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swine medicine

Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
E Asimaki, O Nolte, G Overesch, C Strahm
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod that occurs widely in nature and is best known in veterinary medicine for causing swine erysipelas. In humans, infections are rare and mainly considered as occupationally acquired zoonosis. A case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia most likely associated with home freshwater aquarium handling is reported. The route of transmission was probably a cut with the dorsal fin of a dead pet fish. A short review of clinical presentations, therapeutic considerations and pitfalls of E...
November 21, 2016: Infection
M Arcan Ertürk, Xiaoping Wu, Yiğitcan Eryaman, Pierre-François Van de Moortele, Edward J Auerbach, Russell L Lagore, Lance DelaBarre, J Thomas Vaughan, Kâmil Uğurbil, Gregor Adriany, Gregory J Metzger
PURPOSE: To explore the potential of performing body imaging at 10.5 Tesla (T) compared with 7.0T through evaluating the transmit/receive performance of similarly configured dipole antenna arrays. METHODS: Fractionated dipole antenna elements for 10.5T body imaging were designed and evaluated using numerical simulations. Transmit performance of antenna arrays inside the prostate, kidneys and heart were investigated and compared with those at 7.0T using both phase-only radiofrequency (RF) shimming and multi-spoke pulses...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Maren Seitz, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Jörg Willenborg
Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Daniel B Hawcutt, Nicki-Jayne Russell, Hannah Maqsood, Koushan Kouranloo, Simon Gomberg, Catriona Waitt, Andrew Sharp, Andrew Riordan, Mark A Turner
AIMS: The UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) runs a national spontaneous reporting system (Yellow Card [YC] Scheme) to collect 'suspected' adverse drug reaction (ADR) data. We aim to describe the content and utility of YC reports received for patients aged <2 years. METHODS: Data on all ADRs reported using YC in infants aged <2 years from the years 2001-10 were supplied by the MHRA. RESULTS: For infants age <2 years, 3496 suspected ADRs were reported using YC (paternal medication pre-conception n = 3, transplacental n = 246, transmammary n = 30, neonates n = 97, infant n = 477, and vaccinations n = 2673), averaging 0...
December 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Carolin Dräger, Charlotte Schröder, Patricia König, Birthe Tegtmeyer, Martin Beer, Sandra Blome
Classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs worldwide and outbreaks are notifiable to the OIE. The different control options also include (emergency) vaccination, preferably with a vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). Recently, the chimeric pestivirus "CP7_E2alf" (Suvaxyn® CSF Marker, Zoetis) was licensed as live attenuated marker vaccine by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In the context of risk assessments for an emergency vaccination scenario, the question has been raised whether pre-existing anti-pestivirus antibodies, especially against the vaccine backbone Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), would interfere with "CP7_E2alf" vaccination and the accompanying DIVA diagnostics...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Mikihiro Yunoki, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kadue Takahashi, Takeru Urayama, Shinji Hattori, Shoji Ideno, Rie Furuki, Kaoru Sakai, Katsuro Hagiwara, Kazuyoshi Ikuta
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes viral hepatitis, and is considered a risk factor for blood products. Although some HEV inactivation/removal studies have been reported, detailed investigations of different manufacturing steps as heat treatment, partitioning during cold ethanol fractionation, low pH treatment, and virus filtration have yet to be reported for plasma-derived medicinal products. In this study, human serum- and swine faeces-derived HEVs, with and without detergent treatment, were used. The kinetic patterns of inactivation, log reduction value, or partitioning during the process were evaluated...
September 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Andrew R Williams, Jens Soelberg, Anna K Jäger
Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Colistin, a cationic polypeptide antibiotic, has reappeared in human medicine as a last-line treatment option for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). Colistin is widely used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. GNB resistant to colistin owing to chromosomal mutations have already been reported both in human and veterinary medicine, however several recent studies have just identified a plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene encoding for colistin resistance in Escherichia coli colistin resistance...
August 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Nicole Borel, Cory Leonard, Jessica Slade, Robert V Schoborg
The Chlamydiaceae are widespread pathogens of both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis infection causes blinding trachoma and reproductive complications in humans. Chlamydia pneumoniae causes human respiratory tract infections and atypical pneumonia. Chlamydia suis infection is associated with conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight in domestic swine. Chlamydial infections in humans and domesticated animals are generally controlled by antibiotic treatment-particularly macrolides (usually azithromycin) and tetracyclines (tetracycline and doxycycline)...
2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Juliana Bazzan Arsand, Louíse Jank, Magda Targa Martins, Rodrigo Barcellos Hoff, Fabiano Barreto, Tânia Mara Pizzolato, Carla Sirtori
Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine mainly for treatment and prevention of diseases. The aminoglycosides are one of the antibiotics classes that have been extensively employed in animal husbandry for the treatment of bacterial infections, but also as growth promotion. The European Union has issued strict Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for aminoglycosides in several animal origin products including bovine milk, bovine, swine and poultry muscle. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (spectinomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, hygromycin, apramycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amikacin and neomycin) in bovine milk and bovine, swine and poultry muscle...
