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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521713/global-hiv-prevention-testing-and-counseling-in-military-populations
#1
Michael P Grillo, Margo Sloan, Che Wankie, Kelly Woodland, Elizabeth Reader, Bruce Porter, Richard Shaffer, Caroline A Macera, Marc Bulterys
BACKGROUND: Compared with the general population in low- and middle-income countries, military members tend to be male, young, travel more frequently away from their main sexual partners, drink more alcohol and have a consistent source of income. All of these factors may lead to an increased risk of contracting HIV. OBJECTIVE: In response, the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program advocates for the integration of HIV prevention "building blocks" into military health services to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV among foreign uniformed services...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521509/the-cost-of-accessing-infant-hiv-medications-and-health-services-in-uganda
#2
Julie N Bergmann, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Jamila K Stockman
Patient costs are a critical barrier to the elimination of mother to child HIV transmission. Despite the Ugandan government providing free public HIV services, infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis coverage remains low (25%). To understand costs mothers incur in accessing ARV prophylaxis for their infants, we conducted a mixed methods study to quantify and identify their direct costs. We used cross-sectional survey data and focus group discussions from 49 HIV-positive mothers in Uganda. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the direct costs (e...
May 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498195/building-health-system-capacity-through-implementation-research-experience-of-inspire-a-multi-country-pmtct-implementation-research-project
#3
Morkor Newman Owiredu, Nita B Bellare, Christine C Chakanyuka Musanhu, Taiwo A Oyelade, Ellen M Thom, Francoise Bigirimana, Chukwuma Anyaike, Michael T Eliya, Angela Mushavi, Eugene A Nyarko, David O Okello, Felicitas R Zawaira
BACKGROUND: The INSPIRE-Integrating and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch-initiative was established as a model partnership of national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) implementation research in 3 high HIV burden countries-Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. INSPIRE aimed to link local research groups with Ministries of Health (MOH), build local research capacity, and demonstrate that implementation research may contribute to improving health care delivery and respond to program challenges...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498194/modeling-the-impact-of-retention-interventions-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-results-from-inspire-studies-in-malawi-nigeria-and-zimbabwe
#4
Elizabeth McCarthy, Jessica Joseph, Geoff Foster, Alexio-Zambezio Mangwiro, Victor Mwapasa, Bolanle Oyeledun, Sam Phiri, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Shaffiq Essajee
BACKGROUND: Six implementation research studies in Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe tested approaches for improving retention in care among women living with HIV. We simulated the impact of their interventions on the probability of HIV transmission during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: A computer-based state-transition model was developed to estimate the impact of the retention interventions. Patient-level data from the 6 studies were aggregated and analyzed, and weighted averages of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV probabilities were presented...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498193/the-roles-of-expert-mothers-engaged-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-pmtct-programs-a-commentary-on-the-inspire-studies-in-malawi-nigeria-and-zimbabwe
#5
Fabian Cataldo, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Sam Phiri, Bridget Shumba, Llewellyn J Cornelius, Geoff Foster
INTRODUCTION: Several initiatives aiming to improve retention and adherence in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs include "expert mothers" (EMs) as a central tenet of their interventions. This article compares the role of EMs in 3 implementation research studies examining approaches for improving retention in care among mothers living with HIV. METHODS: We compared and synthesized qualitative data and lessons learned from 3 studies (MoMent in Nigeria, PURE in Malawi, and EPAZ in Zimbabwe) with respect to the involvement of EMs in supporting PMTCT clients...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498191/impact-of-facility-based-mother-support-groups-on-retention-in-care-and-pmtct-outcomes-in-rural-zimbabwe-the-epaz-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Geoff Foster, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Hélène Font, Abigail Kangwende, Vhumani Magezi, Tonderai Sengai, Simba Rusakaniko, Bridget Shumba, Pemberai Zambezi, Talent Maphosa
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission elimination goals are hampered by low rates of retention in care. The Eliminating Paediatric AIDS in Zimbabwe project assessed whether mother support groups (MSGs) improve rates of retention in care of HIV-exposed infants and their HIV-positive mothers, and maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: The study involved 27 rural clinics in eastern Zimbabwe. MSGs were established in 14 randomly selected clinics and met every 2 weeks coordinated by volunteer HIV-positive mothers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498190/patterns-of-hiv-care-clinic-attendance-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-context-of-option-b-in-zimbabwe
#7
Alison S Erlwanger, Jessica Joseph, Tendai Gotora, Blandina Muzunze, Joanna Orne-Gliemann, Solomon Mukungunugwa, Tim Farley, Alexio-Zambezi Mangwiro
