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Giant panda

Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Qi Yan, Xiuxia Li
This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification...
November 22, 2016: Sensors
Sthitaprajna Lenka, Nitish Kumar Panda, Sobhan Mishra, Karishma Rathor
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, categorized as nematodes, are responsible for causing lymphatic filariasis. Even though it can affect individuals of all age groups and both genders, it predominantly affects people of low socioeconomic strata. The filarial worms dwell in the subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of human hosts. In India, W bancrofti is the primary nematode to cause filariasis, which is transmitted through the bite of blood-sucking infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Lymphangitis, leading to elephantiasis of the legs, arms, scrotum, and breast, is the most salient clinical feature of lymphatic filariasis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Tong Zhang, David G Watson, Rong Zhang, Rong Hou, I Kati Loeffler, Malcolm W Kennedy
Among the large placental mammals, ursids give birth to the most altricial neonates with the lowest neonatal:maternal body mass ratios. This is particularly exemplified by giant pandas. To examine whether there is compensation for the provision of developmentally important nutrients that other species groups may provide in utero, we examined changes in the lipids of colostrum and milk with time after birth in giant pandas. Lipids that are developmental signals or signal precursors, and those that are fundamental to nervous system construction, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and phosphatidylserines, appear early and then fall dramatically in concentration to a baseline at 20-30 days...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Fu, Y L Hou, X Ding, Y J Du, H Q Zhu, N Zhang, W R Hou
The complementary DNA (cDNA) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene was successfully cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing FTL cDNA and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expressed protein was then purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The cloned cDNA fragment was 580 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 525 bp. The deduced protein sequence was composed of 175 amino acids and had an estimated molecular weight of 19...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
He Huang, Shangmian Yie, Yuliang Liu, Chengdong Wang, Zhigang Cai, Wenping Zhang, Jingchao Lan, Xiangming Huang, Li Luo, Kailai Cai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang
The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scientific Reports
Vanessa Hull, Jindong Zhang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Andrés Viña, Ashton Shortridge, Rengui Li, Dian Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons...
2016: PloS One
Gregor Kalinkat, Juliano S Cabral, William Darwall, G Francesco Ficetola, Judith L Fisher, Darren P Giling, Marie-Pierre Gosselin, Hans-Peter Grossart, Sonja C Jähnig, Jonathan M Jeschke, Klaus Knopf, Stefano Larsen, Gabriela Onandia, Marlene Paetzig, Wolf-Christian Saul, Gabriel Singer, Erik Sperfeld, Ivan Jarić
Despite a long-standing debate about the utility of species-centered conservation approaches (Roberge & Angelstam 2004), surrogate species remain popular by providing useful-or even necessary-"shortcuts" for successful conservation programs (Caro 2010). Flagship species, as one prime example of surrogates, are primarily intended to promote public awareness and to raise funds for conservation (Veríssimo et al. 2011). In contrast, the protection of umbrella species is expected to benefit a wide range of co-occurring species (Roberge & Angelstam 2004; Caro 2010)...
August 25, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Tian-Pei Guan, Jacob R Owens, Ming-Hao Gong, Gang Liu, Zhi-Yun Ouyang, Yan-Ling Song
The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network...
2016: PloS One
Z Y Weng, Z Q Liu, R O Ritchie, D Jiao, D S Li, H L Wu, L H Deng, Z F Zhang
The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored...
December 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ying-Juan Zheng, Yi-Ping Chen, Lorraine Maltby, Xue-Lin Jin
The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination...
November 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cai-Fang Wen, Li-Xin Xi, Shan Zhao, Zhong-Xiang Hao, Lu Luo, Hong Liao, Zhen-Rong Chen, Rong She, Guo-Quan Han, San-Jie Cao, Rui Wu, Qi-Gui Yan, Rong Hou
A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 25-1(T), was isolated from the air inside giant panda enclosures at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China. Strain 25-1(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 28-30 °C and in the presence of NaCl concentrations from 0.0% to 0.5 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 25-1(T) belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and is related most closely to C. carnis G81(T) (96...
August 2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Xin Yang, Jiang Yang, Hongning Wang, Caiwu Li, Yongguo He, SenYan Jin, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Pengyan Wang, Yuesong Xu, Changwen Xu, Chengyun Fan, Lulai Xu, Shan Huang, Chunmao Qu, Guo Li
To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yao-Dong Hu, Hui-Zhong Pang, De-Sheng Li, Shan-Shan Ling, Dan Lan, Ye Wang, Yun Zhu, Di-Yan Li, Rong-Ping Wei, He-Min Zhang, Cheng-Dong Wang
As the rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a crucial role in biological metabolism. "Living fossil" giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known for its special bamboo diet. In an effort to explore functional variation of COX1 in the energy metabolism behind giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet, we looked at genetic variation of COX1 gene in giant panda, and tested for its selection effect. In 1545 base pairs of the gene from 15 samples, 9 positions were variable and 1 mutation leaded to an amino acid sequence change...
November 5, 2016: Gene
Abhishek Saha, Subhankar Panda, Saurav Paul, Debasis Manna
We describe a novel class of amphiphiles with squaramide moiety as a phosphate bioisostere. Most synthesized squaramide-based amphiphiles have the favorable physicochemical properties of lipids, such as: formation of stable liposomes or giant unilamellar vesicles in aqueous solution, high phase-transition temperature, low vesicle leakage and phospholipase resistance properties.
July 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yan Lv, Tao Yu, Sihai Lu, Cheng Tian, Junqing Li, Fang K Du
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: There is a need for microsatellite primers to analyze genetic parameters of Fargesia denudata (Poaceae), the staple-food bamboo of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). METHODS AND RESULTS: Using next-generation sequencing technology, we obtained a 75-Mb assembled sequence of F. denudata and identified 182 microsatellites. Primer pairs for 70 candidate microsatellite markers were selected and validated in four individuals, and 42 primer pairs generated reliable amplicons...
June 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Na Feng, Yicong Yu, Tiecheng Wang, Peter Wilker, Jianzhong Wang, Yuanguo Li, Zhe Sun, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rebecca J Snyder, Bonnie M Perdue, Zhihe Zhang, Terry L Maple, Benjamin D Charlton
The body condition constraint and the experience condition constraint hypotheses have both been proposed to account for differences in reproductive success between multiparous (experienced) and primiparous (first-time) mothers. However, because primiparous mothers are typically characterized by both inferior body condition and lack of experience when compared to multiparous mothers, interpreting experience related differences in maternal care as support for either the body condition constraint hypothesis or the experience constraint hypothesis is extremely difficult...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yue Yan, Jiabo Deng, Lili Niu, Qiang Wang, Jianqiu Yu, Huanhuan Shao, Qinghua Cao, Yizheng Zhang, Xuemei Tan
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses by inducing IFN-γ. IL-18 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is an intrinsic inhibitor of IL-18 that possesses higher affinity to IL-18. In this study, we cloned and characterized IL-18BP in giant panda (AmIL-18BP) from the spleen. The amino acid sequence of giant panda IL-18BP ORF shared about 65% identities with other species...
June 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
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