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Vertical transmission

Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pomar Léo, Malinger Gustavo, Benoist Guillaume, Carles Gabriel, Ville Yves, Rousset Dominique, Hcini Najeh, Pomar Céline, Jolivet Anne, Lambert Véronique
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the present study were to establish the existence of significant differences in the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) anomalies (including microcephaly), signs of congenital infection, or foetal loss between Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected and non-infected pregnant women in western French Guiana. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted between January 1(st) and July 15(th) 2016. We evaluated the clinical and foetal ultrasound (US) examinations of 301 pregnant women with biological confirmation of ZIKV infection and 399 pregnant women who were negative for ZIKV infection...
January 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Izabel Cristina Hoffmann, Wendel Mombaque Dos Santos, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Sonia Maria Oliveira de Barros
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals need to instill the process of prevention, control and treatment of people infected with HIV into care practice. Through maintaining preventive treatment among HIV-infected pregnant women, it has been demonstrated that prophylactic antiretroviral therapy, scheduled cesarean section and the prohibition of breastfeeding significantly reduce vertical HIV transmission. This study aimed to assess the rates of vertical HIV transmission in a specialized service and identify the factors associated with it...
November 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Ruijia Wang, Jie Chen, Xing Wang, Bing Sun
Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal...
January 9, 2017: Sensors
Mizue Naito, Alessandro Desirò, Jonathan B Gonzalez, Gang Tao, Joseph B Morton, Paola Bonfante, Teresa E Pawlowska
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, phylum Glomeromycota) are symbionts of most terrestrial plants. They commonly harbour endobacteria of a largely unknown biology, referred to as MRE (Mollicutes/mycoplasma-related endobacteria). Here, we propose to accommodate MRE in the novel genus 'Candidatus Moeniiplasma.' Phylogeny reconstructions based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences cluster 'Ca. Moeniiplasma' with representatives of the class Mollicutes, whereas phylogenies derived from amino acid sequences of 19 genes indicate that it is a discrete lineage sharing ancestry with the members of the family Mycoplasmataceae...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Alexander O Frolov, Marina N Malysheva, Anna I Ganyukova, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Alexei Y Kostygov
Blastocrithidia papi sp. n. is a cyst-forming trypanosomatid parasitizing firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). It is a member of the Blastocrithidia clade and a very close relative of B. largi, to which it is almost identical through its SSU rRNA gene sequence. However, considering the SL RNA gene these two species represent quite distinct, not even related typing units. Morphological analysis of the new species revealed peculiar or even unique features, which may be useful for future taxonomic revision of the genus Blastocrithidia...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Silvia Giugliano, Margaret G Petroff, Bryce D Warren, Susmita Jasti, Caitlin Linscheid, Ashley Ward, Anita Kramer, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Melissa A Sheiko, Michael Gale, Lucy Golden-Mason, Virginia D Winn, Hugo R Rosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Ishwor Koirala, Vivek Raj Shrestha, Chul-Soon Park, Sang-Shin Lee, Duk-Yong Choi
Highly efficient polarization-tuned structural color filters, which are based on a one- dimensional resonant aluminum grating that is integrated with a silicon nitride waveguide, are proposed and demonstrated to feature a broad color palette. For such a metallic grating structure, transmissive color filtering is only feasible for the incident transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization due to its high reflection regarding the transverse-electric (TE) case; however, polarization-tuned customized colors can be efficiently achieved by optimizing the structural parameters like the duty ratio of the metallic grating...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jongil Lim, Michael A Busa, Richard E A van Emmerik, Joseph Hamill
This study aimed to identify adaptive changes in running kinematics and impact shock transmission as a function of head stability requirements. Fifteen strides from twelve recreational runners were collected during preferred speed treadmill running. Head stability demands were manipulated through real-time visual feedback that required head-gaze orientation to maintain within boxes of different sizes, ranging from 21° to 3° of visual angle with 3° decrements. The main outcome measures were tibial and head peak accelerations in the time and frequency domains (impact and active phases), shock transmission from tibia to head, stride parameters, and sagittal plane joint kinematics...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Xueying Jin, Yongchao Dong, Keyi Wang
We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like and Fano resonance in a single quasi-cylindrical microresonator (QCMR). Stable controlling of the EIT and Fano resonance lineshapes can be achieved by vertically moving the resonator along its axis while in touch with the tapered fiber. Moreover, by horizontally scanning the coupling point along the tapered fiber, asymmetric Fano resonances of the transmission spectra are observed and can be engineered to vary periodically...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
Zhuo Li, Jia Xu, Chen Chen, Yunhe Sun, Bingzheng Xu, Liangliang Liu, Changqing Gu
In this work, a wideband band-stop plasmonic filter based on localized spoof surface plasmons is reported, which consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and an ultra-thin periodic corrugated metallic strip with defect units at the back of the substrate. Defect units are used to localize the transmission energy along the CPW. Each defect unit can introduce a narrow stop band, and a series of defect units is judiciously designed to form a broadband CPW band-stop filter. The center frequency and bandwidth of the filter can be tuned by the heights and numbers of the defect units...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Peng Geng, Wenli Li, Joachim R de Miranda, Zhou Qian, Lijia An, Olle Terenius
Antheraea pernyi Iflavirus (ApIV) is a virus that is the likely causative agent of A. pernyi Vomit Disease (AVD). The virus is maintained in A. pernyi populations as an unapparent infection by as yet unknown transmission routes. The mechanisms by which an infection results in AVD are also not yet known. Both these factors were investigated in this study. A. pernyi larvae were fed or injected with ApIV, but only injection led to active replication and spread of ApIV to the head, epidermis, hemocytes, gut, fatbody, ovary and testis...
