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Vertical transmission

Li Zhao, Bo He, Kai-Rui Li, Fei Li, Lu-Yao Zhang, Xian-Qiang Li, Yong-Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is a blood-feeding ectoparasite that belongs to the family Hippoboscidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) and mainly parasitizes sheep. The life-cycle of M. ovinus consists of three stages: larva, pupa and adult. It has a worldwide distribution and has been found in four provinces of China, especially South Xinjiang. In addition to causing direct damage to animal hosts, M. ovinus serves as a vector for disease transmission. In this study, our aim was to investigate the presence of Anaplasma spp...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Francesco Severini, Daniela Boccolini, Claudia Fortuna, Marco Di Luca, Luciano Toma, Antonello Amendola, Eleonora Benedetti, Giada Minelli, Roberto Romi, Giulietta Venturi, Giovanni Rezza, Maria Elena Remoli
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus, belonging to the Togaviridae family, Alphavirus genus, transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Since 2007, two different CHIKV stains (E1-226A and E1-226V) have been responsible for outbreaks in European countries, including Italy, sustained by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. FINDINGS: In this study, we assessed the susceptibility to the CHIKV E1-226V, strain responsible for the Italian 2007 outbreak, of eight Ae...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael J Metzger, Ashley N Paynter, Mark E Siddall, Stephen P Goff
The LTR retrotransposon Steamer is a selfish endogenous element in the soft-shell clam genome that was first detected because of its dramatic amplification in bivalve transmissible neoplasia afflicting the species. We amplified and sequenced related retrotransposons from the genomic DNA of many other bivalve species, finding evidence of horizontal transfer of retrotransposons from the genome of one species to another. First, the phylogenetic tree of the Steamer -like elements from 19 bivalve species is markedly discordant with host phylogeny, suggesting frequent cross-species transfer throughout bivalve evolution...
April 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yi-Ping Kuo, Kuen-Nan Tsai, Yin-Chiu Luo, Pei-Jung Chung, Yu-Wen Su, Yu Teng, Ming-Sian Wu, Yu-Feng Lin, Chao-Yang Lai, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Shih-Syong Dai, Fan-Chen Tseng, Cheng-Han Hsieh, De-Jiun Tsai, Wan-Ting Tsai, Chun-Hong Chen, Guann-Yi Yu
Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in the subgenus Stegomyia but can also be transmitted sexually and vertically in humans. STAT1 is an important downstream factor that mediates type I and II interferon signaling. In the current study, we showed that mice with STAT1 knockout (Stat1-/-) were highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. As low as 5 plaque-forming units of ZIKV could cause viremia and death in Stat1-/- mice. ZIKV replication was initially detected in the spleen but subsequently spread to the brain with concomitant reduction of the virus in the spleen in the infected mice...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Junfeng Zhang, Weiyu Xie, Michael L Agiorgousis, Duk-Hyun Choe, Vincent Meunier, Xiaohong Xu, Jijun Zhao, Shengbai Zhang
Two-dimensional (2D) junction devices have recently attracted considerable attention. Here, we show that most 2D junction structures, whether vertical or lateral, act as a lateral monolayer-bilayer-monolayer junction in their operation. In particular, a vertical structure cannot function as a vertical junction as having been widely believed in the literature. Due to a larger electrostatic screening, the bilayer region in the junction always has a smaller bandgap than its monolayer counterpart. As a result, a potential well, aside from the usual potential barrier, will form universally in the bilayer region to affect the hole or electron quantum transport in the form of transmission or reflection...
April 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Chunhe Wan, Longfei Cheng, Guanghua Fu, Cuiteng Chen, Rongchang Liu, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Qiuling Fu, Yu Huang
Due to low doses of infection, an efficient and sensitive virus detection method is necessary to detect low amounts of goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV). In this study, we have developed a TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) specific assay for the detection of GHPV. Specificity assay showed no cross-reactions with other common waterfowl viruses. The standard curve had a linear correlation of 0.997 and efficiency of 99% between the cycle threshold value and the logarithm of the plasmids copy number. The possible lowest detectable concentration was 35...
April 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Chloé Vigliotti, Cédric Bicep, Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Eduardo Corel
Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Pratibha R Nikam, Prashant K Baviskar, Sutripto Majumder, Jaydeep V Sali, Babasaheb R Sankapal
Controlled growth of different sizes of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles over well aligned ZnO nanorods have been performed using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature (27 °C) in order to form nano heterostructure solar cells. Deposition of compact layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) by SILAR technique on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods array using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at low temperature (<100 °C)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Luisa Woestmann, Melanie Gibbs, Helen Hesketh, Marjo Saastamoinen
Infections represent a constant threat for organisms and can lead to substantial fitness losses. Understanding how individuals, especially from natural populations, respond towards infections is thus of great importance. Little is known about immunity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). As the larvae live gregariously in family groups, vertical and horizontal transmission of infections could have tremendous effects on individuals and consequently impact population dynamics in nature. We used the Alphabaculovirus type strain Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and demonstrated that positive concentration-dependent baculovirus exposure leads to prolonged developmental time and decreased survival during larval and pupal development, with no sex specific differences...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Joshua M Cooper, Pablo J Sánchez
Congenital syphilis remains a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence is increasing in the United States. This review highlights the ongoing problem of this preventable infection, and discusses vertical transmission and clinical manifestations while providing a practical algorithm for the evaluation and management of infants born to mothers with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Every case of congenital syphilis must be seen as a failure of our public health system to provide optimal prenatal care to pregnant women, as congenital syphilis can be prevented by early and repeated prenatal serologic screening of mothers and penicillin treatment of infected women, their sexual partners, and their newborn infants...
