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HIV mother to child transmission

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420249/increasing-hiv-testing-among-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-evaluating-the-traditional-birth-attendant-and-primary-health-center-integration-tap-in-model
#1
Amara Frances Chizoba, Jennifer R Pharr, Gina Oodo, Edith Ezeobi, Jude Ilozumb, Johnbull Egharevba, Echezona E Ezeanolue, Anthea Nwandu
Engaging Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) may be critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in Nigeria. We integrated TBAs into Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and provided the TBAs with HIV counseling and testing (HCT) training for PMTCT (TAP-In). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of TAP-In on HCT uptake among pregnant women. A quasi-experimental design was used for this study. Twenty PHCs were assigned to the intervention group that integrated TAP-In and 20 were assigned to the control group...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419200/switching-to-efavirenz-versus-remaining-on-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-in-hiv-infected-children-exposed-to-nevirapine-long-term-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial
#2
Pamela M Murnane, Renate Strehlau, Stephanie Shiau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileke Mbete, Gillian Hunt, Elaine J Abrams, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn
Background: We previously demonstrated the non-inferiority of switching to efavirenz (EFV) versus remaining on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) for virologic control in HIV-infected children exposed to nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Here we assess outcomes up to four years post-randomization. Methods: From 2010-2013, 298 NVP-exposed HIV-infected children ≥3 years of age were randomized to switch to EFV or remain on LPV/r in Johannesburg, South Africa (Clinicaltrials...
April 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414738/barriers-and-facilitators-for-men-to-attend-prenatal-care-and-obtain-hiv-voluntary-counseling-and-testing-in-brazil
#3
Nava Yeganeh, Mariana Simon, Deborah Mindry, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Cristina Chaves, Breno Santos, Marineide Melo, Brenna Mendoza, Pamina Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to men who attend their partner's prenatal care is an intervention with potential to reduce HIV transmission to women and infants during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. Little is known about the acceptability of this intervention in global settings outside of Africa. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews to evaluate potential barriers and facilitators to prenatal care attendance for HIV VCT with 20 men who did and 15 men who did not attend prenatal care with their partners at Hospital Conceiçao in Porto Alegre, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410374/factors-influencing-postnatal-option-b-participation-and-breastfeeding-duration-among-hiv-positive-women-in-lilongwe-district-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#4
Valerie L Flax, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Suzanne Maman
To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409027/male-partners-involvement-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-services-in-southern-central-ethiopia-in-case-of-lemo-district-hadiya-zone
#5
Degefa Tadele Belato, Abera Beyamo Mekiso, Bayu Begashaw
Male partners' involvement is a vital issue to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child; because it is much expectable that women were more vulnerable and high risk group of population portion. Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too.
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407452/uptake-and-performance-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-and-early-infant-diagnosis-in-pregnant-hiv-infected-women-and-their-exposed-infants-at-seven-health-centres-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#6
Marshet Girma, Rahel Wendaferash, Hailu Shibru, Yemane Berhane, Michael Hoelscher, Arne Kroidl
OBJECTIVE: To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services. METHODS: Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed-up with their newborns at delivery, day 6 and week 6 postpartum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported ART adherence, and HIV infant outcome were assessed...
