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Giant panda

Z G Cai, J H An, Y L Liu, S M Yie, Y Zhang, F P Li, J S Chen, X Wang, J M Morrell, R Hou
The reproductive capacity of captive giant pandas is poor and sperm cryopreservation is necessary for the reproduction and conservation of this species. Cryopreservation, however, leads to a significant decrease in sperm quality, including sperm motility, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity. In the present study, a method was developed based on colloid single layer centrifugation that could significantly improve frozen-thawed sperm quality. Two colloids were compared for post-thaw giant panda sperm preparation; the sperm samples had greater total motility (Colloid 1: 44...
May 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Ben Ma, Shuo Lei, Qin Qing, Yali Wen
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area...
May 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Danyu Chen, Wencheng Zou, Shengze Xie, Linghan Kong, Yanpeng Chen, Xiuzhong Zhang, Jianan Li, Hongning Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Yue Qin, Xingyu Mu, Xin Yang
Escherichia coli is a major pathogen leading to systemic and enteric illnesses in wild giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca). To investigate the characteristics and distribution of E. coli in wild giant pandas across four different nature reserves in Sichuan, Republic of China, we researched serotypes, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, and resistance genes of E. coli not previously reported for wild giant pandas. A total of 82 E. coli isolates were identified from 40 fecal samples in August 2016 to May 2017...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Jianying Xu, Qing Wang, Ming Kong
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are expected to promote ecological restoration while simultaneously improving human livelihoods. As an adaptive management tool, PES programs should be dynamic and adjusted according to changing natural and socio-economic contexts. Taking the implementation of China's famous ecological restoration policy known as the Grain for Green Program (GGP) in the Wolong National Nature Reserve as an example, we analyzed changes in the livelihood capitals and strategies of local households that had participated in the GGP over a 10-year period and discussed the implications of these changes for the next stage of the program's implementation...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Beth M Roberts, Janine L Brown, David C Kersey, Rebecca J Snyder, Barbara S Durrant, Andrew J Kouba
Pregnancy determination is difficult in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanolecua), representing a challenge for ex situ conservation efforts. Research in other species experiencing pseudopregnancy indicates that urinary/fecal concentrations of 13,14, dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) can accurately determine pregnancy status. Our objective was to determine if urinary PGFM concentrations are associated with pregnancy status in the giant panda. Urinary PGFM concentrations were measured in female giant pandas (n = 4) throughout gestation (n = 6) and pseudopregnancy (n = 4) using a commercial enzyme immunoassay...
2018: PloS One
Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Yuan Song, Chao Gong, Lei Deng, Yuying Cao, Ziyao Zhou, Xuefeng Cao, Yinan Tian, Haozhou Li, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Caiwu Li, Haidi Yang, Xiangming Huang, Hualin Fu, Yi Geng, Zhihua Ren, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Human and animal infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) have consistently been reported worldwide, garnering public attention; however, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the giant panda remains limited. We surveyed captive giant pandas in China for the presence of E. bieneusi by using PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealing a 34.5% positive rate, with seven known genotypes (SC02, EpbC, CHB1, SC01, D, F, and Peru 6) and five novel genotypes (SC04, SC05, SC06, SC07, and SC08) identified...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhi Gang Yan, Jun Qing Li
The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Mei Luo, Hao Wang, Zhi Lyu
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used by researchers and conservationists. Results of prediction from different models vary significantly, which makes users feel difficult in selecting models. In this study, we evaluated the performance of two commonly used SDMs, the Biomod2 and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt), with real presence/absence data of giant panda, and used three indicators, i.e., area under the ROC curve (AUC), true skill statistics (TSS), and Cohen's Kappa, to evaluate the accuracy of the two model predictions...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Guo Chun Li, Hua Dong Song, Qi Li, Shu Hai Bu
In Abies fargesii forests of the giant panda's habitats in Mt. Taibai, the spatial distribution patterns and interspecific associations of main tree species and their spatial associations with the understory flowering Fargesia qinlingensis were analyzed at multiple scales by univariate and bivaria-te O-ring function in point pattern analysis. The results showed that in the A. fargesii forest, the number of A. fargesii was largest but its population structure was in decline. The population of Betula platyphylla was relatively young, with a stable population structure, while the population of B...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Abbey E Wilson, Darrell L Sparks, Katrina K Knott, Andrew J Kouba, Scott Willard, Ashli Brown