April 4, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Wan Chunhe, Chen Cuiteng, Cheng Longfei, Fu Guanghua, Shi Shaohua, Fu Qiuling, Liu Rongchang, Chen Hongmei, Huang Yu
Pigeon torque teno virus (PTTV), a recently discovered circular DNA virus. Here, we developed a TaqMan-based real-time PCR for rapid and specific detection of PTTV infections with sensitivity up to 49.3 copies/μl. Positive signals can be observed by the assay in pigeon embryonated eggs, which indicted that PTTV can be transmitted vertically. Our findings play important implications for a better understanding the transmission of torque teno virus in pigeons.
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Amaka N Ocheke, Ephraim Samuels, Isaac E Ocheke, Patricia A Agaba, Clement Ekere, James Bitrus, Emmanuel I Agaba, Atiene S Sagay
Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of 110 HIV positive and 134 HIV negative parturients were enrolled in the study. The incidence of episiotomy was more in the HIV negative group (p=0.0000) while that of perineal tear was not affected by HIV status (p=0...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Tahir Khan, Gul Zaman, Ali Saleh Alshomrani
Hepatitis B infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is one of the serious viral infection and a global health problem. In the transmission of hepatitis B infection different phases, i.e., acute and chronic carrier stages play an important role. The chronic carries individuals do not exhibit any symptoms and are able to transmit the infection. Here we assessed the transmissibility associated with different infection stages of hepatitis B and generated an epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate. In order to do this, first we formulate the model by splitting the infectious class into two subclasses, namely acutely infected and chronic carries with both horizontal and vertical transmission...
2018: PloS One
Chong Wang, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Anders Miki Bojesen
In laying hens, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) are considered the two major pathogens causing reproductive tract disorders, either as single infections or as co-infections. Vertical transmission has been confirmed for E. coli but remains to be clearly demonstrated for G. anatis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of both G. anatis and E. coli at eggshell transmission using an embryonated egg dipping model, and to investigate the possible interaction between the two organisms in an embryonated egg injection model...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Maganizo B Chagomerana, William C Miller, Jennifer H Tang, Irving F Hoffman, Bryan C Mthiko, Jacob Phulusa, Mathias John, Allan Jumbe, Mina C Hosseinipour
BACKGROUND: Effective antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy minimizes the risk of vertical HIV transmission. Some women present late in their pregnancy for first antenatal visit; whether these women achieve viral suppression by delivery and how suppression varies with time on ART is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy for the first time at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi from June 2015 to November 2016...
2018: PloS One
Nan Wu, Peipei Zhang, Wenwen Liu, Xifeng Wang
A novel virus was identified in the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and tentatively named Sogatella furcifera hepe-like virus (SfHeV). Its genome is a linear, single-stranded monopartite RNA, 7,312 nucleotides (nt) long with a 66-nt 5' UTR, 54-nt 3' UTR, and 28-nt polyA, showing typical genomic features of viruses in the family Hepeviridae, but highly divergent from known members in the family, with amino acid sequence identities of only 20.6-23% (ORF1), 13.1-18.8% (ORF2) and 1...
March 29, 2018: Virus Research
Haiying Li, Farideh Honary, Jiajie Wang, Jiawei Liu, Zhensen Wu, Lu Bai
This paper investigates the characteristics of reflected and transmitted fields of a vector Bessel vortex beam through multilayered isotropic media on the basis of the vector angular spectrum expansion and presents the effects of media on intensity, phase, and polarization. The method is verified by studying the reflection and transmission on a single interface at vertical incidence. For both paraxial and nonparaxial incident beam cases, numerical simulations of the field components and the time-averaged Poynting vector power density of the reflected and transmitted beams for the three-layered media are presented and discussed in detail...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Farah Seedat, Colin Stewart Brown, Chris Stinton, Jacoby Patterson, Julia Geppert, Karoline Freeman, Bee Tan, Samantha Ann Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Olalekan A Uthman, Esther R Robinson, Noel Denis McCarthy, Aileen Clarke, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: The natural history of neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) is poorly understood. Little is known about the bacterial factors influencing the transmission of GBS from mother to neonate, or the development of invasive early-onset GBS disease (EOGBS) in colonized neonates. We reviewed whether bacterial load and molecular markers are associated with GBS vertical transmission and progression to EOGBS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science from inception to 10 October 2016 for observational studies in English...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sida Xing, Svyatoslav Kharitonov, Jianqi Hu, Camille-Sophie Brès
We observe fiber fuse in tapered GeAsSe photonic crystal fibers (PCF) at around 7  MW/cm2 of intra-core intensity. Vertically cleaved facets from the un-tapered regions and the tapered regions were imaged. The images show shallow voids of different shapes confined to the fiber core. After longitudinally polishing a segment of the PCF, we imaged the PCF internal structure's top view, revealing the fuse voids' geometries and periodicity. In addition, fiber fuse was terminated in one PCF sample by a fast laser shutdown, hence saving a small segment from catastrophic damage...
April 1, 2018: Optics Letters
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