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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#1
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158723/the-usefulness-of-traditional-birth-attendants-to-women-living-with-hiv-in-resource-poor-settings-the-case-of-mfuwe-zambia
#2
Choolwe Muzyamba, Wim Groot, Sonila M Tomini, Milena Pavlova
Background: Although there is increased attention on the role of trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal care, most of the research has mainly focused on providing evidence of the relevance of trained TBAs to women in general without a specific focus on women who are HIV positive, despite them being most vulnerable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap by assessing the relevance of trained TBAs to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings by using Zambia as a case study...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138654/syphilis-and-hiv-infections-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-republic-of-congo
#3
Roch Fabien Niama, Nadia Claricelle Loukabou Bongolo, Edith Sophie Bayonne Kombo, Ruth Yengo, Pembe Issamou Mayengue, Etoka-Beka Mandingha Kosso, Igor Louzolo, Lucette Macosso, Ghislain Dzeret, Angélie Serge Patrick Dzabatou Babeaux, Marie-Francke Puruehnce, Henri Joseph Parra
Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics sites for the first time between September and December 2011 and who accepted to participate in the study were enrolled. The objective was to estimate the syphilis and HIV infection rate in this population. Methods: A study was conducted in 44 selected ANCs from 12 departments (5 urban and 7 rural). Pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study, attending selected sentinel ANCs sites for the first time between September and December 2011 were enrolled...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135578/when-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-fails-preventing-pretreatment-drug-resistance-in-african-children
#4
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Job Calis, Ragna Boerma, Kim Sigaloff, Clement Zeh, Peter Mugyenyi, Sulaimon Akanmu, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130333/non-disclosure-to-male-partners-and-incomplete-pmtct-regimens-associated-with-higher-risk-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-a-national-survey-in-kenya
#5
Christine J McGrath, Benson Singa, Agnes Langat, John Kinuthia, Keshet Ronen, Danvers Omolo, Benjamin Elly Odongo, Rose Wafula, Prisca Muange, Abraham Katana, Lucy Ng'anga', Grace C John-Stewart
Health worker experience and community support may be higher in high HIV prevalence regions than low prevalence regions, leading to improved prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs. We evaluated 6-week and 9-month infant HIV transmission risk (TR) in a high prevalence region and nationally. Population-proportionate-to-size sampling was used to select 141 clinics in Kenya, and mobile teams surveyed mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunizations. HIV DNA testing was performed on HIV-exposed infants...
November 11, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121445/viraemia-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-hiv-infected-women-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-2010-2015
#6
Terusha Chetty, Marie-Louise Newell, Claire Thorne, Anna Coutsoudis
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy and postpartum viral load suppression is critical to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and ensure maternal health. We measured viraemia risk before, during and after pregnancy in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 1425 HIV-infected pregnant women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least six months pre-pregnancy were enrolled in a cohort study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Odds ratios were estimated in multilevel logistic regression, with pregnancy period time varying...
November 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104275/factors-associated-with-male-partner-involvement-in-programs-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-rural-south-africa
#7
Motlagabo G Matseke, Robert A C Ruiter, Violeta J Rodriguez, Karl Peltzer, Geoffrey Setswe, Sibusiso Sifunda
Male partner involvement (MPI) can contribute to the success of programs aimed at preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. However, the definition and measures of MPI differ according to context. This study utilized secondary cross-sectional data to investigate the prevalence and determinants of MPI among 463 male partners of HIV-infected pregnant women in rural South Africa. Results indicated that 44.1% of male partners reported involvement in most or all specified male partner involvement activities (i...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102993/evidence-of-accessibility-and-utility-of-point-of-care-diagnostics-as-an-integral-part-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-services-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#8
Juliet Katoba, Lydia Hangulu, Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care (POC) testing has been shown to help improve healthcare access in resource-limited settings. However, there is paucity of evidence on accessibility of POC testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map the evidence on POC testing services for PMTCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, will guide the study...
