Read by QxMD icon Read

Vertical transmission

Shu-Xin Zhang, Li Wang, Ze-Yang Li, Yan Li, Qihuang Gong, Yun-Feng Xiao
The free-space coupling technique provides a promising means to excite high-Q whispering gallery modes in deformed microcavities, but the precise quantification of the coupling efficiency remains challenging because of the non-Lorentzian spectral lineshape in the transmission and the partial collection in emission. Here, we experimentally identify the free-space coupling efficiency by measuring the threshold of stimulated Raman scattering in a slightly deformed microcavity. The measured efficiency is up to 30%...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Bor-Show Tzang, Szu-Yi Chiang, Hsu-Chin Chan, Chung-Hsien Liu, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katarzyna Lebida, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
Experience and learning in adult primary somatosensory cortex are known to affect neuronal circuits by modifying both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Synaptic plasticity phenomena provide a key substrate for cognitive processes, but precise description of the cellular and molecular correlates of learning is hampered by multiplicity of these mechanisms in various projections and in different types of neurons. Herein, we investigated the impact of associative learning on neuronal plasticity in distinct types of postsynaptic neurons by checking the impact of classical conditioning (pairing whisker stroking with tail shock) on the spike timing-dependent plasticity (t-LTP and t-LTD) in the layer IV to II/III vertical pathway of the mouse barrel cortex...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route. Large epidemics of hepatitis E in the developing countries of Asia and Africa are waterborne and spread through contaminated drinking water. The reservoir of HEV in developed countries is believed to be in animals with zoonotic transmission to humans, possibly through direct contact or the consumption of undercooked contaminated meat. HEV transmission through blood and vertical transmission have also been reported.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Inalda Angélica de Souza Ramos, Rafael José da Silva, Thiago Arcoverde Maciel, José Augusto Bastos Afonso da Silva, Otavio Luiz Fidelis, Pierre Castro Soares, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André, Carla Lopes de Mendonça
The transplacental transmission is the primary route of Neospora caninum infection in bovine herds around the world. This study aimed to determine the frequency of transplacental transmission of the parasite in dairy cattle of Agreste region of Pernambuco through serological tests (IFAT and ELISA). Three hundred sixteen serum samples from cows and heifers and their offspring were analyzed. The transplacental transmission rate was 72.22% (13/18) for cows and 69.23% (9/13) for heifers by IFAT. ELISA test showed transplacental transmission rate of 43...
October 10, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Jian-Nan Liu, Zhi-Jun Yu, Li-Meng Liu, Ning-Xin Li, Rong-Rong Wang, Chun-Mian Zhang, Jing-Ze Liu
Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) with significant homology to Francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. Hence, in the current study, we identified a novel Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLEs-Hd) from the tick Haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. Results indicated that FLEs-Hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect vertical transmission in H...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manpreet Singh, Jagpinder Brar
Eggs are nutritious, yet they are a highly perishable commodity like other protein sources such as meat. Even though steps are taken all along the production process of shell eggs, from farm to table, the potential for contamination of the shells and egg contents poses a high risk to consumers. The main sources of contamination can be categorized as vertical transmission, in which the layers can be carriers of pathogens and can pass them on during egg formation, and horizontal transmission, in which environmental factors such as water, feed, layer houses, and personnel are the main source of contamination...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Christie Mayo, Bradley Mullens, E Paul Gibbs, N James MacLachlan
Within Northern California, Culicoides sonorensis is the major vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) and annual infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal (typically July‑November). Our recent studies compare the population dynamics of C. sonorensis midges with occurrence of BTV infection of C. sonorensis and sentinel dairy cattle throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal ('overwintering') periods of BTV activity. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on the sampled farms coincided with rising vernal temperature...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Qian Wang, Linhong Wang, Liwen Fang, Ailing Wang, Xi Jin, Fang Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Yaping Qiao, Sheena G Sullivan, Shannon Rutherford, Lei Zhang
This study investigates the improvement of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in China during 2004-2011. A clinic-based prospective study was conducted among HIV-positive pregnant women and their children in eight counties across China. Associated factors of mother-to-child transmission were analyzed using regression analysis. A total of 1,387 HIV+ pregnant women and 1,377 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. The proportion of pregnant women who received HIV testing increased significantly from 45...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Jacqueline Rivera, Rebecca Olson, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT...
