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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698660/enterobacteria-associated-with-houseflies-musca-domestica-as-an-infection-risk-indicator-in-swine-production-farms
#1
V Cervelin, G Fongaro, J B Pastore, F Engel, M A Reimers, A Viancelli
Houseflies (Musca domestica) spend part of their life development on animal or human manure. Manure is high in pathogenic microbes; thus, houseflies have been known as a mechanical vector for various important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the present study showcases captured houseflies from intensive swine production regions (which are areas of high manure concentration) in Southern Brazil, and analyzes their bodies' to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. and the sensitivity of these bacteria to various antibiotics...
April 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692925/reliable-estimation-of-antimicrobial-use-and-its-evolution-between-2010-and-2013-in-french-swine-farms
#2
Anne Hémonic, Claire Chauvin, Didier Delzescaux, Fabien Verliat, Isabelle Corrégé
Background: There has been a strong implication of both the French swine industry and the national authorities on reducing the use of antimicrobials in swine production since 2010. The annual monitoring of antimicrobial sales by the French Veterinary Medicines Agency (Anses-ANMV) provides estimates but not detailed figures on actual on-farm usage of antimicrobials in swine production. Results: In order to provide detailed information on the 2010 and 2013 antimicrobial use in the French swine industry, the methodology of cross-sectional retrospective study on a representative sample of at least 150 farms has been elected...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685443/a-systemic-integrative-framework-to-describe-comprehensively-a-swine-health-system-flanders-as-an-example
#3
Cristina Rojo-Gimeno, Jeroen Dewulf, Dominiek Maes, Erwin Wauters
A well-functioning swine health system is crucial to ensure a sustainable pig production. Yet, little attention has been paid to understand it. The objective of this study was to unravel the complexity of a swine health system by using a systems-thinking approach for the case of Flanders (Northern part of Belgium). To that end, qualitative interviews were held with 33 relevant stakeholders. A hybrid thematic analysis was conducted which consisted of two phases. First, an inductive thematic analysis was conducted and second, the resulting themes were classified into the building blocks of a systemic framework...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481657/applying-definitions-for-multidrug-resistance-extensive-drug-resistance-and-pandrug-resistance-to-clinically-significant-livestock-and-companion-animal-bacterial-pathogens
#4
Michael T Sweeney, Brian V Lubbers, Stefan Schwarz, Jeffrey L Watts
Standardized definitions for MDR are currently not available in veterinary medicine despite numerous reports indicating that antimicrobial resistance may be increasing among clinically significant bacteria in livestock and companion animals. As such, assessments of MDR presented in veterinary scientific reports are inconsistent. Herein, we apply previously standardized definitions for MDR, XDR and pandrug resistance (PDR) used in human medicine to animal pathogens and veterinary antimicrobial agents in which MDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in at least three antimicrobial classes, XDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in all but one or two available classes and PDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to all agents in all available classes...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377916/vaccination-potential-of-b-and-t-epitope-enriched-np-and-m2-against-influenza-a-viruses-from-different-clades-and-hosts
#5
Irina Tutykhina, Ilias Esmagambetov, Alexander Bagaev, Alexey Pichugin, Andrey Lysenko, Dmitry Shcherbinin, Elena Sedova, Denis Logunov, Maxim Shmarov, Ravshan Ataullakhanov, Boris Naroditsky, Alexander Gintsburg
To avoid outbreaks of influenza virus epidemics and pandemics among human populations, modern medicine requires the development of new universal vaccines that are able to provide protection from a wide range of influenza A virus strains. In the course of development of a universal vaccine, it is necessary to consider that immunity must be generated even against viruses from different hosts because new human epidemic virus strains have their origins in viruses of birds and other animals. We have enriched conserved viral proteins-nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 2 (M2)-by B and T-cell epitopes not only human origin but also swine and avian origin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#6
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214048/good-vaccination-practice-it-all-starts-with-a-good-vaccine-storage-temperature
#8
Frédéric Vangroenweghe
Background: Recent introduction of strategies to reduce antibiotic use in food animal production implies an increased use of vaccines in order to prevent the economic impact of several important diseases in swine. Good Vaccination Practice (GVP) is an overall approach on the swine farm aiming to obtain maximal efficacy of vaccination through good storage, preparation and finally correct application to the target animals. In order to have a better insight into GVP on swine farms and the vaccine storage conditions, a survey on vaccination practices was performed on a farmers' fair and temperatures in the vaccine storage refrigerators were measured during farm visits over a period of 1 year...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211030/thymbra-capitata-l-cav-and-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-essential-oils-in-vitro-effects-and-toxicity-on-swine-spermatozoa
#9
Alberto Elmi, Domenico Ventrella, Francesca Barone, Gianfranco Filippini, Stefania Benvenuti, Annamaria Pisi, Maurizio Scozzoli, Maria L Bacci
Essential oils possess a variety of biological properties (i.e., antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic) that could possibly be applied in reproductive medicine, but their effects on spermatozoa are still partially unknown. The aim of the study was to describe the effects of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. and Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) essential oils on the main morpho-functional parameters of swine spermatozoa. Essential oils were preliminary characterized by gas chromatography and added with emulsifiers to facilitate diffusion...
