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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453423/unexpected-mixed-mode-transmission-and-moderate-genetic-regulation-of-symbiodinium-communities-in-a-brooding-coral
#1
Kate M Quigley, Patricia A Warner, Line K Bay, Bette L Willis
Determining the extent to which Symbiodinium communities in corals are inherited versus environmentally acquired is fundamental to understanding coral resilience and to predicting coral responses to stressors like warming oceans that disrupt this critical endosymbiosis. We examined the fidelity with which Symbiodinium communities in the brooding coral Seriatopora hystrix are vertically transmitted and the extent to which communities are genetically regulated, by genotyping the symbiont communities within 60 larvae and their parents (9 maternal and 45 paternal colonies) using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 locus...
February 17, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442371/good-daphnia-parents-do-not-control-the-offspring-microbiome
#2
Angela E Douglas
In Focus: Mushegian, A. A., Walser, J. -C., Sullam, K. E., & Ebert, D. (2018). The microbiota of diapause: How host-microbe associations are formed after dormancy in an aquatic crustacean. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 400-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12709. All animals are colonized by micro-organisms, most of which are benign or beneficial. Where do these micro-organisms come from? Theory predicts that micro-organisms which are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring are especially likely to be beneficial to the host, while horizontally acquired micro-organisms are opportunistic and more variable in their impact on host performance...
March 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435117/replication-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-the-ovary-and-promotion-of-oocyte-apoptosis-in-rabbits-infected-with-hev-4
#3
Junqing An, Tianlong Liu, Ruiping She, Qiaoxing Wu, Jijing Tian, Ruihan Shi, Wenzhuo Hao, Xinxin Ren, Yue Yang, Yiyao Lu, Yifei Yang, Yuanheng Wu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can induce infertility and miscarriage in pregnant women and infect neonates through vertical transmission. However, the mechanism of infertility and vertical transmission remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the replication of HEV in the ovary and structural and molecular changes induced by HEV after intraperitoneal injection of HEV in rabbits. Positive- and negative-strand HEV RNA was detected in the ovaries at 28 and 49 days post-infection. Positive HEV open reading frames 2 and 3 signals were observed in the ovaries by immunohistochemistry staining...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429861/-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-vertical-transmission-of-chagas-disease
#4
María Isabel González-Tomé, Milagros García López-Hortelano, Laura Fregonese
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429621/rampant-host-switching-shaped-the-termite-gut-microbiome
#5
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Carsten Dietrich, Jan Šobotník, Sarah Sidek, Yves Roisin, Andreas Brune, Theodore A Evans
The gut microbiota of animals exert major effects on host biology [1]. Although horizontal transfer is generally considered the prevalent route for the acquisition of gut bacteria in mammals [2], some bacterial lineages have co-speciated with their hosts on timescales of several million years [3]. Termites harbor a complex gut microbiota, and their advanced social behavior provides the potential for long-term vertical symbiont transmission, and co-evolution of gut symbionts and host [4-6]. Despite clear evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota of termites [7], a consensus on how microbial communities were assembled during termite diversification has yet to be reached...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427495/hepatitis-b-who-and-when-to-treat
#6
REVIEW
Jiannis Vlachogiannakos, George V Papatheodoridis
As current treatment options almost never achieve eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the most realistic goal for HBV treatment is persistent inhibition of viral replication and ALT normalization. Thus, the decision to start treatment should be based on careful patient selection and individualized decisions. Treatment is generally indicated in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA >2000 IU/mL, elevated ALT and/or at least moderate histological lesions, while all patients with cirrhosis and detectable HBV DNA should be treated...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423229/recognition-criteria-for-occupational-cancers-in-relation-to-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-in-korea
#7
REVIEW
Hogil Kim, Yun Kyung Chung, Inah Kim
The goal of this study was to review the scientific basis for the recognition of occupational cancer, in relation to hepatitis viral infections in Korea. Most Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in Korea occur as vertical infections, but these are decreasing rapidly due to vaccination. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be transmitted through parenteral routes, but the transmission route is often unclear. Most occupational infections of hepatitis virus involve accidental injuries of medical institution workers while using virus-contaminated medical devices...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422954/genetic-exchange-in-eukaryotes-through-horizontal-transfer-connected-by-the-mobilome
#8
REVIEW
Gabriel Luz Wallau, Cristina Vieira, Élgion Lúcio Silva Loreto
Background: All living species contain genetic information that was once shared by their common ancestor. DNA is being inherited through generations by vertical transmission (VT) from parents to offspring and from ancestor to descendant species. This process was considered the sole pathway by which biological entities exchange inheritable information. However, Horizontal Transfer (HT), the exchange of genetic information by other means than parents to offspring, was discovered in prokaryotes along with strong evidence showing that it is a very important process by which prokaryotes acquire new genes...
