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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829340/effect-of-molybdenum-disulfide-nanoribbon-on-quantum-transport-of-graphene
#1
Guanyi Gao, Zhongyao Li, Mingyan Chen, Yiqun Xie, Yin Wang
Based on the density functional theory method in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, the quantum transport properties in graphene-MoS₂ vertical heterojunction were investigated in this work. The leads are boron doped graphene and seamlessly connect to the graphene nanoribbon in central scattering region. Although there is a weak graphene-MoS₂ interaction, molybdenum disulfide can smooth the electrostatic potential and enlarge the transport properties of the whole device. However, another competitive factor is that the edge states of the MoS₂ nanoribbon...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828177/novel-bacteriocyte-associated-pleomorphic-symbiont-of-the-grain-pest-beetle-rhyzopertha-dominica-coleoptera-bostrichidae
#2
Genta Okude, Ryuichi Koga, Toshinari Hayashi, Yudai Nishide, Xian-Ying Meng, Naruo Nikoh, Akihiro Miyanoshita, Takema Fukatsu
BACKGROUND: The lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a stored-product pest beetle. Early histological studies dating back to 1930s have reported that R. dominica and other bostrichid species possess a pair of oval symbiotic organs, called the bacteriomes, in which the cytoplasm is densely populated by pleomorphic symbiotic bacteria of peculiar rosette-like shape. However, the microbiological nature of the symbiont has remained elusive. RESULTS: Here we investigated the bacterial symbiont of R...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827643/three-dimensional-plasmonic-ag-tio2-nanocomposite-architectures-on-flexible-substrates-for-visible-light-photocatalytic-activity
#3
Zhi-Jun Zhao, Soon Hyoung Hwang, Sohee Jeon, Boyeon Hwang, Joo-Yun Jung, Jihye Lee, Sang-Hu Park, Jun-Ho Jeong
In this study, a periodic three-dimensional (3D) Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite architecture of nanowires was fabricated on a flexible substrate to enhance the plasmonic photocatalytic activity of the composite. Layer-by-layer nanofabrication based on nanoimprint lithography, vertical e-beam evaporation, nanotransfer, and nanowelding was applied in a new method to create different 3D Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite architectures. The fabricated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, focused ion-beam imaging, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820896/a-strategy-for-scaling-up-access-to-comprehensive-care-in-adults-with-chagas-disease-in-endemic-countries-the-bolivian-chagas-platform
#4
Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Jimy Pinto, Lourdes Ortiz, Jareth Sánchez, Wilson García, Ruth Saravia, Mirko-R Cortez, Silvia Moriana, Enric Grau, Daniel Lozano, Joaquim Gascon, Faustino Torrico
BACKGROUND: Bolivia has the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (CD) in the world (6.1%), with more than 607,186 people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most of them adults. In Bolivia CD has been declared a national priority. In 2009, the Chagas National Program (ChNP) had neither a protocol nor a clear directive for diagnosis and treatment of adults. Although programs had been implemented for congenital transmission and for acute cases, adults remained uncovered. Moreover, health professionals were not aware of treatment recommendations aimed at this population, and research on CD was limited; it was difficult to increase awareness of the disease, understand the challenges it presented, and adapt strategies to cope with it...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#5
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818677/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-serum-markers-in-a-cohort-of-pregnant-women-from-southern-italy
#6
Tindaro Lembo, Francesca Saffioti, Benito Chiofalo, Roberta Granese, Roberto Filomia, Roberta Grasso, Onofrio Triolo, Giovanni Raimondo
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission is still considered a major factor in the spread of hepatitis viruses. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in reproductive-age women are limited even in areas like the South of Italy where both viruses had been widespread. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV serum markers in a large cohort of pregnant women from Southern Italy. METHODS: Data concerning 7558 pregnant women consecutively admitted to an Obstetric Division of a Sicilian University Hospital over a six-year period (January 2010-December 2015) were retrospectively collected from clinical notes...
August 1, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818044/effects-of-the-vertically-transmitted-microsporidian-facilispora-margolisi-and-the-parasiticide-emamectin-benzoate-on-salmon-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#7
Jordan D Poley, Ben J G Sutherland, Mark D Fast, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. RESULTS: Vertical transmission of F...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#8
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815299/morphological-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-microsporidium-nosema-sp-isolated-from-rice-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-walker-lepidoptera-pyralidae
#9
Dongxu Xing, Qiong Yang, Sentai Liao, Lanzhi Han, Qingrong Li, Chaoyi Zhao, Yang Xiao, Mingqiang Ye
A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C...
