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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801498/comparison-of-veterinary-drugs-and-veterinary-homeopathy-part-1
#1
REVIEW
P Lees, L Pelligand, M Whiting, D Chambers, P-L Toutain, M L Whitehead
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products...
August 12, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757310/recommendations-for-harmonization-of-data-collection-and-analysis-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-endpoints-in-regulatory-guideline-studies-proceedings-of-workshops-presented-at-society-of-toxicology-and-joint-teratology-society-and-neurobehavioral-teratology
#2
REVIEW
Abby A Li, Larry P Sheets, Kathleen Raffaele, Virginia Moser, Angela Hofstra, Alan Hoberman, Susan L Makris, Robert Garman, Brad Bolon, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Roland Auer, Edmund Lau, Thomas Vidmar, Wayne J Bowers
The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752817/selection-and-transmission-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#3
Dan I Andersson, Diarmaid Hughes
Ever since antibiotics were introduced into human and veterinary medicine to treat and prevent bacterial infections there has been a steady selection and increase in the frequency of antibiotic resistant bacteria. To be able to reduce the rate of resistance evolution, we need to understand how various biotic and abiotic factors interact to drive the complex processes of resistance emergence and transmission. We describe several of the fundamental factors that underlay resistance evolution, including rates and niches of emergence and persistence of resistant bacteria, time- and space-gradients of various selective agents, and rates and routes of transmission of resistant bacteria between humans, animals and other environments...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669432/cardiorenal-syndrome-diagnosis-and-management
#4
REVIEW
João S Orvalho, Larry D Cowgill
Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) has not been well characterized in veterinary medicine, yet an accurate appreciation of the kidney and the cardiovascular system and their interactions may have practical clinical implications. A consensus for cardiovascular-renal axis disorders of dogs and cats was recently attempted. The outcome of patients with CRS is likely to improve with the increasing awareness and ability to identify and understand the pathophysiologic characteristics of CRS. The utilization of existing and emerging organ-specific biomarkers with greater sensitivities than conventional diagnostics forecast new opportunities to diagnose and manage cardiac disease...
June 29, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668685/effect-of-administration-route-and-dose-alteration-on-sulfadiazine-trimethoprim-plasma-and-intestinal-concentrations-in-pigs
#5
Joren De Smet, Siska Croubels, Patrick De Backer, Mathias Devreese
Potentiated sulfonamides such as sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) are frequently used antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine. To optimize their use in relation to the emerging problem of resistance selection, this paper studied the impact of dose and administration route of SDZ-TRIM on the exposure of the gut microbiota to these antimicrobials. An animal experiment was conducted with 36 pigs, divided into six different treatment groups (n=6). Three different administration routes were outlined: oral (PO) gavage, intramuscular (IM) injection and medicated feed, with 5-day therapy duration...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655818/novel-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-3-in-escherichia-coli
#6
Wenjuan Yin, Hui Li, Yingbo Shen, Zhihai Liu, Shaolin Wang, Zhangqi Shen, Rong Zhang, Timothy R Walsh, Jianzhong Shen, Yang Wang
The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted global attention, as it heralds the breach of polymyxins, one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. To date, six slightly different variants of mcr-1, and a second mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, have been reported or annotated in the GenBank database. Here, we characterized a third mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 The gene coexisted with 18 additional resistance determinants in the 261-kb IncHI2-type plasmid pWJ1 from porcine Escherichia colimcr-3 showed 45...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616471/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-infections-in-horses-in-germany-are-frequent-colonizers-of-veterinarians-but-rare-among-mrsa-from-infections-in-humans
#7
Christiane Cuny, Mohamed M H Abdelbary, Robin Köck, Franziska Layer, Wolfgang Scheidemann, Guido Werner, Wolfgang Witte
A total of 272 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from equine infections originating from 17 equine hospitals and 39 veterinary practices in Germany as well as 67 isolates from personnel working at equine clinics were subjected to molecular typing. The majority of isolates from horses was attributed to clonal complex (CC) 398 (82.7%). Within CC398, 66% of isolates belonged to a subpopulation (clade) of CC398, which is associated with equine clinics. MRSA attributed to CC8 (ST254, t009, t036, SCCmecIV; ST8, t064, SCCmecIV) were less frequent (16...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616391/opioid-free-anaesthesia-in-three-dogs
#8
Donna M White, Alastair R Mair, Fernando Martinez-Taboada
Opioid-free anaesthesia (OFA) is a relatively new and growing field in human medicine. There are multiple motivations behind this emerging practice with the recognition of several serious potential opioid-related adverse effects including opioid induced hyperalgesia, opioid tolerance and immunomodulatory effects of opioids. Opioids have long been the mainstay of veterinary anaesthesia and pain management practice. The feasibility of OFA in veterinary patients is presented here. A case series of three dogs that underwent OFA for canine ovariohysterectomy is reported...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610617/stimulating-collaboration-between-human-and-veterinary-health-care-professionals
#9
Björn G M Eussen, Jaap Schaveling, Maria J Dragt, Robert Jan Blomme
BACKGROUND: Despite the need to control outbreaks of (emerging) zoonotic diseases and the need for added value in comparative/translational medicine, jointly addressed in the One Health approach [One health Initiative (n.d.a). About the One Health Initiative. http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/about.php . Accessed 13 September 2016], collaboration between human and veterinary health care professionals is limited. This study focuses on the social dilemma experienced by health care professionals and ways in which an interdisciplinary approach could be developed...
