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Vertical transmission

Hamid Kalantari, Hamideh Karimi, Seyed Navid Almadani, Mostafa Fakhri, Pegah Mokhtari, Hamid Gourabi, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi
Ring chromosome 15 [r(15)] is a rare condition with a mild-to-severe growth failure, mental disabilities, café-au-lait spots, specific facial features, fertility difficulties and other minor dysmorphic stigmata. Of almost 50 affected individuals reported in the literature, none were assessed for the precise breakpoint positioning, which creates uncertainty in defining a specific phenotype for the deleted segment. This study reports for the first time the vertical transmission of r(15) in three consecutive generations of a family, including a subfertile man, his mother and his newborn infant...
November 22, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Amalia Mira, C Reyes Mateo, Ricardo Mallavia, Alberto Falco
New biomaterials are sought for the development of bioengineered nanostructures. In the present study, electrospun nanofibers have been synthesized by using poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic ethyl monoester) (PMVEMA-Ac and PMVEMA-ES, respectively) as building polymers for the first time. To further functionalize these materials, nanofibers of PMVEMA-Ac and PMVEMA-ES containing a conjugated polyelectrolyte (HTMA-PFP, blue emitter, and HTMA-PFNT, red emitter) were achieved with both forms maintaining a high solid state fluorescence yield without altered morphology...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Malte Storm, Felix Beckmann, Christoph Rau
Reconstructing tomographic images of high resolution, as in x-ray microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, is often limited by the stability of the stages or sample drifts, which requires an image alignment prior to reconstruction. Feature-based image registration is routinely used to align images, but this technique relies on strong features in the sample or the application of gold tracer particles, for example. In this Letter, we present an analytic approach for achieving the vertical registration based on the inherent properties of the data acquired for tomographic reconstruction...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Danielle I Rock, Andrew H Smith, Jonah Joffe, Amie Albertus, Narayan Wong, Michael O'Connor, Kerry M Oliver, Jacob A Russell
Animal-associated microbiomes are often comprised of structured, multi-species communities, with particular microbes showing trends of co-occurrence or exclusion. Such structure suggests variable community stability, or variable costs and benefits-possibilities with implications for symbiont-driven host adaptation. In this study, we performed systematic screening for maternally transmitted, facultative endosymbionts of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Sampling across six locales, with up to five years of collection in each, netted significant and consistent trends of community structure...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
David H Adler, Beau Abar, Thola Bennie, Rokhsanna Sadeghi, Linda-Gail Bekker
Women of reproductive age account for nearly half of all HIV-infected people worldwide. Childbearing intention among HIV-infected women is complicated by social and reproductive concerns related to their HIV status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected sexually active South African women aged 17 to 21 in order to compare their childbearing intentions and to identify predictors of the desire to have children among women with HIV. We found the rate of childbearing intention to be similarly high among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected study participants (80 and 79% respectively, p=0...
July 2017: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
Arnab Pattanayak, Sandipta Roy, Goutam Rana, Siddhartha P Duttagupta, Venu Gopal Achanta, S S Prabhu
In this article we present a three-dimensional loop Yagi-Uda array for efficient, polarization independent and directional absorption of THz radiation over a narrow frequency range (f0 = 0.657 THz & Q factor = 7.5). Unit cell of the array consists of three vertically stacked gold micro rings separated from each other by 30 µm thick SU-8 layers. The proposed array also exhibits a filtering response in its transmittance spectrum. The characteristics are explained by plasmon hybridization method. The transmission, reflection and absorption spectra of the structure are measured and they show a good agreement with corresponding simulated results...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
E Volpe, M Grodzki, V Panzarin, A Guercio, G Purpari, P Serratore, S Ciulli
Betanodaviruses are small ssRNA viruses responsible for viral encephalopathy and retinopathy, otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis, in marine fish worldwide. These viruses can be either horizontally or vertically transmitted and have been sporadically detected in invertebrates, which seem to be one of the possible viral sources. Twenty-eight new betanodavirus strains were retrieved in three molluscs species collected from different European countries between 2008 and 2015. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that strains retrieved from bivalve molluscs are closely related to viruses detected in finfish in Southern Europe in the period 2000-2009...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Tahir Khan, Il Hyo Jung, Amir Khan, Gul Zaman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection caused by the hepatitis B virus is one of the most serious viral infections and a global health problem. In the transmission of hepatitis B infection, three different phases, i.e. acute infected, chronically infected, and carrier individuals, play important roles. Carrier individuals are especially significant, because they do not exhibit any symptoms and are able to transmit the infection. Here we assessed the transmissibility associated with different infection stages of hepatitis B and generated an epidemic model...
December 5, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
George K Siberry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Alexis Wartelle, Javier Pablo-Navarro, Michal Staňo, Sebastian Bochmann, Sebastien Pairis, Maxime Rioult, Christophe Thirion, Rachid Belkhou, Jose Maria de Teresa, C Magen, Olivier Fruchart
Using Focused Electron-Beam-Induced Deposition (FEBID), we fabricate vertical, platinum-coated cobalt nanowires with a controlled three-dimensional structure. The latter is engineered to feature bends along the height: these are used as pinning sites for domain walls, which are obtained at remanence after saturation of the nanostructure in a horizontally applied magnetic field. The presence of domain walls is investigated using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) coupled to PhotoEmission Electron Microscopy (PEEM)...