BACKGROUND: Consistent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding reduces the likelihood of mother-to-child HIV transmission. All pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV in Zimbabwe are offered ART with same-day initiation regardless of CD4 count (Option B+). We investigated patterns of clinic attendance and adherence to ART among HIV-infected pregnant women in Zimbabwe. METHODS: The Evidence for Elimination cluster-randomized trial evaluating point-of-care CD4 testing included 1150 HIV-infected ART-naive women attending antenatal care between January 2014 and June 2015...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498187/the-impact-of-structured-mentor-mother-programs-on-6-month-postpartum-retention-and-viral-suppression-among-hiv-positive-women-in-rural-nigeria-a-prospective-paired-cohort-study
#8
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Habib O Ramadhani, Christopher Isah, Udochisom Anaba, Salome Erekaha, Chinenye Fan-Osuala, Hadiza Galadanci, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Peer support (PS) has reportedly improved Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) outcomes in high HIV-burden settings; however, evidence of impact on retention in care is limited. Retention in care implies consistent engagement and treatment adherence. The MoMent study evaluated the impact of structured vs unstructured PS on postpartum retention and viral load suppression among rural Nigerian women. METHODS: A total of 497 HIV-positive pregnant women were consecutively enrolled at 10 primary health care centers with structured mentor mother (MM) support, and at 10 pair-matched primary health care centers with routine, ad hoc PS...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498186/using-small-tests-of-change-to-improve-pmtct-services-in-northern-nigeria-experiences-from-implementation-of-a-continuous-quality-improvement-and-breakthrough-series-program
#9
Bamidele Osibo, Frank Oronsaye, Oluwafemi D Alo, Abimbola Phillips, Renaud Becquet, Nathan Shaffer, Francis Ogirima, Collins Imarhiagbe, Bernice Ameh, Obioma Ezebuka, Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey, Adaobi Obi, Olusegun T Afolabi, Abutu Inedu, Chukwuma Anyaike, Bolanle Oyeledun
BACKGROUND: Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is a process where health teams systematically collect and regularly reflect on local data to inform decisions and modify local practices and so improve delivery of services. We implemented a cluster randomized trial to examine the effects of CQI interventions on Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services. Here, we report our experiences and challenges establishing CQI in 2 high HIV prevalence states in northern Nigeria...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498183/impact-of-facility-and-community-based-peer-support-models-on-maternal-uptake-and-retention-in-malawi-s-option-b-hiv-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-program-a-3-arm-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-pure-malawi
#10
Sam Phiri, Hannock Tweya, Monique van Lettow, Nora E Rosenberg, Clement Trapence, Atupele Kapito-Tembo, Blessings Kaunda-Khangamwa, Florence Kasende, Virginia Kayoyo, Fabian Cataldo, Christopher Stanley, Salem Gugsa, Veena Sampathkumar, Erik Schouten, Levison Chiwaula, Michael Eliya, Frank Chimbwandira, Mina C Hosseinipour
BACKGROUND: Many sub-Saharan African countries have adopted Option B+, a prevention of mother-to-child transmission approach providing HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women with immediate lifelong antiretroviral therapy. High maternal attrition has been observed in Option B+. Peer-based support may improve retention. METHODS: A 3-arm stratified cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in Malawi to assess whether facility- and community-based peer support would improve Option B+ uptake and retention compared with standard of care (SOC)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493908/missed-diagnostic-opportunities-within-south-africa-s-early-infant-diagnosis-program-2010-2015
#11
Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Faith Moyo, Gayle G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Samples submitted for HIV PCR testing that fail to yield a positive or negative result represent missed diagnostic opportunities. We describe HIV PCR test rejections and indeterminate results, and the associated delay in diagnosis, within South Africa's early infant diagnosis (EID) program from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: HIV PCR test data from January 2010 to December 2015 were extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, a central data repository of all registered test-sets within the public health sector in South Africa, by laboratory number, result, date, facility, and testing laboratory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489732/assessment-of-nevirapine-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-dosing-regimens-for-neonates
#12
Tim R Cressey, Baralee Punyawudho, Sophie Le Coeur, Gonzague Jourdain, Chalermpong Saenjum, Edmund Capparelli, Kanokwan Jittayanun, Siriluk Phanomcheong, Anita Luvira, Thitiporn Borkird, Achara Puangsombat, Leon Aarons, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Saik Urien, Marc Lallemant
BACKGROUND: Nevirapine (NVP) is a key component of antiretroviral prophylaxis and treatment for neonates. We evaluated current WHO weight-band NVP prophylactic dosing recommendations and investigated optimal therapeutic NVP dosing for neonates. METHODS: The PHPT-5 study in Thailand assessed the efficacy of 'Perinatal Antiretroviral Intensification' to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in women with <8 weeks of antiretroviral treatment before delivery (NCT01511237)...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482821/understanding-coping-strategies-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period-a-qualitative-study-of-women-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#13
Scholastic Ashaba, Angela Kaida, Bridget Frances Burns, Kasey O'Neil, Emma Dunkley, Christina Psaros, Jasmine Kastner, Alexander C Tsai, David R Bangsberg, Lynn T Matthews
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, 58% of adults living with HIV are women. In Uganda, HIV prevalence is 8.3% for women compared to 6.1% for men. Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs have enabled women living with HIV (WLWH) to have children with minimal risk of perinatal transmission. Nevertheless, pregnant WLWH face many challenges. We explored women's perceptions of how they cope with the challenges of pregnancy and the postpartum period as HIV-infected women...
