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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779260/fifteen-years-of-pmtct-hiv-and-syphilis-outcomes-in-haiti-from-monotherapy-to-option-b
#1
Marie Marcelle Deschamps, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Vanessa Rouzier, Jerry Bonhomme, Julma Pierrot, Myung Hee Lee, Elaine Abrams, Jean Pape, Margaret L McNairy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mother and infant outcomes in the largest prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) program in Haiti in order to identify gaps towards elimination of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: Based on retrospective data from HIV+ pregnant women and their infants enrolled in PMTCT care from 1999-2014, we assessed maternal enrolment in PMTCT, receipt of antiretrovirals before delivery, maternal retention through delivery, as well as infant enrolment in PMTCT, HIV testing, and HIV infection...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775467/interactions-among-poverty-gender-and-health-systems-affect-women-s-participation-in-services-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child-a-causal-loop-analysis
#2
Jennifer Yourkavitch, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Valerie L Flax, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali, James C Thomas
Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762160/childbirth-experiences-of-women-living-with-hiv-a-neglected-event-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-care-continuum
#3
Cody Cichowitz, Melissa H Watt, Blandina T Mmbaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759086/comprehensive-nationwide-analysis-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-finland-from-1983-to-2013
#4
I Aho, P Kivelä, M Kaijomaa, H-M Surcel, M Ristola, O Heikinheimo, J Sutinen
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758064/risk-perception-and-sex-behaviour-in-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-programmatic-implications-for-prep-delivery
#5
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Catriona Towriss, Yolanda Gomba, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Steven Shoptaw, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner's serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757789/sociocultural-factors-influencing-infant-feeding-choices-among-african-immigrant-women-living-with-hiv-a-synthesis-of-the-literature
#6
Josephine Etowa, Shannan MacDonald, Jean Hannan, J Craig Phillips, Nana Yaa Boadu, Seye Babatunde
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The World Health Organizations (WHO) strategy is to eliminate pediatric HIV. HIV prevention guidelines in high-income countries recommend mothers living with HIV avoid breastfeeding. Yet, breastfeeding is promoted as the normal and unequalled method of feeding infants. This creates a paradox for mothers coming from cultures where breastfeeding is an expectation and formula feeding suggests illness. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to examine the context influencing infant feeding among African immigrant women living with HIV to develop interventions to reduce the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission...
April 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747664/adverse-effects-in-children-exposed-to-maternal-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy-in-brazil-a-cohort-study
#7
Adriane M Delicio, Giuliane J Lajos, Eliana Amaral, Fernanda Cavichiolli, Marina Polydoro, Helaine Milanez
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy was associated with a drastic reduction in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), although it was associated with neonatal adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neonatal effects to maternal ART. METHODS: This study was a cohort of newborns from HIV pregnant women followed at the CAISM/UNICAMP Obstetric Clinic from 2000 to 2015. The following adverse effects were evaluated: anemia, thrombocytopenia, liver function tests abnormalities, preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital malformation...
May 10, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747581/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-infection-and-its-associated-factors-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Getachew Mullu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main mode of HIV transmission in children under 15 years old. This problem is significant in the Sub-Saharan African countries, where more than 80% of children living with HIV are found. Previous studies in Ethiopia present inconsistent and inconclusive findings on the prevalence and associated factors of MTCT of HIV. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the pooled prevalence of MTCT of HIV and its associated factors in Ethiopia...
May 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742647/is-there-a-higher-risk-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-among-pregnant-women-with-perinatal-hiv-infection
#9
Christopher J Goodenough, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke
Cases of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) in the PHACS SMARTT study were identified from 2007-2015. Among 2123 births, 9 infants were HIV-infected, giving a MTCT rate of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3-1.0%). PHIV mothers had a higher MTCT rate (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.3-4.3) than mothers without PHIV (0.4%, 95% CI: 0.2-1.0%), associated with a greater likelihood of detectable viral load at delivery.