October 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Huazhe Si, Xiaoxu Wang, Wenxi Qian, Zhigang Zhang, Guangyu Li
The rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. However, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. Here, we used sika deer (Cervus nippon) and elk (Cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (SEH) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (ESH). Then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybrid offspring...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T...
October 6, 2016: BMC Immunology
Alya Limayem, Francisco Gonzalez, Andrew Micciche, Edward Haller, Bina Nayak, Shyam Mohapatra
Wastewater-algal biomass is a promising option to biofuel production. However, microbial contaminants constitute a substantial barrier to algal biofuel yield. A series of algal strains, Nannochloris oculata and Chlorella vulgaris samples (n = 30), were purchased from the University of Texas, and were used for both stock flask cultures and flat-panel vertical bioreactors. A number of media were used for isolation and differentiation of potential contaminants according to laboratory standards (CLSI). Conventional PCR amplification was performed followed by 16S rDNA sequencing to identify isolates at the species level...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Dong Won Chun, Tae Kyoung Kim, Duyoung Choi, Elizabeth Caldwell, Young Jin Kim, Jae Cheol Paik, Sungho Jin, Renkun Chen
In this work, vertically aligned Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by magnetically guided metal-assisted directional chemical etching. Using an anodized aluminum oxide template as a shadow mask, nanoscale Ni dot arrays were fabricated on an Si wafer to serve as a mask to protect the Si during the etching. For the magnetically guided chemical etching, we deposited a tri-layer metal catalyst (Au/Fe/Au) in a Swiss-cheese configuration and etched the sample under the magnetic field to improve the directionality of the Si nanowire etching and increase the etching rate along the vertical direction...
November 11, 2016: Nanotechnology
Archana Kamble, Bhavesh Sinha, Ganesh Agawane, Sharad Vanalakar, In Young Kim, Jin Young Kim, Sampat S Kale, Pramod Patil, Jin Hyeok Kim
The sulfur ion concentration dependent morphological evolution and its subsequent effect on photo-electrochemical properties of chemically synthesized CdS thin films have been systematically investigated. The plausible growth mechanism for the morphological evolution of CdS thin films due to a change in sulfur ion concentration has been proposed. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) reveal that the morphology of CdS thin films has been changed from spherical grains to vertically aligned nanoflakes by systematic control of sulfur ion concentration...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Ieda P Ribeiro, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Rosilainy Surubi Fernandes, Stéphanie Silva Campos, Keli Antunes Barbosa da Silva, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Myrna C Bonaldo, Patrícia Brasil, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae...
October 3, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
C Corbin, E R Heyworth, J Ferrari, G D D Hurst
Heritable microbes represent an important component of the biology, ecology and evolution of many plants, animals and fungi, acting as both parasites and partners. In this review, we examine how heritable symbiont-host interactions may alter host thermal tolerance, and how the dynamics of these interactions may more generally be altered by thermal environment. Obligate symbionts, those required by their host, are considered to represent a thermally sensitive weak point for their host, associated with accumulation of deleterious mutations...
October 5, 2016: Heredity
Ferenc Liebig, Andreas F Thunemann, Joachim Koetz
The mechanism of nanotriangle formation in multivesicular vesicles (MMV) is investigated by using time dependent SAXS measurements in combination with UV-vis spectroscopy, light and transmission electron microscopy. In the first time period 6.5 nm sized spherical gold nanoparticles are formed inside of the vesicles, which build up soft nanoparticle aggregates. In situ SAXS experiments show a linear increase of the volume and molar mass of nanotriangles in the second time period. The volume growth rate of the triangles is 16...
October 3, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Christos Triantos, Christos Konstantakis, Paraskeui Tselekouni, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Spilios Manolakopoulos
Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Vincent Consonni, Laetitia Rapenne, Gilles Renou, Hervé Roussel, Lionel Gérard, Ramón Cuscó, Lluís Artús, Régis André, Edgar F Rauch
Identifying and mapping the crystalline phases and orientation relationships on the local scale in core-shell ZnO nanowire heterostructures are of primary importance to improve the interface quality, which governs the performances of the nanoscale devices. However, this represents a major difficulty, especially when the expected polytypes exhibit very similar properties as in the case of CdSe. In the present work, we address that issue in ZnO nanowire heterostructures involving a uniform and highly conformal CdSe shell grown by molecular beam epitaxy...
September 30, 2016: Nanotechnology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"