May 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471837/changing-dynamics-of-hiv-transmission-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-modeling-who-acquired-and-transmitted-infections-and-estimating-the-impact-of-past-hiv-interventions-1976-2015
#14
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the impact of past interventions and how it affected transmission dynamics is key to guiding prevention efforts. We estimated the population-level impact of condom, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and prevention of mother-to-child transmission activities on HIV transmission and the contribution of key risk factors on HIV acquisition and transmission. METHODS: An age stratified dynamical model of sexual and vertical HIV transmission among the general population, female sex workers (FSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM) was calibrated to detailed prevalence and intervention data...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470110/growth-pattern-in-ethiopian-infants-the-impact-of-exposure-to-maternal-hiv-infection-in-relation-to-socio-economic-factors
#15
John König Walles, Taye Tolera Balcha, Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470071/nurses-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-evidence-based-practice-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-programme-in-malawi
#16
Chisomo Mulenga, Joanne R Naidoo
BACKGROUND: HIV continues to be a global public health concern with Malawi being among the worst affected countries. The prevalence of HIV among pregnant women is also very high, thereby raising concerns of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is therefore a priority in the efforts to curb the HIV pandemic. Keeping in mind that the area of HIV management is rapidly evolving, underpinning nursing care with evidence-based practice is essential and has been reported to reduce mother-to-child transmission...
April 12, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458735/features-of-maternal-hiv-1-associated-with-lack-of-vertical-transmission
#17
REVIEW
Nafees Ahmad, Aamir N Ahmad, Shahid N Ahmad
HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission...
2017: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453240/virological-response-and-resistances-over-12-months-among-hiv-infected-children-less-than-two-years-receiving-first-line-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-cote-d-ivoire-and-burkina-faso-the-monod-anrs-12206-cohort
#18
Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Karen Malateste, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Malik Coulibaly, Sophie Dattez, Arlette Emieme, Mamadou Barry, Christine Rouzioux, Sylvie N'gbeche, Caroline Yonaba, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Véronique Mea, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Nicolas Meda, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected children less than three years. However, little is known about its field implementation and effectiveness in West Africa. We assessed the 12-month response to lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of West African children treated before the age of two years. METHODS: HIV-1-infected, ART-naive except for a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), tuberculosis-free, and less than two years of age children with parent's consent were enrolled in a 12-month prospective therapeutic cohort with lopinavir/ritonavir ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ouagadougou and Abidjan...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453028/-antiretroviral-therapy-containing-raltegravir-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-systematic-review
#19
Lisset García-Fernández, Fabián Fiestas, Rubén Vásquez, Carlos Benites
INTRODUCTION: The risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV increases in pregnant women diagnosed late in pregnancy. Some experts suggest that the use of raltegravir (RAL), as part of the antiretroviral treatment in these pregnant women, could reduce the risk of MTCT, since RAL can quickly decrease the viral load. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the available scientific information on the efficacy and safety of RAL, during the third trimester of pregnancy, in reducing MTCT of HIV...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453023/-hiv-aids-infection-in-children-and-adolescents-chilean-cohort-1987-2014
#20
Elba Wu, M Isabel Galaz, Carmen Larrañaga, Ana Chávez, Marcela González, Ana M Álvarez, Anamaría Peña, Juila Vlllarroel, Eloísa Vizueta
The present document describes the Cohort of HIV/AIDS children detected in Chile from 1987 to August 2014 and the effectiveness of the Protocol for Prevention of Vertical Transmission (PPVT) of HIV infection. Of the 375 HIV infected children enrolled since 1987 to August 2014, 245 of them are still in pediatric control. From the analysis of the Cohort is inferred that: a) it has observed an improvement in the detection of the HIV infected child, in number and precocious time; b) the majority of these children continue to be detected by clinic symptoms and signs (mainly unspecific and infectious manifestations); c) the ARVT use has meant a clinic and immunologic improvement with diminution of the infections, principally opportunistic infections, with a better life quality, a prolongation of survival and a diminution of lethality; d) as more survival has been produced, cancer has begun to be detected, a very infrequent complication observed in them before the ARVT use...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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