2018: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420776/cladogenesis-and-genomic-streamlining-in-extracellular-endosymbionts-of-tropical-stink-bugs
#9
Alejandro Otero-Bravo, Shana Goffredi, Zakee L Sabree
Phytophagous stink bugs are globally-distributed and many harbor vertically-inherited bacterial symbionts that are extracellular, yet little is known about how the symbiont's genomes have evolved under this transmission strategy. Genome reduction is common in insect intracellular symbionts but limited genome sampling of the extracellular symbionts of distantly-related stink bugs has precluded inferring patterns of extracellular symbiont genome evolution. To address this knowledge gap, we completely sequenced the genomes of the uncultivable bacterial symbionts of four neotropical stink bugs of the Edessa genus...
February 6, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420571/the-bacterial-community-associated-with-the-sheep-gastrointestinal-nematode-parasite-haemonchus-contortus
#10
Gajenathirin Sinnathamby, Gemma Henderson, Saleh Umair, Peter Janssen, Ross Bland, Heather Simpson
Culture-independent methods were used to study the microbiota of adult worms, third-stage larvae and eggs, both in faeces and laid in vitro, of Haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of the abomasa of ruminants which is a major cause of production losses and ill-health. Bacteria were identified in eggs, the female reproductive tract and the gut of adult and third-stage larvae (L3). PCR amplification of 16S rRNA sequences, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries were used to compare the composition of the microbial communities of the different life-cycle stages of the parasites, as well as parasites and their natural environments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411455/can-social-partnerships-influence-the-microbiome-insights-from-ant-farmers-and-their-trophobiont-mutualists
#11
A B F Ivens, A Gadau, E T Kiers, D J C Kronauer
Mutualistic interactions with microbes have played a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal hosts. However, it is unclear what factors are most important in influencing particular host-microbe associations. While closely related animal species may have more similar microbiota than distantly related species due to phylogenetic contingencies, social partnerships with other organisms, such as those in which one animal farms another, may also influence an organism's symbiotic microbiome. We studied a mutualistic network of Brachymyrmex and Lasius ants farming several honeydew-producing Prociphilus aphids and Rhizoecus mealybugs to test whether the mutualistic microbiomes of these interacting insects are primarily correlated with their phylogeny or with their shared social partnerships...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410675/what-is-there-in-seeds-vertically-transmitted-endophytic-resources-for-sustainable-improvement-in-plant-growth
#12
REVIEW
Raheem Shahzad, Abdul L Khan, Saqib Bilal, Sajjad Asaf, In-Jung Lee
Phytobeneficial microbes, particularly endophytes, such as fungi and bacteria, are concomitant partners of plants throughout its developmental stages, including seed germination, root and stem growth, and fruiting. Endophytic microbes have been identified in plants that grow in a wide array of habitats; however, seed-borne endophytic microbes have not been fully explored yet. Seed-borne endophytes are of great interest because of their vertical transmission; their potential to produce various phytohormones, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, and other secondary metabolites; and improve plant biomass and yield under biotic and abiotic stresses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401985/homogeneous-spectral-broadening-of-pulsed-terahertz-quantum-cascade-lasers-by-radio-frequency-modulation
#13
W J Wan, H Li, J C Cao
The authors present an experimental investigation of radio frequency modulation on pulsed terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting around 4.3 THz. The QCL chip used in this work is based on a resonant phonon design which is able to generate a 1.2 W peak power at 10 K from a 400-µm-wide and 4-mm-long laser with a single plasmon waveguide. To enhance the radio frequency modulation efficiency and significantly broaden the terahertz spectra, the QCLs are also processed into a double-metal waveguide geometry with a Silicon lens out-coupler to improve the far-field beam quality...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395519/identification-of-suitable-adjuvant-for-vaccine-formulation-with-the-neospora-caninum-antigen-ncsrs2
#14
Amanda Fernandes Pinheiro, Bárbara Couto Roloff, Angelita da Silveira Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Renato Andreotti Silva, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite
The parasite Neospora caninum is the main cause of abortion in cattle in many countries around the world, so a vaccine is a rational approach method for the control of the disease. An effective vaccine should be able to prevent both, the horizontal and vertical transmission of N. caninum. In this study, the immune vaccinal response of the recombinant protein rNcSRS2 of N. caninum expressed in Pichia pastoris and formulated with water-in-oil emulsion, xanthan gum, and alum hydroxide was assessed in an experimental murine model...
