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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#1
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214048/good-vaccination-practice-it-all-starts-with-a-good-vaccine-storage-temperature
#3
Frédéric Vangroenweghe
Background: Recent introduction of strategies to reduce antibiotic use in food animal production implies an increased use of vaccines in order to prevent the economic impact of several important diseases in swine. Good Vaccination Practice (GVP) is an overall approach on the swine farm aiming to obtain maximal efficacy of vaccination through good storage, preparation and finally correct application to the target animals. In order to have a better insight into GVP on swine farms and the vaccine storage conditions, a survey on vaccination practices was performed on a farmers' fair and temperatures in the vaccine storage refrigerators were measured during farm visits over a period of 1 year...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211030/thymbra-capitata-l-cav-and-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-essential-oils-in-vitro-effects-and-toxicity-on-swine-spermatozoa
#4
Alberto Elmi, Domenico Ventrella, Francesca Barone, Gianfranco Filippini, Stefania Benvenuti, Annamaria Pisi, Maurizio Scozzoli, Maria L Bacci
Essential oils possess a variety of biological properties (i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic) that could possibly be applied in reproductive medicine, but their effects on spermatozoa are still partially unknown. The aim of the study was to describe the effects of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. and Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oils on the main morpho-functional parameters of swine spermatozoa. Essential oils were preliminary characterized by gas chromatography and added with emulsifiers to facilitate diffusion...
December 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174088/platelets-are-involved-in-in-vitro-swine-granulosa-cell-luteinization-and-angiogenesis
#5
Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Stefano Grolli, Roberto Ramoni, Virna Conti, Fausto Quintavalla, Francesca Grasselli
During corpus luteum formation, impressive biological events take place to guarantee the transition from original follicular to luteal cells and to support required massive angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that these phenomena resemble those essential for wound healing. After ovulation, blood vessels release their content in the antral cavity and coagulation takes place. Involvement of platelets in corpus luteum growth has been hypothesized both in human and in rat. On this basis, using platelet lysate (PL), a blood derivative with a higher platelet concentration, we aimed to assess a potential involvement of platelets in swine granulosa cell luteinization and on new blood vessel growth...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119090/evaluation-of-antibiotic-usage-in-swine-reproduction-farms-in-umbria-region-based-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-antimicrobial-consumption
#6
Fausto Scoppetta, Marco Sensi, Maria Pia Franciosini, Marinella Capuccella
Antibiotic use in food-producing animals has considerable impact on public health, especially with respect to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Pigs represent one of the main species in which antibiotics are frequently used for different purposes. Surveillance of antibiotic consumption and dose appropriateness, through novel approaches based on defined daily doses, is strongly needed to assess farms' antibiotic risk, in terms of spread of antibiotic resistance and possibile presence of residues in meat...
August 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115692/a-spiral-based-volumetric-acquisition-for-mr-temperature-imaging
#7
Samuel W Fielden, Xue Feng, Li Zhao, G Wilson Miller, Matthew Geeslin, Robert F Dallapiaza, W Jeffrey Elias, Max Wintermark, Kim Butts Pauly, Craig H Meyer
PURPOSE: To develop a rapid pulse sequence for volumetric MR thermometry. METHODS: Simulations were carried out to assess temperature deviation, focal spot distortion/blurring, and focal spot shift across a range of readout durations and maximum temperatures for Cartesian, spiral-out, and retraced spiral-in/out (RIO) trajectories. The RIO trajectory was applied for stack-of-spirals 3D imaging on a real-time imaging platform and preliminary evaluation was carried out compared to a standard 2D sequence in vivo using a swine brain model, comparing maximum and mean temperatures measured between the two methods, as well as the temporal standard deviation measured by the two methods...
November 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110404/antimicrobial-resistance-trends-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-food-producing-animals-in-france-a-14-year-period-time-series-study
#8
C Boireau, É Morignat, G Cazeau, N Jarrige, É Jouy, M Haenni, J-Y Madec, A Leblond, É Gay
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099898/isolation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-species-from-feces-of-layer-chickens-in-germany
#9
Werner Herbst, Hermann Willems, Jörg Heuser, Christa Ewers
OBJECTIVE: Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery (Brachyspira [B.] hyodysenteriae) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis (B. pilosicoli, PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951481/bacterial-whack-a-mole-reconsidering-the-public-health-relevance-of-using-carbadox-in-food-animals
#10
Lance B Price
Carbadox is an antibiotic used to control dysentery and promote growth in swine in the United States; however, the drug also causes tumors and birth defects in laboratory animals. Despite this and because the drug has no analogs in human medicine, it is not considered "medically important" and can be used in livestock without veterinarian oversight. In their recent study, T. A. Johnson et al. (mBio 8:e00709-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00709-17) demonstrated that carbadox has profound effects on the swine gut microbiome, including the induction of transducing phage carrying tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam resistance genes...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915927/a-decade-of-research-into-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-cp7_e2alf-suvaxyn-%C3%A2-csf-marker-a-review-of-vaccine-properties
#11
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Kerstin Wernike, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Claudia Moß, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that is essentially important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. In 2014, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn(®) CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859602/corrigendum
#12
(no author information available yet)
