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Vertical transmission

Yan Zhang, Ping Wang, Lixin Guo, Wei Wang, Hongxin Tian
The average bit error rate (ABER) performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing-based free-space optical (FSO) system with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture has been investigated over atmospheric turbulence considering channel estimation and space-time coding. The impact of different types of space-time coding, modulation orders, turbulence strengths, receive antenna numbers on the transmission performance of this OAM-FSO system is also taken into account. On the basis of the proposed system model, the analytical expressions of the received signals carried by the k-th OAM mode of the n-th receive antenna for the vertical bell labs layered space-time (V-Blast) and space-time block codes (STBC) are derived, respectively...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Meng Liu, Zhen Tian, Xueqian Zhang, Jianqiang Gu, Chunmei Ouyang, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang
We experimentally demonstrate that a coupled metamaterial composed of sub-wavelength split-ring-resonators (SRRs) and closed-ring-resonators (CRRs) can tailor the plasmon-induced-transparency (PIT) resonances when the external electric field is parallel to the gaps of SRRs. Rotating or moving SRRs in vertical direction plays a critical role in the EIT functionality, while an excellent robust performance can be acquired via moving SRRs in the horizontal direction. Based on the results, a polarization-independent and polarization-dependent planar metamaterial are designed, fabricated and measured...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
Xiao Xu, Lin Ma, Shoulin Jiang, Zuyuan He
We demonstrate circular-core 1550 nm single-mode polymer waveguides with a graded-index profile fabricated by commercially available UV-curable epoxies using so-called mosquito method. The relative index difference ∆n of the waveguides was designed to be 0.46% in order to guarantee both single-mode operation and good compatibility with standard single-mode fiber. Accurate refractive index tuning of monomer for core construction was realized by mixing the core and cladding epoxies properly. The core pitch of the waveguides was chosen to be 50 μm to satisfy the requirements for high-density on-board optical interconnects...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, M O Adewumi, F O C Faleye, A Akere, C E Omoruyi, A O Ogunwale, C C Uttah, M A Oketade, J A Adeniji
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern in developing countries that has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Vertical transmission of HBV from mother to child has been identified as a major factor leading to chronicity with attendant liver conditions, especially in poor socioeconomic settings. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of serological HBV markers among pregnant women in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria and to determine the implications for perinatal HBV transmission. This study revealed the presence of varied HBV serological patterns of infection or immunity among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria, and thus the risk of mother to child transmission...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Zijun Guo, Yongyue Lu, Fan Yang, Ling Zeng, Guangwen Liang, Yijuan Xu
Symbionts are associated with many insects and play several multifunctional roles in insect-microorganism mutualistic relationships. The trichlorphon-degrading symbiont Citrobacter freundii (CF-BD) of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was recently discovered; however, its intraspecies transmission pathway among flies remains unknown. Here, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR detection, and a series of ingenious experiments to reveal that CF-BD was aggregated in rectal pads associated with the female ovipositor, and the CF-BD symbiont was vertically transmitted via egg surface contamination...
October 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
André da Silva Xavier, Ana Paula Oliveira de Barros, Márcio Tadeu Godinho, Francisco Murilo Zerbini, Flávia de Oliveira Souza, Fernanda Prieto Bruckner, Poliane Alfenas Zerbini
In the present work, we report a novel mycovirus that infects Alternaria alternata. The mycovirus has isometric particles of approximately 30nm and the genome consists of two molecules of dsRNA, dsRNA1 with 1833bp, encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and dsRNA2, with 1680bp in length, encoding the putative capsid protein (CP). RdRp analysis revealed low amino acid identity with RdRps with species in the genus Gammapartitivirus, and the alignment of the RdRp revealed all the six conserved motifs present in members of Partitiviridae...
October 9, 2017: Virus Research
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Soheil Tavakolpour, Mohammad Darvishi, Hajar Sadat Mirsafaei, Mojtaba Ghasemiadl
BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age who have developed chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, especially HBeAg-positive highly viraemic pregnant women, are largely responsible for the familial transmission of the infection. Therefore, choosing the most effective and safest antiviral medications to manage pregnant CHB patients is of crucial importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through September 2017, for all the journal articles possessing original results regarding treatment of CHB pregnant women with any nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapies, including lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), and tenofovir (TDF)...
October 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases
Wenzong Xu, Bingliang Zhang, Xiaoling Wang, Guisong Wang, Ding Ding
The co-precipitation method was used to synthesize a hybrid with MgAl-layered double hydroxide loaded graphene (RGO-LDH). CuMoO4 was then introduced onto the surface of RGO-LDH to prepare a hybrid with CuMoO4 modified RGO-LDH (RGO-LDH/CuMoO4). The composition, structure and morphology of RGO-LDH/CuMoO4 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Laser raman spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that the hybrid of RGO-LDH/CuMoO4 had been successfully prepared...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Max R Salick, Michael F Wells, Kevin Eggan, Ajamete Kaykas
The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in susceptible populations has led to an abrupt increase in microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental conditions in newborn infants. While mosquitos are the main route of viral transmission, it has also been shown to spread via sexual contact and vertical mother-to-fetus transmission. In this latter case of transmission, due to the unique viral tropism of ZIKV, the virus is believed to predominantly target the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the developing brain. Here a method for modeling ZIKV infection, and the resulting microcephaly, that occur when human cerebral organoids are exposed to live ZIKV is described...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Zoubeida Al Yahfoufi
AIM: Periodontal diseases are associated with microorganisms rich in Gram-negative species. Several studies have indicated the presence of few a periodontopathic microorganisms in the same family. A parent with severe adult periodontitis, who is infected with bacteria associated with periodontal disease, may function as a source of infection. Their children may be at a greater risk to become colonized with bacteria. The purpose of this investigation was (1) to explore the presence of three bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Prevotella intermedia (PI), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA) in the same Lebanese family and (2) to study the clinical destruction in the same family and their relations as members of this family due to the presence of PG...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
James Blain Johnston, Joss N Reimer, John L Wylie, Jared Bullard
OBJECTIVES: HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) has been available in Manitoba since 2008. This study evaluated the effectiveness of POCT at identifying individuals with previously unknown HIV status, its effects on clinical outcomes and the characteristics of the populations reached. METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted for individuals who received HIV POCT from 2011 to 2014. Time to linkage to care and viral load suppression were compared between individuals who tested positive for HIV using POCT and controls identified as positive through standard screening...