January 23, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394439/development-of-the-caveman-human-body-model-validation-of-lower-extremity-sub-injurious-response-to-vertical-accelerative-loading
#15
Kent Butz, Chad Spurlock, Rajarshi Roy, Cameron Bell, Paul Barrett, Aaron Ward, Xudong Xiao, Allen Shirley, Colin Welch, Kevin Lister
Improving injury prediction accuracy and fidelity for mounted Warfighters has become an area of focus for the U.S. military in response to improvised explosive device (IED) use in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) has historically been used for crew injury analysis, it is only capable of predicting a few select skeletal injuries. The Computational Anthropomorphic Virtual Experiment Man (CAVEMAN) human body model is being developed to expand the injury analysis capability to both skeletal and soft tissues...
November 2017: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391071/natural-vertical-transmission-of-dengue-virus-in-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Victor Henrique Ferreira-de-Lima, Tamara Nunes Lima-Camara
Dengue is of great concern in various parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical countries where the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are present. The transmission of this virus to humans, by what is known as horizontal transmission, occurs through the bite of infected females of one or other of the two mosquito species. Furthermore, an infected female or male parent, by what is known as vertical transmission, can transfer this arbovirus to some part of their offspring. Considering that vertical transmission may represent an important strategy for maintaining the circulation of arboviruses in nature, the verification of this phenomenon worldwide is extremely important and necessary to better understand its dynamic...
February 1, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390687/soft-x-ray-spectroscopy-of-high-pressure-liquid
#17
Ruimin Qiao, Yujian Xia, Xuefei Feng, James Macdougall, John Pepper, Kevin Armitage, Jason Borsos, Kevin G Knauss, Namhey Lee, Arnaud Allézy, Benjamin Gilbert, Alastair A MacDowell, Yi-Sheng Liu, Per-Anders Glans, Xuhui Sun, Weilun Chao, Jinghua Guo
We describe a new experimental technique that allows for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies (∼100-1000 eV) of high pressure liquid (∼100 bars). We achieve this through a liquid cell with a 100 nm-thick Si3N4 membrane window, which is sandwiched by two identical O-rings for vacuum sealing. The thin Si3N4 membrane allows soft x-rays to penetrate, while separating the high-pressure liquid under investigation from the vacuum required for soft x-ray transmission and detection. The burst pressure of the Si3N4 membrane increases with decreasing size and more specifically is inversely proportional to the side length of the square window...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386359/zika-virus-related-neurotropic-flaviviruses-infect-human-placental-explants-and-cause-fetal-demise-in-mice
#18
Derek J Platt, Amber M Smith, Nitin Arora, Michael S Diamond, Carolyn B Coyne, Jonathan J Miner
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. We hypothesized that ZIKV is not unique among arboviruses in its ability to cause congenital infection. To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice...
January 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384053/viral-infections-in-pregnancy-a-focus-on-ebola-virus
#19
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383735/transfusion-transmitted-and-community-acquired-babesiosis-in-new-york-2004-to-2015
#20
Jeanne V Linden, Melissa A Prusinski, Lauren A Crowder, Laura Tonnetti, Susan L Stramer, Debra A Kessler, Jennifer White, Beth Shaz, Danuta Olkowska
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic infection most frequently caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The pathogen is usually tickborne, but may also be transfusion or vertically transmitted. Healthy persons, including blood donors, may be asymptomatic and unaware they are infected. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for symptomatic disease. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All reported community-acquired babesiosis cases in New York from 2004 to 2015 were evaluated, enumerated, and characterized...
January 31, 2018: Transfusion
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