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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333295/drug-resistance-in-antiretroviral-naive-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-1-in-manaus-amazonas
#1
Solange Dourado de Andrade, Meritxell Sabidó, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Amilcar Tanuri
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), the prevalence of drug susceptibility [transmitted drug resistance (TDR)] and the prevalence of HIV-1 variants among treatment-naive HIV-infected children in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Methods: Children born to HIV-infected mothers and diagnosed with HIV in an HIV reference service centre and with available pol sequence between 2010 and 2015 prior to antiretroviral initiation were included...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331644/term-abdominal-pregnancy-revealed-by-amnioperitoneum-in-rural-area
#2
Henri Donald Mutarambirwa, Bruno Kenfack, Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue
Abdominal pregnancy (AP) accounts for 1% of ectopic implantations. In sub-Saharan Africa, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections explains the increasing frequency of this pathology. In Cameroon it rose from 1/10000 deliveries (1995) to 3.3/10000 (2015). Authors herein report a case of a viable abdominal pregnancy discovered at term during emergency laparotomy for suspected uterine rupture. The 24-year-old G2P0 patient was HIV-positive, under antiretrovirals, though AP exceptionally occurs in HIV patients...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329940/-effectiveness-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-henan-province-2002-2013
#3
Q Wang, D Y Sun, P Y Fan, Y M Ma, N Ma, H Si, N Li, Z Wang
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on preventing mother to child transmission of HIV and identify the influencing factors. Methods: The data regarding the pregnant women and their infants were collected, including demographic characteristics, pregnancy and delivery, access to antiviral therapy, HIV infection status at age 18 months and survival of infants between 2002 and 2013 through follow-up, Multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify the influencing factors. Results: By the end of 2013, a total of 8 621 554 pregnant women received HIV test, among them 2 264 were infected with HIV...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#4
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320431/barriers-to-uptake-of-early-infant-hiv-testing-in-zambia-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-status-disclosure-within-couples
#5
Karen M Hampanda, Abigail M Nimz, Lisa L Abuogi
BACKGROUND: Early detection of pediatric HIV through uptake of infant HIV testing is critical for access to treatment and child survival. While structural barriers have been well described, a greater understanding of social and behavioral factors that may relate to maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing services is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to explore how gender power dynamics within couples affect HIV-positive women's uptake of early infant HIV testing at a large health center in Lusaka, Zambia...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320347/facilitators-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-adherence-to-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#6
Esther Buregyeya, Rose Naigino, Aggrey Mukose, Fred Makumbi, Godfrey Esiru, Jim Arinaitwe, Joshua Musinguzi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda started implementing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) in line with the WHO 2012 guidelines. This study explored experiences of HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding barriers and facilitators to uptake and adherence to lifelong ART. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional qualitative study conducted in three districts (Masaka, Mityana and Luwero) in Uganda, between February and May 2014...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#7
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315480/evaluation-of-mhealth-strategies-to-optimize-adherence-and-efficacy-of-option-b-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rationale-design-and-methods-of-a-3-armed-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Alison L Drake, Jennifer A Unger, Keshet Ronen, Daniel Matemo, Trevor Perrier, Brian DeRenzi, Barbra A Richardson, John Kinuthia, Grace John-Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303199/hiv-aids-in-the-south-east-asia-region-progress-and-challenges
#9
EDITORIAL
Razia Pendse, Somya Gupta, Dongbao Yu, Swarup Sarkar
The South-East Asia region, with 11 member states, has an estimated 3.5 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). More than 99% of PLHIV live in five countries where HIV prevalence among the population aged 15-49 remains low but is between 2% and 29% among key populations. Since 2010, the region has made progress to combat the epidemic. Mature condom programmes exist in most countries but opioid substitution therapy, and needle and syringe exchange programmes need to be scaled up. HIV testing is recommended nationwide in four countries and is prioritised in high prevalence areas or for key populations in the rest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301421/persistence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-among-south-african-children-given-nevirapine-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission
#10
Ruth Kanthula, Theresa Rossouw, Ute D Feucht, Gisela Van Dyk, Ingrid A Beck, Rachel Silverman, Scott Olson, Christen Salyer, Sharon Cassol, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: We set out to examine the prevalence and persistence of mutations conferring high-level nonnucleoside-reverse-transcriptase (NNRTI)-resistance in a cohort of HIV-infected children who had failed prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study at the Pediatric HIV Clinic at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. METHODS: Children referred for initiation of ART were enrolled from July 2010 through February 2013...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301337/improving-estimates-of-children-living-with-hiv-from-the-spectrum-aids-impact-model
#11
Mary Mahy, Martina Penazzato, Andrea Ciaranello, Lynne Mofenson, Constantin T Yianoutsos, Mary-Ann Davies, John Stover
OBJECTIVE: Estimated numbers of children living with HIV determine programmatic and treatment needs. We explain the changes made to the UNAIDS estimates between 2015 and 2016, and describe the challenges around these estimates. METHODS: Estimates of children newly infected, living with HIV, and dying of AIDS are developed by country teams using Spectrum software. Spectrum files are available for 160 countries, which represent 98% of the global population. In 2016, the methods were updated to reflect the latest evidence on mother-to-child HIV transmission and improved assumptions on the age children initiate antiretroviral therapy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299155/maternal-health-service-disparities-across-incomes-and-implications-on-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-service-coverage-current-context-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Nibretie Gobezie Workneh, Sebastian Kevany
