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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207509/relationship-between-drug-resistance-and-the-clustered-regularly-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeat-associated-protein-genes-cas1-and-cas2-in-shigella-from-giant-panda-dung
#1
Lu Ren, Lin-Hua Deng, Ri-Peng Zhang, Cheng-Dong Wang, De-Sheng Li, Li-Xin Xi, Zhen-Rong Chen, Rui Yang, Jie Huang, Yang-Ru Zeng, Hong-Lin Wu, San-Jie Cao, Rui Wu, Yong Huang, Qi-Gui Yan
BACKGROUND: To detect drug resistance in Shigella obtained from the dung of the giant panda, explore the factors leading to drug resistance in Shigella, understand the characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and assess the relationship between CRISPR and drug resistance. METHODS: We collected fresh feces from 27 healthy giant pandas in the Giant Panda Conservation base (Wolong, China). We identified the strains of Shigella in the samples by using nucleotide sequence analysis...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206772/cytotoxic-fusicoccane-type-diterpenoids-from-streptomyces-violascens-isolated-from-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-feces
#2
Dan Zheng, Li Han, Xiaodan Qu, Xiu Chen, Jialiang Zhong, Xiaoxu Bi, Jiang Liu, Yi Jiang, Chenglin Jiang, Xueshi Huang
Six new fusicoccane-type diterpenoids (2-7) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces violascens, which was isolated from Ailuropoda melanoleuca (giant panda) feces. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 5-7 demonstrated cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 ± 0.7 to 14.1 ± 0.8 μM. Cell adhesion, migration, and invasion assays showed that 6 inhibited the migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128409/analysis-of-the-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-ii-cox2-gene-in-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#3
S S Ling, Y Zhu, D Lan, D S Li, H Z Pang, Y Wang, D Y Li, R P Wei, H M Zhang, C D Wang, Y D Hu
The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116056/hopes-and-challenges-for-giant-panda-conservation-under-climate-change-in-the-qinling-mountains-of-china
#4
Minghao Gong, Tianpei Guan, Meng Hou, Gang Liu, Tianyuan Zhou
One way that climate change will impact animal distributions is by altering habitat suitability and habitat fragmentation. Understanding the impacts of climate change on currently threatened species is of immediate importance because complex conservation planning will be required. Here, we mapped changes to the distribution, suitability, and fragmentation of giant panda habitat under climate change and quantified the direction and elevation of habitat shift and fragmentation patterns. These data were used to develop a series of new conservation strategies for the giant panda...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107477/effects-of-ambient-environmental-factors-on-the-stereotypic-behaviors-of-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#5
He Liu, Hejun Duan, Cheng Wang
Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096377/comparative-genomics-reveals-convergent-evolution-between-the-bamboo-eating-giant-and-red-pandas
#6
Yibo Hu, Qi Wu, Shuai Ma, Tianxiao Ma, Lei Shan, Xiao Wang, Yonggang Nie, Zemin Ning, Li Yan, Yunfang Xiu, Fuwen Wei
Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091600/urinary-profiles-of-luteinizing-hormone-estrogen-and-progestagen-during-the-estrous-and-gestational-periods-in-giant-pandas-ailuropda-melanoleuca
#7
Kailai Cai, Shangmian Yie, Zhihe Zhang, Juan Wang, Zhigang Cai, Li Luo, Yuliang Liu, Hairui Wang, He Huang, Chengdong Wang, Xiangming Huang, Jingchao Lan, Rong Hou
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is one of the main pituitary hormones that regulate ovulation, however its role has not been studied in giant panda. In this study, we developed an ELISA method for the detection of panda urinary LH. We analyzed urinary hormones of 24 female pandas during 36 breeding periods, we found females could easily be impregnated if the first mating occurred within 10 hours after LH peak. We also found the patterns of the ratios of urinary LH and progestagen in pandas that bred and successfully gave birth were significantly different from those that bred but failed to give birth...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071641/epidemiological-data-and-case-load-spectrum-of-patients-presenting-to-bone-and-soft-tissue-disease-management-group-at-a-tertiary-cancer-center
#8
A Gulia, A Puri, S Chorge, P K Panda
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to know the spectrum and number of bone and soft tissue (BST) tumors presenting to our institute. We needed to assess the gap between the number of patients seen and infrastructure available, and based on this information, help formulate guidelines for optimum utilization of resources and to provide best possible evidence-based cancer care. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: This is a prospective observational study (epidemiological)...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051146/impacts-of-canine-distemper-virus-infection-on-the-giant-panda-population-from-the-perspective-of-gut-microbiota
#9
Na Zhao, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Supen Wang, Shelan Liu, Shan Wang, Wenting Lyu, Lin Chen, Wen Su, Hua Ding, Hongxuan He
The recent increase in infectious disease outbreaks has been directly linked to the global loss of biodiversity and the decline of some endangered species populations. Between December 2014 and March 2015, five captive giant pandas died due to canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in China. CDV has taken a heavy toll on tigers and lions in recent years. Here, we describe the first gut microbiome diversity study of CDV-infected pandas. By investigating the influence of CDV infection on gut bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals and throughout the course of infection, we found that CDV infection distorted the gut microbiota composition by reducing the prevalence of the dominant genera, Escherichia and Clostridium, and increasing microbial diversity...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039891/atmospheric-deposition-exposes-qinling-pandas-to-toxic-pollutants
#10
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Yi Song, Zhi-Sheng An, Qing-Yi Ma, Aaron M Ellison
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas...
