000 copies/mL in 73% (94/129), 90% (116/129) and 6% (8/129) of the pregnancies, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Martin Marufu Gazimbi, Monica Akinyi Magadi
This study contributes to the dialogue on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. The determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe were explored. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth in the 5 years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The uptake of antenatal HIV testing was found to be determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women's economic and demographic status, as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Luisa Zupin, Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Anselmo Jiro Kamada, Louise Kuhn, Sergio Crovella
INTRODUCTION: Human Beta Defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a component of the innate immune system, the first line of defence against pathogens, already reported as involved in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in different populations. We investigated the role of DEFB1 gene (encoding for hBD-1) functional polymorphisms in the susceptibility to HIV-1 MTCT in a population from Zambia. METHODS: Four selected polymorphisms within DEFB1 gene, three at the 5' untranslated region (UTR), namely - 52G>A ( RS1799946 ), -44C>G ( RS1800972 ) and -20G>A ( RS11362 ) and one in the 3'UTR, c...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Angela Odiachi, Salome Erekaha, Llewellyn J Cornelius, Christopher Isah, Habib O Ramadhani, Laura Rapoport, Nadia A Sam-Agudu
BACKGROUND: HIV status disclosure to male partners is important for optimal outcomes in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Depending on timing of HIV diagnosis or pregnancy status, readiness to disclose and disclosure rates may differ among HIV-positive women. We sought to determine rates, patterns, and experiences of disclosure among Nigerian women along the PMTCT cascade. METHODS: HIV-positive women in rural North-Central Nigeria were purposively recruited according to their PMTCT cascade status: pregnant-newly HIV-diagnosed, pregnant-in care, postpartum, and lost-to-follow-up (LTFU)...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Health
Karl Peltzer, Sibusiso Sifunda, Lissa N Mandell, Violeta J Rodriguez, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ryan Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
Introduction: This study aimed to assess fertility intentions (planning to have more children in the future) and associated factors among pregnant and postpartum HIV positive women in rural South Africa. Methods: In a longitudinal study, as part of a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) intervention trial, 699 HIV positive prenatal women, were systematically recruited and followed up at 6 months and 12 months postpartum (retention rate = 59.5%). Results: At baseline, 32...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Manickam Ashokkumar, Shambhu G Aralaguppe, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Ujjwal Neogi
Adequate information on the precise molecular and biological composition of the viral strains that establish HIV-infection in the human host will provide effective means of immunization against HIV-infection. In an attempt to identify and differentiate the biological properties and infectious potential of the transmitted founder (TF) virus from the population of the early transmitted virus, patient-derived 250 envelope glycoprotein, gp120 were cloned in pMN-K7-Luc-IRESs-NefΔgp120 to obtain chimeric viruses...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Priscila Costa Albuquerque, Ed Noyons, Fabio Zicker
BACKGROUND: South-south collaboration on health and development research is a critical mechanism for social and economic progress. It allows sharing and replicating experiences to find a "southern solution" to meet shared health challenges, such as access to adequate HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This study aimed to generate evidence on the dynamics of south-south collaboration in HIV/AIDS research, which could ultimately inform stakeholders on the progress and nature of collaboration towards increased research capacities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)...
March 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
Joseph Woodring, Naoko Ishikawa, Mari Nagai, Maya Malarski, Yoshihiro Takashima, Howard Sobel, Ying-Ru Lo
Every year, an estimated 180 000 babies in the Western Pacific Region are infected by hepatitis B, 13 000 by syphilis and 1400 by HIV through mother-to-child transmission. ( 1 ) These infections can be largely prevented by antenatal screening, treatment and timely vaccination for newborns. Despite challenges in controlling each disease, major achievements have been made. National immunization programmes have reduced the regional hepatitis B prevalence from over 8% in 1990 to 0.93% among children born in 2012...