About 69% of people living with HIV globally and over 90% of the children who acquired HIV infection are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, promising results have been observed, especially over the last decade - for example, a 25% decline in new HIV infections as compared to 2001 and a 38% decline in the number of children newly infected by HIV in 2012 as compared to 2009. However, the Global Plan and the Global Fast-Track Commitments of eliminating new HIV infections among children require addressing impediments to service expansion...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296802/the-effects-of-hiv-on-fertility-by-infection-duration-evidence-from-african-population-cohorts-before-antiretroviral-treatment-availability
#13
Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in east and southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific subfertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda), Kisesa (Tanzania) and Manicaland (Zimbabwe). METHODS: Women aged 15-49 years who had ever tested for HIV were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296801/accounting-for-nonsampling-error-in-estimates-of-hiv-epidemic-trends-from-antenatal-clinic-sentinel-surveillance
#14
Jeffrey W Eaton, Le Bao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to propose and demonstrate an approach to allow additional nonsampling uncertainty about HIV prevalence measured at antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance (ANC-SS) in model-based inferences about trends in HIV incidence and prevalence. DESIGN: Mathematical model fitted to surveillance data with Bayesian inference. METHODS: We introduce a variance inflation parameter (Equation is included in full-text article...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296796/updates-to-the-spectrum-estimations-and-projections-package-model-for-estimating-trends-and-current-values-for-key-hiv-indicators
#15
John Stover, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, Wiwat Peerapatanapokin
BACKGROUND: The Spectrum model is used by national programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of the status of the HIV epidemic in 160 countries. The model and assumptions are updated regularly under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in response to new data, studies, and program needs. This study describes the most recent updates for the 2016 round of estimates. METHODS: Meetings of the UNAIDS Reference Group include individuals with extensive knowledge of HIV programs, research, statistics, and public policy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296240/hiv-positive-malawian-women-with-young-children-prefer-overweight-body-sizes-and-link-underweight-body-size-with-inability-to-exclusively-breastfeed
#16
Samantha E Croffut, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Suzanne Maman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Margaret E Bentley, Valerie L Flax
Before the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program was widely implemented in Malawi, HIV-positive women associated exclusive breastfeeding with accelerated disease progression and felt that an HIV-positive woman could more successfully breastfeed if she had a larger body size. The relationship between breastfeeding practices and body image perceptions has not been explored in the context of the Option B+ PMTCT program, which offers lifelong antiretroviral therapy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 64 HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi to investigate body size perceptions, how perceptions of HIV and body size influence infant feeding practices, and differences in perceptions among women in PMTCT and those lost to follow-up...
March 10, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288159/determinants-of-anemia-among-pregnant-mothers-attending-antenatal-care-in-dessie-town-health-facilities-northern-central-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#17
Sisay Eshete Tadesse, Omer Seid, Yemane G/Mariam, Abel Fekadu, Yitbarek Wasihun, Kedir Endris, Abebayehu Bitew
INTRODUCTION: Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. METHODS: A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285153/contraceptive-method-and-self-reported-hiv-status-among-women-in-malawi
#18
Jamie E Luster, Abigail Norris Turner, Duna Alkhalaileh, Maria F Gallo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe contraceptive methods used by women in Malawi and determine whether contraceptive use differed by self-reported HIV status. Effective contraception is a primary method of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis is based on 12,658 nonpregnant, sexually debuted women ages 15-49 years in the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis was restricted to respondents with contraceptive need (i.e., fecund and did not want a child in the next 12 months) who reported their last HIV test result...
March 8, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277349/missed-opportunities-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#19
Gwendolyn B Scott, Susan B Brogly, Daniel Muenz, Alice M Stek, Jennifer S Read
OBJECTIVE: To identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data regarding HIV-infected children born between 2002 and 2009 to HIV-infected women enrolled in the U.S. International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials prospective cohort study (protocol P1025) were reviewed. The characteristics of the HIV-infected infants and their mothers and the mothers' clinical management are described...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275446/evolution-of-the-health-sector-response-to-hiv-in-myanmar-progress-challenges-and-the-way-forward
#20
EDITORIAL
Htun Nyunt Oo, San Hone, Masami Fujita, Amaya Maw-Naing, Krittayawan Boonto, Marjolein Jacobs, Sabe Phyu, Phavady Bollen, Jacquie Cheung, Htin Aung, May Thu Aung Sang, Aye Myat Soe, Razia Pendse, Eamonn Murphy
Critical building blocks for the response to HIV were made until 2012 despite a series of political, social and financial challenges. A rapid increase of HIV service coverage was observed from 2012 to 2015 through collaborative efforts of government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Government facilities, in particular, demonstrated their capacity to expand services for antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, tuberculosis and HIV co-infection and methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
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