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742132/hiv-drug-resistance-patterns-in-pregnant-women-using-next-generation-sequence-in-mozambique
#10
María Rupérez, Marc Noguera-Julian, Raquel González, Sonia Maculuve, Rocío Bellido, Anifa Vala, Cristina Rodríguez, Esperança Sevene, Roger Paredes, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Few data on HIV resistance in pregnancy are available from Mozambique, one of the countries with the highest HIV toll worldwide. Understanding the patterns of HIV drug resistance in pregnant women might help in tailoring optimal regimens for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) and antenatal care. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and characteristics of HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRM) in pregnant women with virological failure at delivery, despite pMTCT or antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739699/early-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-infants-can-it-lead-to-hiv-remission
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie Shiau, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
Interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission have been extremely successful, but new HIV infections continue to occur in infants. Strong evidence indicates that combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment should be started in HIV-infected infants to prevent early morbidity and mortality. In 2013, the report of the Mississippi baby, who was started on ART within 30 h of life and maintained off-treatment remission for 27 months before HIV was once again detectable, generated renewed interest in very early ART initiation...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732907/prevalence-of-rilpivirine-and-etravirine-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-patients-failing-nevirapine-or-efavirenz-based-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#12
Thabo Diphoko, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Ishmael Kasvosve, Sikhulile Moyo, Harriet Okatch, Rosemary Musonda, Mark A Wainberg, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, M Essex
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV) and Etravirine (ETR) are approved second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) for HIV treatment. There is a cross-resistance HIV mutation profile between first- and second-generation NNRTI drugs. We determined the prevalence of HIV-1drug-resistance mutations (DRM) to RPV and ETR in Botswana. METHODS: A total of 168 HIV-1 polymerase gene sequences from participants failing nevirapine or efavirenz-containing regimens were analysed for drug resistance mutations using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731602/universal-rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-screening-at-delivery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Rachel K Scott, Stacia Crochet, Chun-Chih Huang
Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal maternal HIV screening at time of delivery to decrease mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), by comparing the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of universal rapid HIV screening at time of delivery to two current standards of care for prenatal HIV screening in the United States. Study Design: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the cost and QALY of universal intrapartum rapid HIV screening with two current standards of care: (I) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without previous third-trimester screening and (II) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without any prenatal screening...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724117/characterization-of-a-new-hiv-1-crf01_ae-crf07_bc-recombinant-virus-in-tianjin-china
#14
Zhehua Zhou, Ping Ma, Yi Feng, Weidong Ou, Jing Qian, Liying Gao, Defa Zhang, Yiming Shao, Min Wei
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is notorious for its rapid evolving since its transmissions from money to human. Currently, HIV contains multiple subtypes, circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs). Here, from an HIV-positive mother and her child in Tianjin, China, we identified a novel HIV-1 second-generation recombinant virus (TJ20170316 and TJ20170317) between CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. Near full-length genomes were obtained from both samples, and they shared very close sequences, except some point mutations...
May 4, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718769/effect-of-maternal-hiv-status-on-vaccination-coverage-among-sub-saharan-african-children-a-socio-ecological-analysis
#15
Olatunji O Adetokunboh, Olalekan A Uthman, Charles S Wiysonge
We investigated the relationship between maternal HIV status and uptake of the full series of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines (DTP3) in sub-Saharan African children. We used data obtained from demographic and health surveys conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted meta-analysis and calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) for the association between maternal HIV status and DTP3 vaccination status for each country. A total of 4,187 out of 5,537 children of women living with HIV received DTP3 (75...
May 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713470/hiv-related-knowledge-in-nigeria-a-2003-2013-trend-analysis
#16
Lena Faust, Michael Ekholuenetale, Sanni Yaya
Background: Given Nigeria's status as the country with the second highest number of people living with HIV globally, and 9% of the total global burden of HIV being attributable to Nigeria alone in 2013, improving our understanding of the nature of the HIV epidemic in Nigeria is crucial. As HIV-related knowledge may be an important contributor to engagement in preventive behaviours, it is of interest to investigate trends in HIV-related knowledge in Nigeria with the purpose of informing future HIV prevention and education efforts...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707385/similar-hiv-protection-from-four-weeks-of-zidovudine-versus-nevirapine-prophylaxis-among-formula-fed-infants-in-botswana
#17
Kathleen M Powis, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Michael D Hughes, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, Haruna B Jibril, Kenneth McIntosh, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV) or nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants. Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation), with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696404/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-hiv-free-survival-in-swaziland-a-community-based-household-survey
#18
Caspian Chouraya, Rhoderick Machekano, Simangele Mthethwa, Krysia Lindan, Munamato Mirira, Kwashie Kudiabor, Michelle M Gill, Gugu Maphalala, Godfrey Woelk, Laura Guay
In Swaziland, no data are available on the rates of HIV infection and HIV-free survival among children at the end of the breastfeeding period. We performed a national crosssectional community survey of children born 18-24 months prior to the study, in randomly selected constituencies in all 4 administrative regions of Swaziland, from April to June 2015. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and HIV-free survival rates were calculated for all HIV-exposed children. The overall HIV-free survival rate at 18-24 months was 95...
April 25, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695882/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-cross-sectional-study-in-malawi
#19
M van Lettow, M Landes, J J van Oosterhout, E Schouten, H Phiri, E Nkhoma, T Kalua, S Gupta, N Wadonda, A Jahn, B Tippett-Barr
Objective: To estimate the use and outcomes of the Malawian programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis of 33 744 mother-infant pairs, we estimated the weighted proportions of mothers who had received antenatal HIV testing and/or maternal antiretroviral therapy and infants who had received nevirapine prophylaxis and/or HIV testing. We calculated the ratios of MTCT at 4-26 weeks postpartum for subgroups that had missed none or at least one of these four steps...
April 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683845/adverse-fetal-and-infant-outcomes-among-hiv-infected-women-who-received-either-nnrti-or-pi-based-art-for-pmtct
#20
Rose Masaba, Craig B Borkowf, Sonali Girde, Clement Zeh, Richard Ndivo, Isabella Nyang'au, Kevin Achola, Timothy K Thomas, Shirley Lee Lecher
BACKGROUND: For HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to reduce the mother's risk of passing the infection to her child. However, concerns remain about possible associations between various components of different ART regimens and adverse fetal and infant outcomes. As part of a clinical trial in western Kenya for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, pregnant women received one of two different ART regimens. METHODS: The original PMTCT study conducted in Kenya enrolled 522 HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
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