July 1, 2016: Talanta
Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Cynthia Calzas, Tze Chieh Shiao, Axel Neubauer, Jennifer Kempker, René Roy, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an encapsulated bacterium and one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry. Despite decades of research for an efficient vaccine, none is currently available. Based on the success achieved with other encapsulated pathogens, a glycoconjugate vaccine strategy was selected to elicit opsonizing anti-capsular polysaccharide (anti-CPS) IgG antibodies. In this work, glycoconjugate prototypes were prepared by coupling S. suis type 2 CPS to tetanus toxoid, and the immunological features of the postconjugation preparations were evaluated in vivo In mice, experiments evaluating three different adjuvants showed that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) induces very low levels of anti-CPS IgM antibodies, while the emulsifying adjuvants Stimune and TiterMax Gold both induced high levels of IgGs and IgM...
July 2016: Infection and Immunity
Alain Stricker-Krongrad, Catherine R Shoemake, Guy F Bouchard
The use of the miniature swine as a nonrodent species in research has continued to expand for over a decade, and they are becoming routinely used both in experimental pharmacology and as a therapeutic model for human diseases. Miniature swine models are regularly used for studies designed to assess efficacy and safety of new therapeutic compounds given through different routes of exposure and are used as an alternative model to rodents, canines, or nonhuman primates. Translational preclinical swine study data presented here support the current understanding that miniature swine are the animal model of choice for the assessment of drugs targeting endocrine, dermal, and ocular disorders...
June 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
T M Kpodékon, C A Ogni, H Dassou, T J Dougnon, C Boko, G B Koutinhouin, J S E Goussanou, A Akoegninou, I Youssao
AIM: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders...
December 2015: Veterinary World
Keith A Marill, David D Salcido, Matthew L Sundermann, Allison C Koller, James J Menegazzi
OBJECTIVES: Potassium cardioplegia-induced transient asystole may conserve myocardial energy, foster chemical defribrillation, and improve VF arrest outcome. A trial of potassium infusion with or without calcium reversal was conducted to test for improvement in intra-arrest VF waveform and post-ROSC hemodynamics. METHODS: Eighteen swine were randomized to three treatment arms in two phases. VF was electrically induced and untreated for 4min. The animals then received 6min of mechanical CPR...
June 2016: Resuscitation
Laurie S DeMarcus, Tiffany A Parms, Jeffrey W Thervil
This report for the 2013-2014 influenza season summarizes the results of influenza surveillance carried out by the DoD Global, Laboratory-based, Influenza Surveillance Program, which is managed by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Epidemiology Consult Service and Epidemiology Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. Sentinel sites submitted 3,903 specimens for clinical diagnostic testing and 1,163 (29.8%) were positive for influenza virus. The predominant influenza subtype was influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, identified in 79...
March 2016: MSMR
Ivan Díaz, Martí Cortey, Àlex Olvera, Joaquim Segalés
H-index is the most commonly applied tool to evaluate scientific productivity. In this study, the use of the H-index to evaluate scientific production in swine veterinary medicine was explored. A database of 137 pig infectious agents was constructed, including its taxonomic division, zoonotic potential, status as emerging pathogen and whether it was OIE-listed. The H-index and the total number of citations were calculated for those pathogens, the location of the affiliation of the first author of each paper included in the H-index core was registered and, for the ten pathogens with the highest H-index, evolution over time was measured...
2016: PloS One
Liye Wang, Lingli Huang, Yuanhu Pan, Kamil Kuča, Blanka Klímová, Qinghua Wu, Shuyu Xie, Ijaz Ahmad, Dongmei Chen, Yanfei Tao, Dan Wan, Zhenli Liu, Zonghui Yuan
Aditoprim (ADP) is a newly developed antibacterial agent in veterinary medicine. The metabolism and disposition of ADP in swine, broilers, carp and rats were investigated by using a radio tracer method combined with a radioactivity detector and a liquid chromatography/ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After a single oral administration, more than 94% of the dose was recovered within 14 d in the four species. The urine excretion was dominant in swine and rats, making up 78% of the dose. N-monodesmethyl-ADP, N-didesmethyl-ADP, and 10 new metabolites were characterized...
2016: Scientific Reports
Luis Miguel Aller-Morán, Francisco Javier Martínez-Lobo, Pedro Rubio, Ana Carvajal
Flumequine is a quinolone derivative used in veterinary medicine to treat enteric infections, mainly those caused by Gram negative bacteria and also some Gram positive. Some recent reports by field practitioners have suggested that its use in swine dysentery outbreaks can minimize the impact of this disease. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro anti-Brachyspira hyodysenteriae activity of flumequine. Forty eight field isolates of the bacterium were evaluated using a microdilution test. The lack of colon bioavailability studies of flumequine in pigs makes it difficult to establish the true efficacy of this antibiotic for swine dysentery control...
December 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
D Höltig, I Nickoll, J Kauffold, C Puff, K-H Waldmann, A von Altrock
Miniature pet pigs are becoming ever more common among the patients of small animal practices. Due to an advanced age attained in these animals in comparison with conventional pigs in pork production, miniature pet pigs develop age-related diseases that are infrequently observed in farm pigs, including neoplastic alterations of the uterus. We describe two cases of a uterine adenocarcinoma and a leiomyoma, respectively, in two miniature pet pig sows. Options and limits of diagnostic measures (unspecific clinical symptoms, x-ray, sonography and computed tomography) and therapy within the legal limits as well as the risk of an incorrect diagnosis based upon the more common differential diagnoses in swine medicine, including obstipation, cystitis and endometritis, are discussed...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
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