January 2, 2017: Virology
Jennifer Debarry, Markus Cornberg, Michael P Manns
Despite an available vaccine and efficient treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic HBV infection still remains a major global threat, and one of the top 20 causes of human mortality worldwide. One of the major challenges in controlling HBV infection is the high number of undiagnosed chronic carriers and the lack of access to prophylaxis and treatment in several parts of the world. We discuss relevant barriers that need to be overcome to achieve global control of HBV infection and make eradication possible...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
S Vijayan, Z Xiong, S Rudin, D Bednarek
PURPOSE: The functionality of the Dose-Tracking System (DTS) has been expanded to include the calculation of the Kerma-Area Product (KAP) for non-uniform x-ray fields such as result from the use of compensation filters during fluoroscopic procedures METHODS: The DTS calculates skin dose during fluoroscopic interventions and provides a color-coded dose map on a patient-graphic model. The KAP is the integral of air kerma over the x-ray field and is usually measured with a transmission-ionization chamber that intercepts the entire x-ray beam...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Shih-Yun Lin, Pei-Fang Su, Chia-Hua Chung, Chi-Chun Hsia, Chih-Han Chang
Rocker-soled shoes provide a way to reduce the possible concentration of stress, as well as change movement patterns, during gait. This study attempts to examine how plantar force and spatio-temporal variables are affected by two rocker designs, one with softer and one with denser sole materials, by comparing them with the barefoot condition and with flat-soled shoes. Eleven subjects' gait parameters during walking and jogging were recorded. Our results showed that compared with barefoot walking, plantar forces were higher for flat shoes while lower for both types of rocker shoes, the softer-material rocker being the lowest...
2017: PloS One
Soonthorn Chonprasertsuk, Ratha-Korn Vilaichone
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of malignant liver tumor in Thailand. The high incidence rate of HCC reflects from chronic HBV infection in this endemic area. Some patients are asymptomatic at presentation whereas many of them presented at advanced stage of HCC with limited treatment options and grave outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and management allocation for HCC is widely accepted and used in many international guidelines including Thailand. Curative treatment is expected in early stage of HCC while palliative treatment, combination treatment and best supportive care are offered to advanced stage of HCC...
January 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Michael Altenhoff, Christian Teige, Michael Storch, Stefan Will
A novel thermophoretic sampling device for probing nanoparticle aggregates in all types of flames as well as in particle-laden gases and aerosols is presented. For the motion of the sampling probe, a tubular electric linear motor is utilized, and its design and operation are described in detail. The spatial and temporal performance is determined from oscilloscope measurements and high-speed recordings of one motion profile featuring three different resident times. Motion sequences offering a minimum residence time of 3 ms and a maximum velocity of 4...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kamatchi Jothiramalingam Sankaran, Chien-Jui Yeh, Sien Drijkoningen, Paulius Pobedinskas, Marlies K Van Bael, Keh-Chyang Leou, I-Nan Lin, Ken Haenen
Few-layer graphene (FLG) was catalytically formed on vertically aligned diamond nanorods (DNRs) by a high temperature annealing process. The presence of 4-5 layers of FLG on DNRs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic studies. It enhances the field electron emission (FEE) behavior of the DNRs. The FLG-DNRs show excellent FEE characteristics with a low turn-on field of 4.21 V μm(-1) and a large field enhancement factor of 3480. Moreover, using FLG-DNRs as cathode markedly enhances the plasma illumination behavior of a microplasma device, viz not only the plasma current density is increased, but also the robustness of the devices is improved...
December 30, 2016: Nanotechnology
An-Na Cha, Sang-A Lee, Sukang Bae, Sang Hyun Lee, Dong Su Lee, Gunuk Wang, Tae-Wook Kim
An all-organic composite system was introduced as an active component for organic resistive memory applications. The active layer was prepared by mixing a highly polar plastic-crystalline organic molecule (succinonitrile: SN) into an insulating polymer (poly(methyl methacrylate): PMMA). As increasing concentrations of SN from 0 to 3.0 wt% were added to solutions of different concentrations of PMMA, we observed distinguishable microscopic surface structures on blended films of SN and PMMA at certain concentrations after the spin-casting process...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Victor Agadjanian, Sarah R Hayford
Provision of effective contraception to HIV-positive women of reproductive age is critical to effective management of HIV infection and prevention of both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in developing countries. This exploratory retrospective study examines contraceptive use during the prolonged post-partum period in a sample of 285 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who gave birth at four rural maternity clinics in a high HIV-prevalence region in Mozambique. Multivariate analyses show no significant variations by HIV status in contraceptive timing (mean time to first contraceptive use of 7...
December 29, 2016: Global Public Health
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