October 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Robin W Warne, Lucas Kirschman, Lydia Zeglin
Exploration of the importance of developmental windows for microbial colonization in diverse animal taxa, and tests of how these shape both animal microbiomes as well as host phenotypes promise to shed needed light on host-microbe interactions. The aims of this study were to explore how gut microbiota diversity of larval amphibians varies among species and across ontogeny, and to test if manipulation of gut colonization can reveal how microbiomes develop. We found that gut microbiomes differ among species and change across larval ontogeny, with distinctive differences between larvae, metamorphic animals, and juvenile frogs...
July 26, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Sabrina Duranti, Chiara Ferrario, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Throughout the human life, the gut microbiota interacts with us in a number of different ways, thereby influencing our health status. The acquisition of such an interactive gut microbiota commences at birth. Medical and environmental factors including diet, antibiotic exposure and mode of delivery are major factors that shape the composition of the microbial communities in the infant gut. Among the most abundant members of the infant microbiota are species belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus, which are believed to confer beneficial effects upon their host...
October 5, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Georg Haberfehlner, Franz-Philipp Schmidt, Gernot Schaffernak, Anton Hörl, Andreas Trügler, Andreas Hohenau, Ferdinand Hofer, Joachim R Krenn, Ulrich Hohenester, Gerald Kothleitner
Plasmonic gap modes provide the ultimate confinement of optical fields. Demanding high spatial resolution, the direct imaging of these modes was only recently achieved by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). However, conventional 2D STEM-EELS is only sensitive to components of the photonic local density of states (LDOS) parallel to the electron trajectory. It is thus insensitive to specific gap modes, a restriction that was lifted with the introduction of tomographic 3D EELS imaging...
October 10, 2017: Nano Letters
Chean Yeah Yong, Swee Keong Yeap, Abdul Rahman Omar, Wen Siang Tan
Nodaviruses are small bipartite RNA viruses which belong to the family of Nodaviridae. They are categorized into alpha-nodavirus, which infects insects, and beta-nodavirus, which infects fishes. Another distinct group of nodavirus infects shrimps and prawns, which has been proposed to be categorized as gamma-nodavirus. Our current review focuses mainly on recent studies performed on nodaviruses. Nodavirus can be transmitted vertically and horizontally. Recent outbreaks have been reported in China, Indonesia, Singapore and India, affecting the aquaculture industry...
2017: PeerJ
Amelia Brandt, Óscar Serrano Oria, Mustapha Kallon, Alessandra N Bazzano
Optimal breastfeeding is of vital importance to infant and child health and has been adopted by countries as a standard recommendation. However, in the context of an infectious disease outbreak, especially when the disease is poorly understood, policy makers must balance the benefits of breastfeeding against the risk of disease transmission through breastfeeding. During the 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone, the development of correct and consistent messaging about infant feeding and nutrition programming was considerably delayed by numerous challenges...
September 27, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
Nianqiang Li, H Susanto, B Cemlyn, I D Henning, M J Adams
We report on a master and slave configuration consisting of two optically pumped spin-vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for chaos synchronization and secure communication. Under appropriate conditions, high-quality chaos synchronization is achieved. We propose two encryption schemes, where either the pump magnitude or polarization is modulated. The results show that these allow for Gb/s transmission of secure data, but exhibit different features: one indicates that the message can be recovered by the total intensity, but not the polarization components, whereas the other shows that the message can be better or exclusively retrieved from the polarization components at high bit rates...
September 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Yiska Weisblum, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Zichria Zakay-Rones, Olesya Vorontsov, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, Yuval Nevo, David Stockheim, Simcha Yagel, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection, associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disabilities and intrauterine growth restriction. Yet, our current understanding of the mechanisms modulating trans-placental HCMV transmission has remained poor. The placenta, given its critical function in protecting the fetus, has evolved effective yet largely uncharacterized innate immune barriers against invading pathogens. Here we show that the intrinsic cellular restriction factor APOBEC3A (A3A) is profoundly upregulated following ex vivo HCMV infection in human decidual tissues - constituting the maternal aspect of the placenta...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
Santiago Jiménez de Ory, María Isabel González-Tomé, Claudia Fortuny, Maria Jose Mellado, Pere Soler-Palacin, Matilde Bustillo, José Tomas Ramos, Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Luisa Navarro
Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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