Male giant pandas identify female sexual receptivity through the detection of olfactory cues in estrous urine. However, it is yet unknown which specific days of the female estrous cycle may provoke male sexual-social responses and a physiological readiness to mate. We hypothesized that female urine from specific days of the estrous cycle will be positively associated with specific changes in male behaviors, urinary semiochemical production, and steroidogenic activity. Experimental simultaneous choice trials were conducted in captivity with four male giant pandas during the spring breeding season and during fall...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
Wei Zhou, Lingwei Zhu, Min Jia, Tiecheng Wang, Bing Liang, Xue Ji, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
Multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from the tissue samples of a giant panda. The E. coli strain SH-YH-DH that we isolated carried a self-transferable plasmid associated with multi-drug-resistant genes ( blaCTX-M-55 , blaTEM-1 , sul1, floR, strB, aac(6')-Ib, and tetA/R). This strain exhibited phenotypic resistance to gentamicin, cefotaxime, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. We report the participation of multi-drug-resistant E...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Rui Peng, Yuliang Liu, Zhigang Cai, Fujun Shen, Jiasong Chen, Rong Hou, Fangdong Zou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Giant pandas, an endangered species, are a powerful symbol of species conservation. Giant pandas may suffer from a variety of diseases. Owing to their highly specialized diet of bamboo, giant pandas are thought to have a relatively weak ability to resist diseases. The spleen is the largest organ in the lymphatic system. However, there is little known about giant panda spleen at a molecular level. Thus, clarifying the regulatory mechanisms of spleen could help us further understand the immune system of the giant panda as well as its conservation...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Trisha T N Tay, Desheng Li, Yan Huang, Pengyan Wang, Tasha Tahar, Josephine Kawi
The female giant panda's estrus is known to be photoperiod sensitive, triggered by increasing day length. A pair of giant pandas was brought to Singapore in September 2012 and exposed to a constant temperature and photoperiod during the first 2 years. The female did not show any signs of estrus during that period. In November 2014, photoperiod and temperature were manipulated to simulate seasonal changes, to investigate the effects of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of the giant pandas. This paper documents the changes and observations carried out from 2012 to 2016, in the attempt to breed this vulnerable species...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
Gui-Lian Sheng, Axel Barlow, Alan Cooper, Xin-Dong Hou, Xue-Ping Ji, Nina G Jablonski, Bo-Jian Zhong, Hong Liu, Lawrence J Flynn, Jun-Xia Yuan, Li-Rui Wang, Nikolas Basler, Michael V Westbury, Michael Hofreiter, Xu-Long Lai
The giant panda was widely distributed in China and south-eastern Asia during the middle to late Pleistocene, prior to its habitat becoming rapidly reduced in the Holocene. While conservation reserves have been established and population numbers of the giant panda have recently increased, the interpretation of its genetic diversity remains controversial. Previous analyses, surprisingly, have indicated relatively high levels of genetic diversity raising issues concerning the efficiency and usefulness of reintroducing individuals from captive populations...
April 6, 2018: Genes
Tao Wang, Yue Xie, Youle Zheng, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Anson V Koehler, Robin B Gasser
The giant panda, with an estimated population size of 2239 in the world (in 2015), is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by habitat loss, poor reproduction and limited resistance to some infectious diseases. Of these factors, some diseases caused by parasites are considered as the foremost threat to its conservation. However, there is surprisingly little published information on the parasites of the giant panda, most of which has been disseminated in the Chinese literature. Herein, we review all peer-reviewed publications (in English or Chinese language) and governmental documents for information on parasites of the giant pandas, with an emphasis on the intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi (McIntosh, 1939) as it dominates published literature...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Youxu Li, Qiang Dai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang, Peng Chen, Rui Xue, Feifei Feng, Chao Chen, Jiabin Liu, Xiaodong Gu, Zejun Zhang, Dunwu Qi
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna L Giuliani, Valentina Vultaggio-Poma, Simonetta Falzoni, Alba C Sarti
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only) agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD+ covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wenke Bai, Thomas Connor, Jindong Zhang, Hongbo Yang, Xin Dong, Xiaodong Gu, Caiquan Zhou
Changes in wildlife habitat across space and time, and corresponding changes in wildlife space use, are increasingly common phenomenon. It is critical to study and understand these spatio-temporal changes to accurately inform conservation strategy and manage wildlife populations. These changes can be particularly large and complex in areas that face pressure from human development and disturbance but are also under protection and/or restoration regimes. We analyzed changes in space use and habitat suitability of giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, over three decades using kernel density, spatio-temporal analysis of moving polygons (STAMP), and MaxEnt methods, and data from three national censuses...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wencheng Zou, Caiwu Li, Xin Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Yanpeng Chen, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Lan Feng, Hongning Wang, Desheng Li, Guiquan Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Zhizhong Zhang, Heming Zhang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
March 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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