December 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174088/platelets-are-involved-in-in-vitro-swine-granulosa-cell-luteinization-and-angiogenesis
#10
Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Stefano Grolli, Roberto Ramoni, Virna Conti, Fausto Quintavalla, Francesca Grasselli
During corpus luteum formation, impressive biological events take place to guarantee the transition from original follicular to luteal cells and to support required massive angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that these phenomena resemble those essential for wound healing. After ovulation, blood vessels release their content in the antral cavity and coagulation takes place. Involvement of platelets in corpus luteum growth has been hypothesized both in human and in rat. On this basis, using platelet lysate (PL), a blood derivative with a higher platelet concentration, we aimed to assess a potential involvement of platelets in swine granulosa cell luteinization and on new blood vessel growth...
January 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119090/evaluation-of-antibiotic-usage-in-swine-reproduction-farms-in-umbria-region-based-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-antimicrobial-consumption
#11
Fausto Scoppetta, Marco Sensi, Maria Pia Franciosini, Marinella Capuccella
Antibiotic use in food-producing animals has considerable impact on public health, especially with respect to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Pigs represent one of the main species in which antibiotics are frequently used for different purposes. Surveillance of antibiotic consumption and dose appropriateness, through novel approaches based on defined daily doses , is strongly needed to assess farms' antibiotic risk, in terms of spread of antibiotic resistance and possibile presence of residues in meat...
August 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115692/a-spiral-based-volumetric-acquisition-for-mr-temperature-imaging
#12
Samuel W Fielden, Xue Feng, Li Zhao, G Wilson Miller, Matthew Geeslin, Robert F Dallapiazza, W Jeffrey Elias, Max Wintermark, Kim Butts Pauly, Craig H Meyer
PURPOSE: To develop a rapid pulse sequence for volumetric MR thermometry. METHODS: Simulations were carried out to assess temperature deviation, focal spot distortion/blurring, and focal spot shift across a range of readout durations and maximum temperatures for Cartesian, spiral-out, and retraced spiral-in/out (RIO) trajectories. The RIO trajectory was applied for stack-of-spirals 3D imaging on a real-time imaging platform and preliminary evaluation was carried out compared to a standard 2D sequence in vivo using a swine brain model, comparing maximum and mean temperatures measured between the two methods, as well as the temporal standard deviation measured by the two methods...
June 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110404/antimicrobial-resistance-trends-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-food-producing-animals-in-france-a-14-year-period-time-series-study
#13
C Boireau, É Morignat, G Cazeau, N Jarrige, É Jouy, M Haenni, J-Y Madec, A Leblond, É Gay
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three livestock productions in France (cattle, swine and poultry). The trend in resistance to the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in animal health was analysed as follows: amoxicillin (penicillin), spectinomycin or streptomycin (aminoglycoside), tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole/Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur were also taken into account as members of critically important antimicrobial families in human and veterinary medicine, that is fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, respectively...