Sayler KA, Bigelow T, Koster LG, Swenson S, Bounds C, Hernández F, Wisely SM. Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds. J Vet Diagn Invest 2017;29:522-528. (Original doi:10.1177/1040638717706593). In the article titled "Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds" by Katherine A. Sayler et al., the Acknowledgements section, should read as follows: We thank all of the researchers who provided isolates or DNA samples of PRV, including C Romero at the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine (U...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790203/the-in-feed-antibiotic-carbadox-induces-phage-gene-transcription-in-the-swine-gut-microbiome
#13
Timothy A Johnson, Torey Looft, Andrew J Severin, Darrell O Bayles, Daniel J Nasko, K Eric Wommack, Adina Howe, Heather K Allen
Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic fed to over 40% of young pigs in the United States that has been shown to induce phage DNA transduction in vitro; however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. We investigated the in vivo longitudinal effects of carbadox on swine gut microbial gene expression (fecal metatranscriptome) and phage population dynamics (fecal dsDNA viromes). Microbial metagenome, transcriptome, and virome sequences were annotated for taxonomic inference and gene function by using FIGfam (isofunctional homolog sequences) and SEED subsystems databases...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780258/behavior-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-co-composting-of-swine-manure-with-chinese-medicinal-herbal-residues
#14
Li Zhang, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Wei Sun, Yanan Yin, Yixin Sun, Aiyun Guo, Xiaxia Tuo
Swine manure is considered to be a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) but little is known about the variations in ARGs during the co-composting of swine manure with Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs). Thus, this study explored the effects of CMHRs on the variations in ARGs during co-composting with swine manure. The results showed that CMHRs could reduce effectively most of the targeted ARGs (0.18-2.82logs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (0.47-3.34logs). The correlations indicated that CMHRs might decrease the spread of ARGs via horizontal gene transfer...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757016/characterization-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-c-confusum-and-c-amycolatum-isolated-from-sows-with-genitourinary-infection
#15
André P Poor, Luisa Z Moreno, Carlos E C Matajira, Beatriz M Parra, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Mauricio C Dutra, Ana Paula G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Porcine Corynebacterium infection is still poorly studied, even though the pig has been described as an asymptomatic carrier of Corynebacterium species, including the zoonotic species C. ulcerans, C. confusum and C. amycolatum. Here we present the identification, molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of coryneform bacteria isolated from sows with urinary tract infection. C. diphtheriae, C. confusum and C. amycolatum were isolated from sows with urinary infection and metritis. Corynebacterium species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699384/preclinical-safety-evaluation-of-allogeneic-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-in-a-swine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#16
Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Carolina Soler-Botija, Oriol Iborra-Egea, Idoia Díaz-Güemes, Mercè Martí, Olalla Iglesias-García, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Isaac Perea-Gil, Santiago Roura, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Ángel Raya, Antoni Bayes-Genis
The combination of biomatrices and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives to aid repair and myocardial scar formation may soon become a reality for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, the tumor risk associated with residual undifferentiated cells remains an important safety concern of iPSC-based therapies. This concern is not satisfactorily addressed in xenotransplantation, which requires immune suppression of the transplanted animal. In this study, we assessed the safety of transplanting undifferentiated iPSCs in an allogeneic setting...
November 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658278/antimicrobial-use-surveillance-in-broiler-chicken-flocks-in-canada-2013-2015
#17
Agnes Agunos, David F Léger, Carolee A Carson, Sheryl P Gow, Angelina Bosman, Rebecca J Irwin, Richard J Reid-Smith
There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603717/assessment-of-the-risk-to-public-health-due-to-use-of-antimicrobials-in-pigs-an-example-of-pleuromutilins-in-denmark
#18
Lis Alban, Johanne Ellis-Iversen, Margit Andreasen, Jan Dahl, Ute W Sönksen
Antibiotic consumption in pigs can be optimized by developing treatment guidelines, which encourage veterinarians to use effective drugs with low probability of developing resistance of importance for human health. In Denmark, treatment guidelines for use in swine production are currently under review at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Use of pleuromutilins in swine has previously been associated with a very low risk for human health. However, recent international data and sporadic findings of novel resistance genes suggest a change of risk...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596049/modern-science-for-better-quality-control-of-medicinal-products-towards-global-harmonization-of-3rs-in-biologicals-the-report-of-an-epaa-workshop
#19
Katrin Schutte, Anna Szczepanska, Marlies Halder, Klaus Cussler, Ursula G Sauer, Catrina Stirling, Sylvie Uhlrich, Iwona Wilk-Zasadna, David John, Martin Bopst, Joerg Garbe, Harrie L Glansbeek, Robin Levis, Pieter-Jan Serreyn, Dean Smith, Paul Stickings
This article summarizes the outcome of an international workshop organized by the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) on Modern science for better quality control of medicinal products: Towards global harmonization of 3Rs in biologicals. As regards the safety testing of biologicals, the workshop participants agreed to actively encourage the deletion of abnormal toxicity tests and target animal batch safety tests from all relevant legal requirements and guidance documents (country-specific guidelines, pharmacopoeia monographs, WHO recommendations)...
June 5, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583756/thrombelastography-indicates-limitations-of-animal-models-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#20
Gregory R Stettler, Ernest E Moore, Hunter B Moore, Peter J Lawson, Miguel Fragoso, Geoffrey R Nunns, Christopher C Silliman, Anirban Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Thrombelastography (TEG) has been used to characterize the coagulation changes associated with injury and shock. Animal models developed to investigate trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have failed to produce excessive bleeding. We hypothesize that a native TEG will demonstrate marked differences in humans compared with these experimental models, which explains the difficulties in reproducing a clinically relevant coagulopathy in animal models. METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 138 healthy human volunteers, 25 swine and 66 Sprague-Dawley rats before experimentation...
September 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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