April 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401776/molecular-characteristics-of-the-envelope-of-vertically-transmitted-hiv-1-strains-from-infants-with-hiv-infection
#7
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Cheedarla Narayanaiah, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Babu Hemalatha, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV infected infants (< 2 years)...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399356/understanding-the-influence-of-socioeconomic-environment-on-paediatric-anti-retroviral-treatment-coverage-towards-closing-treatment-gaps-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Daniel A Adeyinka, Meirion R Evans, Chamberline E Ozigbu, Hugo van Woerden, Esther F Adeyinka, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Chris Aimakhu, Deborah Odoh, Dick Chamla
OBJECTIVE: Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399000/overcoming-health-system-challenges-for-women-and-children-living-with-hiv-through-the-global-plan
#9
Surbhi Modi, Tegan Callahan, Jessica Rodrigues, Mwikemo D Kajoka, Helen M Dale, Judite O Langa, Marilena Urso, Matsepeli I Nchephe, Helene Bongdene, Sostena Romano, Laura N Broyles
To meet the ambitious targets set by the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), the initial 22 priority countries quickly developed innovative approaches for overcoming long-standing health systems challenges and providing HIV testing and treatment to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. The Global Plan spurred programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission to integrate HIV-related care and treatment into broader maternal, newborn, and child health services; expand the effectiveness of the health workforce through task sharing; extend health services into communities; strengthen supply chain and commodity management systems; reduce diagnostic and laboratory hurdles; and strengthen strategic supervision and mentorship...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398999/confronting-challenges-in-monitoring-and-evaluation-innovation-in-the-context-of-the-global-plan-towards-the-elimination-of-new-hiv-infections-among-children-by-2015-and-keeping-their-mothers-alive
#10
Anna K Radin, Andrew A Abutu, Margaret A Okwero, Michelle R Adler, Chukwuma Anyaike, Hilda T Asiimwe, Prosper Behumbiize, Timothy A Efuntoye, Rachel L King, Linda Nabitaka Kisaakye, Dolapo T Ogundehin, Benjamin Ryan Phelps, Heather Watts, Fitti Weissglas
The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), which was launched in 2011, set a series of ambitious targets, including a reduction of new HIV infections among children by 90% by 2015 (from a baseline year of 2009) and AIDS-related maternal mortality by 50% by 2015. To reach these targets, the Global Plan called for unprecedented investments in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), innovative new approaches to service delivery, immense collective effort on the programmatic and policy fronts, and importantly, a renewed focus on data collection and use...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398998/pediatric-treatment-scale-up-the-unfinished-agenda-of-the-global-plan
#11
Martina Penazzato, Anouk Amzel, Elaine J Abrams, Karusa Kiragu, Shaffiq Essajee, Irene Mukui, Peter Elyanu, Anath A Rwebembera, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha
Five million children have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic. In 2011, the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) created the political environment to catalyze both the resources and commitment to end pediatric AIDS. Implementation and scale-up have encountered substantial hurdles, however, which have resulted in slow progress. Reasons include a lack of emphasis on testing outside of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, an overall lack of integration and coordination with other services, a lack of training among providers, low confidence in caring for children living with HIV, and a lack of appropriate formulations for pediatric antiretrovirals...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398997/scale-up-of-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-and-improving-access-to-pediatric-hiv-care-in-global-plan-countries-past-and-future-perspectives
#12
Shaffiq Essajee, Ravikiran Bhairavabhotla, Martina Penazzato, Karusa Kiragu, Ilesh Jani, Sergio Carmona, Bharat Rewari, Charles Kiyaga, John Nkengasong, Trevor Peter
Investment to scale-up early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV has increased substantially in the last decade. This investment includes physical infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and specimen transportation systems as well as specialized mechanisms to deliver laboratory results to clinics. The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive, as well as related international initiatives to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treat children living with HIV have been important drivers of this scale-up by mobilizing resources, creating advocacy, developing normative recommendations, and providing direct technical support to countries through the global community of international stakeholders...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398996/lessons-learned-from-option-b-in-the-evolution-toward-test-and-start-from-malawi-cameroon-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#13
Thokozani Kalua, Beth A Tippett Barr, Joep J van Oosterhout, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Erik J Schouten, Sundeep Gupta, Amakobe Sande, Gerald Zomba, Hannock Tweya, Edgar Lungu, Deborah Kajoka, Pius Tih, Andreas Jahn
The acceleration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities, coupled with the rollout of 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, led to important discussions and innovations at global and country levels. One paradigm-shifting innovation was Option B+ in Malawi. It was later included in WHO guidelines and eventually adopted by all 22 Global Plan priority countries. This article presents Malawi's experience with designing and implementing Option B+ and provides complementary narratives from Cameroon and Tanzania...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398995/integrating-pmtct-into-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-and-related-services-experiences-from-the-global-plan-priority-countries