December 31, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929520/the-minimum-area-requirements-mar-for-giant-panda-an-empirical-study
#11
Jing Qing, Zhisong Yang, Ke He, Zejun Zhang, Xiaodong Gu, Xuyu Yang, Wen Zhang, Biao Yang, Dunwu Qi, Qiang Dai
Habitat fragmentation can reduce population viability, especially for area-sensitive species. The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of a population is the area required for the population's long-term persistence. In this study, the response of occupancy probability of giant pandas against habitat patch size was studied in five of the six mountain ranges inhabited by giant panda, which cover over 78% of the global distribution of giant panda habitat. The probability of giant panda occurrence was positively associated with habitat patch area, and the observed increase in occupancy probability with patch size was higher than that due to passive sampling alone...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879661/bamboo-classification-using-worldview-2-imagery-of-giant-panda-habitat-in-a-large-shaded-area-in-wolong-sichuan-province-china
#12
Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Qi Yan, Xiuxia Li
This study explores the ability of WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery for bamboo mapping in a mountainous region in Sichuan Province, China. A large area of this place is covered by shadows in the image, and only a few sampled points derived were useful. In order to identify bamboos based on sparse training data, the sample size was expanded according to the reflectance of multispectral bands selected using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, class separability based on the training data was calculated using a feature space optimization method to select the features for classification...
November 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875706/filariasis-in-mandible-and-maxilla-a-rare-entity-first-report-of-a-case
#13
Sthitaprajna Lenka, Nitish Kumar Panda, Sobhan Mishra, Karishma Rathor
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, categorized as nematodes, are responsible for causing lymphatic filariasis. Even though it can affect individuals of all age groups and both genders, it predominantly affects people of low socioeconomic strata. The filarial worms dwell in the subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of human hosts. In India, W bancrofti is the primary nematode to cause filariasis, which is transmitted through the bite of blood-sucking infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Lymphangitis, leading to elephantiasis of the legs, arms, scrotum, and breast, is the most salient clinical feature of lymphatic filariasis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808224/changeover-from-signalling-to-energy-provisioning-lipids-during-transition-from-colostrum-to-mature-milk-in-the-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#14
Tong Zhang, David G Watson, Rong Zhang, Rong Hou, I Kati Loeffler, Malcolm W Kennedy
Among the large placental mammals, ursids give birth to the most altricial neonates with the lowest neonatal:maternal body mass ratios. This is particularly exemplified by giant pandas. To examine whether there is compensation for the provision of developmentally important nutrients that other species groups may provide in utero, we examined changes in the lipids of colostrum and milk with time after birth in giant pandas. Lipids that are developmental signals or signal precursors, and those that are fundamental to nervous system construction, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and phosphatidylserines, appear early and then fall dramatically in concentration to a baseline at 20-30 days...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706659/molecular-cloning-overexpression-purification-and-sequence-analysis-of-the-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-ferritin-light-polypeptide
#15
L Fu, Y L Hou, X Ding, Y J Du, H Q Zhu, N Zhang, W R Hou
The complementary DNA (cDNA) of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) gene was successfully cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing FTL cDNA and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expressed protein was then purified by nickel chelate affinity chromatography. The cloned cDNA fragment was 580 bp long and contained an open reading frame of 525 bp. The deduced protein sequence was composed of 175 amino acids and had an estimated molecular weight of 19...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703267/dietary-resources-shape-the-adaptive-changes-of-cyanide-detoxification-function-in-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#16
He Huang, Shangmian Yie, Yuliang Liu, Chengdong Wang, Zhigang Cai, Wenping Zhang, Jingchao Lan, Xiangming Huang, Li Luo, Kailai Cai, Rong Hou, Zhihe Zhang
The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650734/corrigendum-metabolic-rates-of-giant-pandas-inform-conservation-strategies
#17
Yuxiang Fei, Rong Hou, James R Spotila, Frank V Paladino, Dunwu Qi, Zhihe Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627805/habitat-use-and-selection-by-giant-pandas
#18
Vanessa Hull, Jindong Zhang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Andrés Viña, Ashton Shortridge, Rengui Li, Dian Liu, Weihua Xu, Zhiyun Ouyang, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
Animals make choices about where to spend their time in complex and dynamic landscapes, choices that reveal information about their biology that in turn can be used to guide their conservation. Using GPS collars, we conducted a novel individual-based analysis of habitat use and selection by the elusive and endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). We constructed spatial autoregressive resource utilization functions (RUF) to model the relationship between the pandas' utilization distributions and various habitat characteristics over a continuous space across seasons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558876/flagship-umbrella-species-needed-for-the-conservation-of-overlooked-aquatic-biodiversity
#19
Gregor Kalinkat, Juliano S Cabral, William Darwall, G Francesco Ficetola, Judith L Fisher, Darren P Giling, Marie-Pierre Gosselin, Hans-Peter Grossart, Sonja C Jähnig, Jonathan M Jeschke, Klaus Knopf, Stefano Larsen, Gabriela Onandia, Marlene Pätzig, Wolf-Christian Saul, Gabriel Singer, Erik Sperfeld, Ivan Jarić
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532870/role-of-new-nature-reserve-in-assisting-endangered-species-conservation-case-study-of-giant-pandas-in-the-northern-qionglai-mountains-china
#20
Tian-Pei Guan, Jacob R Owens, Ming-Hao Gong, Gang Liu, Zhi-Yun Ouyang, Yan-Ling Song
The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network...
2016: PloS One
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