February 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099898/isolation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-brachy-spira-species-from-feces-of-layer-chickens-in-germany
#14
Werner Herbst, Hermann Willems, Jörg Heuser, Christa Ewers
OBJECTIVE: Anaerobic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira are important pathogens causing swine dysentery ( Brachyspira [ B .] hyodysenteriae ) and porcine intestinal spirochetosis ( B. pilosicoli , PIS). In addition, avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by B. pilosicoli , B. intermedia and B. alvinipulli. Despite the economic impact of AIS, the disease has not received appropriate attention in Germany. This study was aimed at identifying Brachyspira spp. in Germany and determining their antimicrobial susceptibility...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951481/bacterial-whack-a-mole-reconsidering-the-public-health-relevance-of-using-carbadox-in-food-animals
#15
Lance B Price
Carbadox is an antibiotic used to control dysentery and promote growth in swine in the United States; however, the drug also causes tumors and birth defects in laboratory animals. Despite this and because the drug has no analogs in human medicine, it is not considered "medically important" and can be used in livestock without veterinarian oversight. In their recent study, T. A. Johnson et al. (mBio 8:e00709-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00709-17) demonstrated that carbadox has profound effects on the swine gut microbiome, including the induction of transducing phage carrying tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam resistance genes...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915927/a-decade-of-research-into-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-cp7_e2alf-suvaxyn-%C3%A2-csf-marker-a-review-of-vaccine-properties
#16
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Kerstin Wernike, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Claudia Moß, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. However, until recently, the available live vaccines did not allow a serological marker concept that is essentially important to circumvent long-term trade restrictions. In 2014, a new live attenuated marker vaccine, Suvaxyn® CSF Marker (Zoetis), was licensed by the European Medicines Agency...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859602/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
Sayler KA, Bigelow T, Koster LG, Swenson S, Bounds C, Hernández F, Wisely SM. Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds. J Vet Diagn Invest 2017;29:522-528. (Original doi:10.1177/1040638717706593). In the article titled "Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds" by Katherine A. Sayler et al., the Acknowledgements section, should read as follows: We thank all of the researchers who provided isolates or DNA samples of PRV, including C Romero at the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine (U...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790203/the-in-feed-antibiotic-carbadox-induces-phage-gene-transcription-in-the-swine-gut-microbiome
#18
Timothy A Johnson, Torey Looft, Andrew J Severin, Darrell O Bayles, Daniel J Nasko, K Eric Wommack, Adina Howe, Heather K Allen
Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic fed to over 40% of young pigs in the United States that has been shown to induce phage DNA transduction in vitro; however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. We investigated the in vivo longitudinal effects of carbadox on swine gut microbial gene expression (fecal metatranscriptome) and phage population dynamics (fecal dsDNA viromes). Microbial metagenome, transcriptome, and virome sequences were annotated for taxonomic inference and gene function by using FIGfam (isofunctional homolog sequences) and SEED subsystems databases...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780258/behavior-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-co-composting-of-swine-manure-with-chinese-medicinal-herbal-residues
#19
Li Zhang, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Wei Sun, Yanan Yin, Yixin Sun, Aiyun Guo, Xiaxia Tuo
Swine manure is considered to be a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) but little is known about the variations in ARGs during the co-composting of swine manure with Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs). Thus, this study explored the effects of CMHRs on the variations in ARGs during co-composting with swine manure. The results showed that CMHRs could reduce effectively most of the targeted ARGs (0.18-2.82logs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (0.47-3.34logs). The correlations indicated that CMHRs might decrease the spread of ARGs via horizontal gene transfer...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757016/characterization-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-c-confusum-and-c-amycolatum-isolated-from-sows-with-genitourinary-infection
#20
André P Poor, Luisa Z Moreno, Carlos E C Matajira, Beatriz M Parra, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Mauricio C Dutra, Ana Paula G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Porcine Corynebacterium infection is still poorly studied, even though the pig has been described as an asymptomatic carrier of Corynebacterium species, including the zoonotic species C. ulcerans, C. confusum and C. amycolatum. Here we present the identification, molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of coryneform bacteria isolated from sows with urinary tract infection. C. diphtheriae, C. confusum and C. amycolatum were isolated from sows with urinary infection and metritis. Corynebacterium species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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