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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319846/presence-of-cytomegalovirus-in-urine-and-blood-of-pregnant-women-with-primary-infection-might-be-associated-with-fetal-infection
#1
Marie-Luce Delforge, Elena Costa, Françoise Brancart, Deborah Goldman, Isabel Montesinos, Siham Zaytouni, Arnaud Marchant, Catherine Donner
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection can result from primary infection, reinfection or reactivation among pregnant women. The risk of vertical transmission is much higher in case of primary infection, and the transmission rate increases with gestational age. However there are still many questions about maternal markers that can predict whether the virus will be transmitted to the fetus. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the presence and the quantity of CMV in urine and blood of women presenting a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and the presence of congenital infection in their offspring...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314899/variation-in-the-prevalence-and-transmission-of-heritable-symbionts-across-host-populations-in-heterogeneous-environments
#2
Michelle E Sneck, Jennifer A Rudgers, Carolyn A Young, Tom E X Miller
Heritable microbes are abundant in nature and influential to their hosts and the communities in which they reside. However, drivers of variability in the prevalence of heritable symbionts and their rates of transmission are poorly resolved, particularly across host populations experiencing variable biotic and abiotic environments. To fill these gaps, we surveyed 25 populations of two native grasses (Elymus virginicus and Elymus canadensis) across the southern Great Plains (USA). Both grass species host heritable endophytic fungi (genus Epichloё) and can hybridize where their ranges overlap...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303713/growth-of-single-crystalline-cadmium-iodide-nanoplates-cdi2-mos2-ws2-wse2-van-der-waals-heterostructures-and-patterned-arrays
#3
Ruoqi Ai, Xun Guan, Jia Li, Kangkang Yao, Peng Chen, Zhengwei Zhang, Xidong Duan, Xiangfeng Duan
Two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) have attracted considerable recent interest for their layer-number-dependent physical and chemical properties, as well as potential technological opportunities. Here we report the synthesis of two-dimensional layered cadmium iodide (CdI2) nanoplates using a vapor transport and deposition approach. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the resulting CdI2 nanoplates predominantly adopt hexagonal and triangular morphologies with a lateral dimension of ∼2-10 μm...
March 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300359/influence-of-different-boundary-conditions-in-finite-element-analysis-on-pelvic-biomechanical-load-transmission
#4
Pan Hu, Tao Wu, Hui-Zhi Wang, Xin-Zheng Qi, Jie Yao, Xiao-Dong Cheng, Wei Chen, Ying-Ze Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of boundary conditions and connect conditions on biomechanics predictions in finite element (FE) pelvic models. METHODS: Three FE pelvic models were constructed to analyze the effect of boundary conditions and connect conditions in the hip joint: an intact pelvic model assumed contact of the hip joint on both sides (Model I); and a pelvic model assumed the hip joint connecting surfaces fused together with (Model II) or without proximal femurs (Model III)...