August 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/the-impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-co-administration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#10
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813477/colonization-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnant-women-over-a-6-year-period-in-dongguan-china
#11
Wenjing Ji, Lihua Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Weiqing Yang, Junjian Chen, Jiamin Wang, Zhiqin Cheng, Xin Wang, Xuehai Zhu, Jianwen Wang, Haiqing Wang, Juan Huang, Ning Liang, David J McIver
This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811517/heritability-of-the-symbiodinium-community-in-vertically-and-horizontally-transmitting-broadcast-spawning-corals
#12
Kate M Quigley, Bette L Willis, Line K Bay
The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808558/the-impact-of-parasitism-on-resource-allocation-in-a-fungal-host-the-case-of-cryphonectria-parasitica-and-its-mycovirus-cryphonectria-hypovirus-1
#13
Jérémie Brusini, Marta L Wayne, Alain Franc, Cécile Robin
Parasites are known to profoundly affect resource allocation in their host. In order to investigate the effects of Cryphonectria Hypovirus 1 (CHV1) on the life-history traits of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, an infection matrix was completed with the cross-infection of six fungal isolates by six different viruses. Mycelial growth, asexual sporulation, and spore size were measured in the 36 combinations, for which horizontal and vertical transmission of the viruses was also assessed. As expected by life-history theory, a significant negative correlation was found between host somatic growth and asexual reproduction in virus-free isolates...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808313/controllable-oscillatory-lateral-coupling-in-a-waveguide-microdisk-resonator-system
#14
Fang Bo, Şahin Kaya Özdemir, Faraz Monifi, Jing Zhang, Guoquan Zhang, Jingjun Xu, Lan Yang
We report a theoretical and experimental study of coupling between a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microdisk resonator and a fiber taper which exchange energies at two distinct regions. We observe an oscillatory behavior in the coupling strength as a function of the distance between the two coupling regions when a fiber taper is moved laterally above the resonator at fixed vertical distance. This oscillation is clearly seen in the linewidth of the resonance as well as in the on-resonance transmission. A theoretical model considering for two-point coupling successfully explains the experimental observations as being a result of the interference between the light fields coupled into and out of the resonator at two distinct regions and the light transmitted through the waveguide...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#15
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805642/hytrosaviruses-current-status-and-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Henry M Kariithi, Irene K Meki, Drion G Boucias, Adly Mm Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) are entomopathogenic dsDNA, enveloped viruses that replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of the adult dipterans, Glossina spp (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV). Although belonging to the same virus family (Hytrosaviridae), SGHVs have distinct morphologies and pathobiologies. Two GpSGHV strains potentially account for the differential pathologies in lab-bred tsetse. New data suggest incorporation of host-derived cellular proteins and lipids into mature SGHVs. In addition to within the SGs, MdSGHV undergoes limited replication in the corpora allata, potentially disrupting hormone biosynthesis, and GpSGHV replicates in the milk glands providing a transmission conduit to progeny tsetse...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803905/azithromycin-treatment-is-able-to-control-the-infection-by-two-genotypes-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-human-trophoblast-bewo-cells
#17
Mayara Ribeiro, Priscila Silva Franco, Janice Buiate Lopes-Maria, Mariana Bodini Angeloni, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Angelica de Oliveira Gomes, Andressa Silva Castro, Rafaela José da Silva, Fernanda Chaves de Oliveira, Iliana Claudia Balga Milian, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Francesca Ietta, José Roberto Mineo, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro
Trophoblast infection by Toxoplasma gondii plays a pivotal role in the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. Here, we investigate whether the antibiotic therapy with azithromycin, spiramycin and sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine are effective to control trophoblast infection by two Brazilian T. gondii genotypes, TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2. Two antibiotic protocols were evaluated, as follow: i) pre-treatment of T. gondii-tachyzoites with selected antibiotics prior trophoblast infection and ii) post-treatment of infected trophoblasts...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803872/parallel-trajectories-of-genetic-and-linguistic-admixture-in-a-genetically-admixed-creole-population
#18
Paul Verdu, Ethan M Jewett, Trevor J Pemberton, Noah A Rosenberg, Marlyse Baptista
Joint analyses of genes and languages, both of which are transmitted in populations by descent with modification-genes vertically by Mendel's laws, language via combinations of vertical, oblique, and horizontal processes [1-4]-provide an informative approach for human evolutionary studies [5-10]. Although gene-language analyses have employed extensive data on individual genetic variation [11-23], their linguistic data have not considered corresponding long-recognized [24] variability in individual speech patterns, or idiolects...
August 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803361/toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum-induce-different-host-cell-responses-at-proteome-wide-phosphorylation-events-a-step-forward-for-uncovering-the-biological-differences-between-these-closely-related-parasites
#19
Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan, Dong Xia, Stuart Armstrong, Nadine Randle, Jonathan M Wastling
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites and tissue cyst-forming Coccidia of the phylum Apicomplexa. There are remarkable similarities between the morphology, genomes and transcriptomes of both parasites. Toxoplasma is zoonotic, with a wide host range and is mainly transmitted horizontally between its definitive host, the cat, and its intermediate hosts. Neospora causes disease within a narrow host range and with reduced virulence potential to the hosts. The dog is the definitive host of Neospora and its epidemiology in cattle mainly depends on vertical transmission...
August 12, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799825/progress-toward-elimination-of-perinatal-hiv-transmission-in-kenya-analysis-of-early-infant-diagnosis-data
#20
Dunstan Achwoka, Justin Mandala, Mutugi Muriithi, Yanwu Zeng, Mario Chen, Rebecca Dirks, Martin Sirengo, Rose Wafula, Kwasi Torpey
Interrupting vertical transmission of HIV from mothers to infants provides opportunity to transform the HIV/AIDS epidemic by eliminating new infections among children. We estimate mother-to-child transmission rates of infants born to known HIV-positive mothers offered prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions and provide an indication of Kenya's progress toward elimination of perinatal transmission. We obtained from the Kenya National Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) database, all 131,451 DNA polymerase chain reaction test results of HIV-exposed infants aged 0-18 months who had dried blood spot samples taken between January 2008 and October 2013...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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