November 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084045/declining-baseline-viraemia-and-escalating-discordant-hiv-1-confirmatory-results-within-south-africa-s-early-infant-diagnosis-program-2010-2016
#9
Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Faith Moyo, Tendesayi Kufa, Gayle G Sherman
OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) trends within South Africa's Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) program 2010-2016, with reference to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines. METHODS: HIV-1 total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (TNA PCR) and RNA VL data from 2010-2016 were extracted from the South African National Health Laboratory Service's central data repository. Infants with a positive TNA PCR and subsequent baseline RNA VL taken at age <7 months were included...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073829/hiv-testing-among-male-partners-of-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-a-missing-link-in-the-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv
#10
Babayemi O Olakunde, Daniel A Adeyinka, Tolulope Oladele, Chamberline E Ozigbu
In this study, we assessed male partner testing and the serodiscordance rate among pregnant women and their partners in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in Nigeria. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the consolidated national health sector PMTCT data over a five-year period (2012-2016). Over the period, a total of 11,833,062 pregnant women were tested for HIV with a positivity rate of 2.2%. About 266,188 (2.2%) of sexual partners of pregnant women who presented at PMTCT clinics had an HIV test within the period...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069378/the-effect-of-a-performance-based-financing-program-on-hiv-and-maternal-child-health-services-in-mozambique-an-impact-evaluation
#11
Yogesh Rajkotia, Omer Zang, Pierre Nguimkeu, Jessica Gergen, Iva Djurovic, Paula Vaz, Franscisco Mbofana, Kebba Jobarteh
Performance-based financing (PBF) is a mechanism by which health providers are paid on the basis of outputs or results delivered. A PBF program was implemented on the provision of HIV, prevention of mother-to child HIV transmission (PMTCT), and maternal/child health (MCH) services in two provinces of Mozambique. A retrospective case-control study design was used in which PBF provinces were matched with control provinces to evaluate the impact of PBF on 18 indicators. Due to regional heterogeneity, we evaluated the intervention sites (North and South) separately...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066544/maternal-but-not-infant-anti-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody-response-associates-with-enhanced-transmission-and-infant-morbidity
#12
Melissa Ghulam-Smith, Alex Olson, Laura F White, Charles S Chasela, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Gerald Tegha, Charles M van der Horst, Manish Sagar
A significant number of infants acquire HIV-1 through their infected mother's breast milk, primarily due to limited access to antiretrovirals. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) may prevent this transmission. Previous studies, however, have generated conflicting results about the ability of nAbs to halt mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and their impact on infant outcomes. This study compared plasma neutralizing activity in exposed infants and the infected mothers (n = 63) against heterologous HIV-1 variants and the quasispecies present in the mother...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060439/design-of-an-mhealth-system-for-maternal-and-children-hiv-care
#13
Allya P Koesoema, Arni Ariani, Yoke S Irawan, Soegijardjo Soegijoko
While progress has been made to slow down its spread and increase uptake of treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a highly significant health problem for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Specifically, almost half of new HIV patients in Asia Pacific were children. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission faces complex socioeconomic and other problems. With the increasing growth of mobile technologies in LMICs, especially in Asia Pacific, mHealth, the application of mobile technology for health applications, has a significant potential to help alleviate these problems...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059029/uptake-of-hiv-testing-during-antenatal-care-in-honduras
#14
Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, Eleanor P Bergquist, Qiang Fu, Enbal Shacham, Janine Foggia, Manuel Sierra
In order to interrupt vertical transmission of HIV, the WHO recommends universal HIV testing during antenatal care (ANC), a policy that has been adopted by the Ministry of Health in Honduras. We examined HIV counseling and testing practices during ANC in the Honduras Demographic and Health Survey to understand compliance with this established standard of care. Among currently married women with a child aged five years or younger who attended ANC, only 66% recalled being offered HIV testing during ANC, yet 95% of those got tested...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037149/chngpt-threshold-regression-model-estimation-and-inference
#15
Youyi Fong, Ying Huang, Peter B Gilbert, Sallie R Permar
BACKGROUND: Threshold regression models are a diverse set of non-regular regression models that all depend on change points or thresholds. They provide a simple but elegant and interpretable way to model certain kinds of nonlinear relationships between the outcome and a predictor. RESULTS: The R package chngpt provides both estimation and hypothesis testing functionalities for four common variants of threshold regression models. All allow for adjustment of additional covariates not subjected to thresholding...
October 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034724/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-yaounde-barrier-to-care
#16
C C Landefeld, L A Fomenou, F Ateba, P Msellati
Most HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are born where programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) exist but are not universally operational. The expansion of PMTCT programs in Cameroon was among the largest in francophone Africa, but despite highly variable estimates of PMTCT uptake (ranging from 20% to 66%), it is clear that not enough HIV-infected pregnant Cameroonian women benefit from treatment to prevent HIV transmission to their children. The reasons why HIV-infected women in Cameroon do not use treatments to prevent this transmission remain partially unidentified...
October 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031815/uptake-and-correlates-of-contraception-among-postpartum-women-in-kenya-results-from-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Dunstan Achwoka, Jillian Pintye, Christine J McGrath, John Kinuthia, Jennifer A Unger, Norah Obudho, Agnes Langat, Grace John-Stewart, Alison L Drake
OBJECTIVES: To characterize uptake and correlates of effective contraceptive use postpartum. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from a national, cross-sectional evaluation of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs that enrolled women attending 6-week or 9-month infant immunization visits at 120 Kenyan maternal and child health clinics. We classified women who resumed sexual activity postpartum and did not desire a child within 2years as having a need for family planning (FP)...
October 12, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029086/hiv-prevention-costs-and-their-predictors-evidence-from-the-orphea-project-in-kenya
#18
Omar Galárraga, Richard G Wamai, Sandra G Sosa-Rubí, Mercy G Mugo, David Contreras-Loya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Helen Nyakundi, Joseph K Wang'ombe
We estimate costs and their predictors for three HIV prevention interventions in Kenya: HIV testing and counselling (HTC), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). As part of the 'Optimizing the Response of Prevention: HIV Efficiency in Africa' (ORPHEA) project, we collected retrospective data from government and non-governmental health facilities for 2011-12. We used multi-stage sampling to determine a sample of health facilities by type, ownership, size and interventions offered totalling 144 sites in 78 health facilities in 33 districts across Kenya...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#19
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025450/an-increase-in-rates-of-obstetric-haemorrhage-in-a-setting-of-high-hiv-seroprevalence
#20
E Shabalala, Hannah M Sebitloane
BACKGROUND: Obstetric haemorrhage (OH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide, although, indirectly, HIV is also a leading cause of maternal mortality in some settings with a high HIV seroprevalence. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible association between increasing rates of OH and HIV or its treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women with OH at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, over a 3-year period (2009 - 2011), during which the drug regimen for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission was evolving from single-dose nevirapine to antenatal zidovudine combined with intrapartum nevirapine (also referred to as dual therapy), and finally to a combination or highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART or HAART)...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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