#14
Karusa Kiragu, Lynn Collins, Deborah Von Zinkernagel, Angela Mushavi
The urgency to scale-up sustainable programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) prompted priority countries of the Global Plan Toward the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) to expand the delivery of PMTCT services through greater integration with sexual and reproductive health and child health services. Countries approached integration-what, where, and how services are provided-in diverse ways, with predominantly favorable results...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398994/using-the-pmtct-cascade-to-accelerate-achievement-of-the-global-plan-goals
#15
Elizabeth Hamilton, Bernard Bossiky, John Ditekemena, Godfrey Esiru, Franck Fwamba, Ameena E Goga, Mary Pat Kieffer, Landry D Tsague, Roland van de Ven, Rose Wafula, Laura Guay
BACKGROUND: Development of country plans for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), including expansion of comprehensive, integrated services, was key to Global Plan achievements. APPROACHES: Use of the PMTCT cascade, an evolving series of sequential steps needed to maximize the health of women and HIV-free survival of infants, was critical for development and implementation of PMTCT plans. Regular review of cascade data at national/subnational levels was a tool for evidence-based decision making, identifying areas of greatest need at each level, and targeting program interventions to address specific gaps...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398954/moving-towards-test-and-start-learning-from-the-experience-of-universal-art-programs-for-hiv-infected-pregnant-breastfeeding-women
#16
Sara E Forhan, Surbhi Modi, James C Houston, Laura N Broyles
: In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV (PLHIV) after two randomized controlled trials revealed lower rates of mortality and serious illnesses among PLHIV receiving immediate ART compared to those receiving deferred ART. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa rapidly adopted this guidance and are implementing "test and start" programs.As this work begins, lessons learned from prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) Option B+ programs can inform decisions for new universal HIV treatment programs...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398096/advances-in-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child
#17
Marcela A Moretton, Facundo Bertera, Eduardo Lagomarsino, Jennifer Riedel, Diego A Chiappetta, Christian Höcht
Actually, ~17.8 million women and 1.8 million children (<15 years) are currently infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Particularly, the majority of pediatric infections (>90%) resulted from "HIV mother-to-child transmission" (MTCT), both in pregnancy, labour, delivery and later by breastfeeding. Due to its high pediatric incidence, MTCT represents a public health concern. Areas covered: In this review, we focus on available treatments and antiretroviral drugs recommended by the World Health Organization, and the main clinical investigations in antiretroviral pharmacotherapy to prevent the MTCT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395844/effect-of-co-trimoxazole-on-mortality-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-children-in-botswana-the-mpepu-study-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Shahin Lockman, Michael Hughes, Kate Powis, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Jean Leidner, Kenneth McIntosh, Loeto Mazhani, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality among HIV-infected children, but efficacy in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children in a non-malarial, low-breastfeeding setting with a low risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is unclear. METHODS: HEU children in Botswana were randomly assigned to receive co-trimoxazole (100 mg/20 mg once daily until age 6 months and 200 mg/40 mg once daily thereafter) or placebo from age 14-34 days to age 15 months...
May 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388879/high-sero-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infections-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-temeke-municipal-health-facilities-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Joel Manyahi, Yohannes Msigwa, Francis Mhimbira, Mtebe Majigo
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy is associated with direct effect of pregnancy and potential viral transmission from mother to newborn. In Tanzania very little in known on prevalence of HBV infection and their associated factors among pregnant women in lower health facilities. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg, HIV and HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam...
April 7, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377125/psychosocial-aspects-of-art-counseling-a-comparison-of-hiv-beliefs-and-knowledge-in-pmtct-and-art-na%C3%A3-ve-women
#20
Hetta Gouse, Michelle Henry, Reuben N Robbins, Javier Lopez-Rios, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, John A Joska
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-readiness counseling has been deemed critical to adherence, instilling knowledge, and promoting positive beliefs and attitudes. In the landscape of changing policy in South Africa, some ART initiators have had prior ART-readiness counseling (e.g., for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission [PMTCT] programs). The extent to which previous counseling resulted in retained knowledge and belief is unknown, which may be important to the promotion of women's ART adherence. We compared 320 women living with HIV and initiating ART, with and without prior PMTCT on HIV knowledge, treatment, beliefs, and attitudes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
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