June 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582978/detection-and-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-i-campylobacter-i-spp-isolated-from-chickens-and-humans
#10
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Campylobacter spp. are common pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary and human medicine. Infections caused by Campylobacter spp. are usually treated using antibiotics. However, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been proven to spearhead the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from chickens and human clinical cases in South Africa. One hundred and sixty one isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were collected from chickens and human clinical cases and then screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes...
May 29, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566080/-molecular-epidemiology-of-human-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-aegean-region-turkey
#11
Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Fethiye Ferda Yılmaz
Mycobacterium bovis, which has a broader host spectrum as opposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis that generally causes disease in humans, mainly leads to chronic progressive pulmonary disease in a large number of domestic and wild mammals, particularly cattle. The term "zoonotic tuberculosis (TB)" is used to describe M.bovis infection in humans. "Zoonotic TB" can not be differentiated clinically, radiologically or pathologically from TB caused by M.tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of M...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557000/clinical-trials-in-veterinary-medicine-a-new-era-brings-new-challenges
#12
M A Oyama, S S Ellenberg, P A Shaw
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are among the most rigorous ways to determine the causal relationship between an intervention and important clinical outcome. Their use in veterinary medicine has become increasingly common, and as is often the case, with progress comes new challenges. Randomized clinical trials yield important answers, but results from these studies can be unhelpful or even misleading unless the study design and reporting are carried out with care. Herein, we offer some perspective on several emerging challenges associated with RCTs, including use of composite endpoints, the reporting of different forms of risk, analysis in the presence of missing data, and issues of reporting and safety assessment...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540552/application-of-ruo2-ni-foam-electrodes-for-remediation-of-ibuprofen-in-soil-matrix-the-effect-of-electrokinetic-parameters
#13
Ching Yuan, Chung-Hsuang Hung, Tzu-Yuan Huang
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an extraordinary and diverse group of chemicals used in veterinary medicine, agriculture, and for human health and cosmetics care. They are considered emerging contaminants and have raised great concern in recent years. Among the PPCPs, ibuprofen (IBP) is one of the most known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which has been found at a high concentration in irrigation water in the USA and showed harmful effect for organisms. This study examined IBP degradation performance by an electrokinetic process coupled with 24-96 cm(2) of RuO2/Ni foam (RN) electrodes applied 1-3 V cm(-1) potential gradient for 5-9 days...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495317/cross-sectional-study-involving-healthcare-professionals-in-a-vaccinia-virus-endemic-area
#14
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Ana Paula Moreira Franco Luiz, Juliana Almeida Leite, Cláudio Antônio Bonjardim, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
Orthopoxviruses (OPV) are emerging viruses with great importance in human and veterinary medicine, such as Vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. The clinical aspects of BV are similar to other vesicular infections, complicating the clinical diagnosis. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge of Healthcare Professionals about BV and revealed their unpreparedness about BV in a VACV hyper-endemic area in Brazil, highlighting the public health issues associated with VACV infections...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449321/a-review-of-associated-controversies-surrounding-glucocorticoid-use-in-veterinary-emergency-and-critical-care
#15
Maya A Aharon, Jennifer E Prittie, Kate Buriko
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature in human and veterinary medicine regarding the indications for, efficacy of, and controversies surrounding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in the emergency and critical care (ECC) setting, and to provide an overview of the most commonly used synthetic GC formulations. MEDICATIONS: Synthetic GCs vary in GC and mineralocorticoid potency, hypothalamic pituitary axis suppression, duration of action, route of administration, and clinical indication for use...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445615/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-1-etiopathogenesis-epidemiology-and-diagnosis
#16
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in veterinary patients. DATA SOURCES: Human and veterinary literature, including clinical and laboratory research and reviews. ETIOPATHOGENESIS: Status epilepticus is a common emergency in dogs and cats, and may be the first manifestation of a seizure disorder. It results from the failure of termination of an isolated seizure...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340891/reproductive-medicine-in-guinea-pigs-chinchillas-and-degus
#17
REVIEW
Leonie Kondert, Jörg Mayer
Guinea pigs, chinchillas, and degus are hystricomorph rodents originating from South America. They are commonly presented as exotic pets in veterinary practice. Reviewing the anatomy and physiology of their reproductive tract helps to offer better client education about preventive medicine and helps to act faster in emergency situations. Choosing the right anesthetic protocol helps to prevent complications. This article should aid as a guideline on the most common reproductive problems of these 3 species and help in making decisions regarding the best treatment options...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332640/leptospirosis-in-domestic-animals-in-france-serological-results-from-1988-to-2007
#18
G André-Fontaine
Leptospirosis is a common infection in domestic animals. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is used for serological diagnosis. From 1988 to 2007, the Leptospira Medical and Molecular Bacteriology Laboratory at the Nantes National College of Veterinary Medicine, Food Science and Engineering used the MAT to test serum samples from more than 40,000 cattle, 40,000 pigs, 20,000 horses and 9,500 dogs. Five Leptospira serogroups were prominent, with specific variations within the four animal species: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Australis, Sejroë, Grippotyphosa and Autumnalis...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328967/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterobacter-spp-isolates-from-companion-animals-in-japan
#19
Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Yujiro Mukai, Ken Kuwajima, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Asami Ohki, Yasushi Kataoka
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#20
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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