October 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Mayowa Gabriel Moyaki, Daniel Ter Goon, Gordana Avramovic, John Lambert
BACKGROUND: Integration of family planning services into HIV care was implemented in South Africa as a core strategy aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies among childbearing women living with HIV. However, it is unclear whether this strategy has made any significant impact at the population level. This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of self-reported unplanned pregnancy among HIV-infected parturient women attending three large maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa...
February 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Josiane Tantchou, Annick Tijou-Traoré
In the global effort against HIV and AIDS, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in resource-poor countries is an issue of international importance. In Cameroon, a widely disseminated protocol defines the process to be followed by all pregnant women within the public health system before and after screening, whatever the result. The protocol as a representation of professional practices can be discerned in inscriptions made in files, registers and the carnet de santé that we use here as the cornerstone of our analysis...
February 27, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Xiaowen Wang, Guangping Guo, Xiumin Liang, Ling Zhou, Jiarui Zheng, Shaoqin Li, Hongzhuan Luo, Yuyan Yang, Liyuan Yang, Ting Tan, Jun Yu, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Health utility (HU) is essential to understanding the effects of HIV infection as a chronic disease. No HU data on pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yunnan Province are available. This study aims to construct a database on HU and explore factors associated with HU by pregnant women living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were enrolled in the Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Yunnan Province...
July 3, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
A Sidney Barritt, Ravi Jhaveri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women...
February 22, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Stacia Crochet, Chun-Chih Huang, Melissa Fries, Rachel K Scott
Background: A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. Methods: We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Results: We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
Pamela Musoke, Abigail Hatcher, Anna Joy Rogers, Lillian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi, Lynae Darbes, Zachary Kwena, Patrick Oyaro, Elly Weke, Janet M Turan
Male involvement in antenatal care has been shown to improve health outcomes for women and infants. However, little is known about how best to encourage male partners to support essential perinatal health activities. We explored men's perceptions of facilitators and barriers to involvement in antenatal care and HIV prevention including fears, hopes and challenges. Forty in-depth interviews were conducted with the male partners of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in southwest Kenya. Most male partners believed engaging in pregnancy health-related activities was beneficial for keeping families healthy...
February 21, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Anne Esther Njom Nlend, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Arsene Sandie, Joseph Fokam
BACKGROUND: Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Gloria Aguilar, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, George W Rutherford, Sergio Munoz, Nancy Hills, Tania Samudio, Fernando Galeano, Anibal Kawabata, Carlos Miguel Rios González
We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged < 15 years. We abstracted data from medical records and death certificates. We used the Cox proportional hazards model for the multivariable analysis of mortality predictors. A total of 302 subjects were included in the survey; 216 (71.5%) were younger than 5 years, 148 (51.0%) were male, and 214 (70...
February 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Monique Abimpaye, Catherine M Kirk, Hari S Iyer, Neil Gupta, Eric Remera, Placidie Mugwaneza, Michael R Law
BACKGROUND: Nearly a quarter of a million children have acquired HIV, prompting the implementation of new protocols-Option B and B+-for treating HIV+ pregnant women. While efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized trials, there is limited real-world evidence on the impact of these changes. Using longitudinal, routinely collected data we assessed the impact of the adoption of WHO Option B in Rwanda on mother to infant transmission. METHODS: We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of Option B on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda...
2018: PloS One
Noah F Takah, Jeannine A Atem, Leopold N Aminde, Moffat Malisheni, Grant Murewenhema
BACKGROUND: Infant antiretroviral prophylaxis plays an important role towards ensuring the reduction of HIV transmission from mother to child in the postpartum period. However in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), the low level of involvement of male partners may hinder the uptake of such services by HIV positive mothers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of male partner involvement approaches on the uptake of infant antiretroviral prophylaxis in SSA. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Valeria Saraceni, Maria do Carmo Leal
AIMS: to estimate the mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among infected pregnant women identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study and to evaluate care practices provided in order to identify missed opportunities at preventing the MTCT of HIV infection in the country. METHODS: Descriptive study using data obtained from the consultation of different databases: the "Birth in Brazil" study database and the Brazilian National Information Systems (NIS) databases...
2018: PloS One
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