March 16, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299162/sero-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-amongst-pregnant-women-attending-an-antenatal-clinic-volta-region-ghana
#5
Arnold Luuse, Sylvester Dassah, Sylvester Lokpo, Louise Ameke, Mark Noagbe, Peter Adatara, Oheneba Hagan, Fred Binka
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298291/plasmablast-response-to-primary-rhesus-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-monkey-model-of-congenital-cmv-transmission
#6
Qihua Fan, Cody S Nelson, Kristy M Bialas, Flavia Chiuppesi, Joshua Amos, Thaddeus C Gurley, Dawn Jones Marshall, Joshua Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Jonathon Himes, Ashlesha Deshpande, Mark R Walter, Felix Wussow, Don J Diamond, Peter A Barry, M Anthony Moody, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and the leading infectious cause of neurologic deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Development of a maternal HCMV vaccine to prevent vertical virus transmission is a high priority, yet protective maternal immune responses following acute infection are poorly understood. To characterize the maternal humoral immune response to primary CMV infection, we investigated the plasmablast and early antibody repertoire using a nonhuman primate model with two acutely rhesus CMV (RhCMV) infected animals - a CD4+ T cell-depleted dam that experienced fetal loss shortly after vertical RhCMV transmission and an immunocompetent dam that did not transmit RhCMV to her infant...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296889/investigation-of-bacterial-communities-within-the-digestive-organs-of-the-hydrothermal-vent-shrimp-rimicaris-exoculata-provide-insights-into-holobiont-geographic-clustering
#7
Dominique A Cowart, Lucile Durand, Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita, Sophie Arnaud-Haond
Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection) of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289251/the-evolution-of-transmission-mode
#8
REVIEW
Janis Antonovics, Anthony J Wilson, Mark R Forbes, Heidi C Hauffe, Eva R Kallio, Helen C Leggett, Ben Longdon, Beth Okamura, Steven M Sait, Joanne P Webster
This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288770/experimental-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-pigs-humoral-immune-response-estimation-of-specific-igg-avidity-and-the-challenges-of-reproducing-vertical-transmission-in-sows
#9
Walter Basso, Felix Grimm, Maja Ruetten, Vitomir Djokic, Radu Blaga, Xaver Sidler, Peter Deplazes
Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285497/cytomegalovirus-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-beijing-seroepidemiological-survey-and-intrauterine-transmission
#10
Qing-E Jin, Jian-Rong Su, Shan-Na Wu
Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy can cause congenital defects. Available data for CMV infection during pregnancy in north China is inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of maternal CMV infection and explore the incidence of congenital infection. In this prospective study, serum CMV IgG and IgM antibody were measured in 2887 pregnant women using ELISA, and IgG avidity test was performed on all IgM positive subjects. The seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG was 94...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285153/contraceptive-method-and-self-reported-hiv-status-among-women-in-malawi
#11
Jamie E Luster, Abigail Norris Turner, Duna Alkhalaileh, Maria F Gallo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe contraceptive methods used by women in Malawi and determine whether contraceptive use differed by self-reported HIV status. Effective contraception is a primary method of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis is based on 12,658 nonpregnant, sexually debuted women ages 15-49 years in the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis was restricted to respondents with contraceptive need (i.e., fecund and did not want a child in the next 12 months) who reported their last HIV test result...
March 8, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282358/zany-over-zika-virus-an-overview-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-modalities
#12
Natasha J Pyzocha, Stephanie E Chinchen, Douglas M Maurer
Zika virus has been a recent international public health concern with outbreaks occurring in the Americas, Caribbean, and Pacific. The zoonotic infection is primarily spread to humans by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. The virus also can be transmitted via bodily fluids, sexual intercourse, and maternal-fetal vertical transmission. Asymptomatic presentation is common. If symptoms do occur, individuals display a low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis 2 to 7 d after infection...
March 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277779/further-investigations-on-the-epidemiology-of-fowl-typhoid-in-brazil
#13
Anny Lucia Del Pilar Celis-Estupiñan, Diego Felipe Alves Batista, Marita Vedovelli Cardozo, Andrei Itajahy Secundo de Souza, Lucas Bocchini Rodrigues Alves, Adriana Maria de Almeida, Paul Andrew Barrow, Angelo Berchieri, Oliveiro Caetano de Freitas Neto
Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) causes fowl typhoid (FT), a disease responsible for economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. FT has been considered under control in Brazil; nevertheless, since 2012 it has frequently been identified in poultry farming of several Brazilian states. The present study was aimed at assessing: (i) the pathogenicity of a SG strain recently isolated from an FT outbreak affecting chickens of both white and brown layers; (ii) the transmission of SG through eggs and hatching; (iii) the effects of antibiotic therapy on SG persistence in poultry tissues and on its vertical transmission; (iv) the genetic profiles of strains isolated over 27 years by PFGE...