December 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Lenka Hrabáková, Alexey A Grum-Grzhimaylo, Igor Koloniuk, Alfons J M Debets, Tatiana Sarkisova, Karel Petrzik
Mixed infection by three dsRNA viruses, a novel betapartitivirus, a gammapartitivirus, and a novel fusarivirus, has been identified in four isolates of the obligate alkalophilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus. The first, Sodiomyces alkalinus partitivirus 1 (SaPV1), is placed within the genus Betapartitivirus and is related to Ustilaginoidea virens partitivirus 2. The taxonomic position of the second virus is less clear as it shares high (85%) amino acid sequence identity but significantly low (77%) nucleotide sequence identity of the capsid protein with Colletotrichum truncatum partitivirus 1...
2017: PloS One
Jordam William Pereira-Silva, Valdinete Alves do Nascimento, Heliana Christy Matos Belchior, Jéssica Feijó Almeida, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Felipe Gomes Naveca, Claudia María Ríos-Velásquez
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is considered the main Zika virus (ZIKV) vector, and is thought to be responsible for the 2015-2016 outbreak in Brazil. Zika positive Ae. aegypti males collected in the field suggest that vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV may occur. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that venereal transmission of ZIKV by Ae. aegypti can occur under laboratory conditions. METHODS: Ae. aegypti collected in the city of Manaus, confirmed as negative for Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya virus by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) (AaM3V- strain), were reared under laboratory conditions and used for the experiments...
November 27, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Stephen J Mondo, Olga A Lastovetsky, Maria L Gaspar, Nicole H Schwardt, Colin C Barber, Robert Riley, Hui Sun, Igor V Grigoriev, Teresa E Pawlowska
Many heritable mutualisms, in which beneficial symbionts are transmitted vertically between host generations, originate as antagonisms with parasite dispersal constrained by the host. Only after the parasite gains control over its transmission is the symbiosis expected to transition from antagonism to mutualism. Here, we explore this prediction in the mutualism between the fungus Rhizopus microsporus (Rm, Mucoromycotina) and a beta-proteobacterium Burkholderia, which controls host asexual reproduction. We show that reproductive addiction of Rm to endobacteria extends to mating, and is mediated by the symbiont gaining transcriptional control of the fungal ras2 gene, which encodes a GTPase central to fungal reproductive development...
November 29, 2017: Nature Communications
Federica Bondino, Elena Magnano, Regina Ciancio, Carla Castellarin Cudia, Alessandro Barla, Elvio Carlino, Flora Yakhou-Harris, Nalin Rupesinghe, Cinzia Cepek
Well-defined sized (5-10 nm) metallic iron nanoparticles (NPs) with body-centered cubic structure encapsulated inside the tip of millimeter-long vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) of uniform length have been investigated with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and soft X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Surface-sensitive and chemically-selective measurements have been used to evaluate the magnetic properties of the encapsulated NPs. The encapsulated Fe NPs display magnetic remanence up to room temperature, low coercivity, high chemical stability and no significant anisotropy...
November 28, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jessica Y Kwan, Reid Griggs, Betsabel Chicana, Caitlin Miller, Andrea Swei
Vector-borne pathogens are increasingly found to interact with the vector's microbiome, influencing disease transmission dynamics. However, the processes that regulate the formation and development of the microbiome are largely unexplored for most tick species, an emerging group of disease vectors. It is not known how much of the tick microbiome is acquired through vertical transmission vs. horizontally from the environment or interactions with bloodmeal sources. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we examined the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus, the vector of Lyme disease in the western USA, across life stages and infection status...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Nosheen Aslam, Abdul Ghaffar, Mohsin Khurshid, Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal
Hepatitis is the most common liver diseases in the Pakistan caused by blood-borne infection of HCV. Viral transmission is frequent through blood contact. Vertical transmission is transfer of disease from mother to infant. The women who are infected with hepatitis C virus RNA are at high risk of infecting their babies. Actual transmission occurs during labor and at time of delivery when blood of both mother and neonate is in contact with each other. Vertical transmission rate is lowered when mother is HCV RN A negative...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kazunori Okamura, Shusaku Kanai, Masaki Hasegawa, Akira Otsuka, Sadaaki Oki
BACKGROUND: The plantar intrinsic foot muscles (PIFMs) contribute to support the medial longitudinal arch. But the functional role of the PIFMs during dynamic activities is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the change in the foot dynamics during gait accompanied with the change in the PIFMs activity to determine the functional role of the PIFMs during gait. METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to the electrical stimulation group (ESG) or control group (CG)...
August 18, 2017: Foot
A Minter, P J Diggle, F Costa, J Childs, A I Ko, M Begon
Infectious diseases frequently have multiple potential routes of intraspecific transmission of pathogens within wildlife and other populations. For pathogens causing zoonotic diseases, knowing whether these transmission routes occur in the wild and their relative importance, is critical for understanding maintenance, improving control measures and ultimately preventing human disease. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the primary reservoir of leptospirosis in the urban slums of Salvador, Brazil. There is biological evidence for potentially three different transmission routes of leptospire infection occurring in the rodent population...
November 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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