March 1, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277199/vertical-transmission-of-zika-virus-by-aedes-aegypti-and-ae-albopictus-mosquitoes
#14
Alexander T Ciota, Sean M Bialosuknia, Dylan J Ehrbar, Laura D Kramer
To determine the potential role of vertical transmission in Zika virus expansion, we evaluated larval pools of perorally infected Aedes. aegypti and Ae. albopictus adult female mosquitoes; ≈1/84 larvae tested were Zika virus-positive; and rates varied among mosquito populations. Thus, vertical transmission may play a role in Zika virus spread and maintenance.
May 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275005/kinematic-control-of-extreme-jump-angles-in-the-red-leg-running-frog-kassina-maculata
#15
Christopher Thomas Richards, Laura Beatriz Porro, Amber Jade Collings
The kinematic flexibility of frog hindlimbs enables multiple locomotor modes within a single species. Prior work has extensively explored maximum performance capacity in frogs; however, the mechanisms by which anurans modulate performance within locomotor modes remain unclear. We explored how Kassina maculata, a species known for both running and jumping abilities, modulates takeoff angle from horizontal to nearly vertical. Specifically, how do 3D motions of leg segments coordinate to move the center of mass (COM) upwards and forwards? How do joint rotations modulate jump angle? High-speed video was used to quantify 3D joint angles and their respective rotation axis vectors...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274774/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-transmission-dynamics-in-pregnant-women-and-their-newborns-in-nigeria-implications-for-prevention-strategies
#16
Nubwa Medugu, Kenneth C Iregbu, Robert E Parker, Jessica Plemmons, Pallavi Singh, Lamidi I Audu, Efena Efetie, H Dele Davies, Shannon D Manning
OBJECTIVES: Because few studies have been conducted on group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Nigeria, we sought to estimate GBS colonization and transmission frequencies for 500 women and their newborns and identify risk factors for both outcomes. METHODS: GBS strains were characterized for antibiotic susceptibilities, capsule (cps) genotype, pilus island profile, and multilocus sequence type (ST). RESULTS: In all, 171 (34.2%) mothers and 95 (19...
March 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270119/option-b-for-prevention-of-vertical-hiv-transmission-has-no-influence-on-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-a-cross-sectional-cohort-in-western-uganda
#17
Eva M Rempis, Alexandra Schnack, Sarah Decker, Vera Braun, John Rubaihayo, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Priscilla Busingye, Gundel Harms, Stefanie Theuring
BACKGROUND: While most Sub-Saharan African countries are now implementing the WHO-recommended Option B+ protocol for prevention of vertical HIV transmission, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the influence of Option B+ exposure on adverse birth outcomes (ABOs). Against this background, we assessed ABOs among delivering women in Western Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed within a cohort of 412 mother-newborn-pairs in Virika Hospital, Fort Portal in 2013...
March 7, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262484/the-antiviral-rna-interference-response-provides-resistance-to-lethal-arbovirus-infection-and-vertical-transmission-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Don B Gammon, Takao Ishidate, Lichao Li, Weifeng Gu, Neal Silverman, Craig C Mello
The recent discovery of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) Orsay virus (OV) as a natural pathogen of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has stimulated interest in exploring virus-nematode interactions. However, OV infection is restricted to a small number of intestinal cells, even in nematodes defective in their antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) response, and is neither lethal nor vertically transmitted. Using a fluorescent reporter strain of the negative-sense ssRNA vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we show that microinjection of VSV particles leads to a dose-dependent, muscle tissue-tropic, lethal infection in C...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261663/zika-virus-causes-testicular-atrophy
#19
Ryuta Uraki, Jesse Hwang, Kellie Ann Jurado, Sarah Householder, Laura J Yockey, Andrew K Hastings, Robert J Homer, Akiko Iwasaki, Erol Fikrig
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257749/confirming-what-we-believed-reducing-and-eliminating-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b
#20
Eugene Kligman, Paul Y Kwo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
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