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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443845/passive-and-active-colloidal-chemotaxis-in-a-microfluidic-channel-mesoscopic-and-stochastic-models
#1
Laurens Deprez, Pierre de Buyl
Chemotaxis is the response of a particle to a gradient in the chemical composition of the environment. While it was originally observed for biological organisms, it is of great interest in the context of synthetic active particles such as nanomotors. Experimental demonstration of chemotaxis for chemically-powered colloidal nanomotors was reported in the literature in the context of chemo-attraction in a still fluid or in a microfluidic channel where the gradient is sustained by a specific inlet geometry. In this work, we use mesoscopic particle-based simulations of the colloid and solvent to demonstrate chemotaxis in a microfluidic channel...
April 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443070/crystal-structure-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-from-the-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen-a-vaginae-an-immunoevasive-factor-that-interacts-with-the-human-c5a-anaphylatoxin
#2
Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442430/design-and-purification-of-active-truncated-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-gamma-protein-constructs-for-structural-studies
#3
A Vujičić Žagar, L Scapozza, O Vadas
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) is a lipid kinase that plays a crucial role in cell migration, chemotaxis, oxidative burst and myocardial contractility. It is activated downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and small GTPases of Ras superfamily. PI3Kγ is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit that is expressed mostly in hematopoietic cells and in the heart. Although it has attracted a lot of attention because of its link with tumor inflammation and heart diseases, its regulation is still not fully understood...
April 22, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438636/identification-of-chemotaxis-operon-cheyza-and-chea-gene-expression-under-stressful-conditions-in-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#4
Romina Albornoz, Karla Valenzuela, Juan P Pontigo, Patricio Sánchez, Pamela Ruiz, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Alex Romero, Cristian Oliver, Alejandro Yáñez
Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, which, as the main systemic disease in the Chilean salmon industry, causes significant economic losses. This bacterium can produce biofilm as a persistence and survival strategy in adverse conditions. In other bacteria, cheA is a key gene for modulating the onset of bacterial chemotaxis, as well as having a secondary role in biofilm production. Notwithstanding this association, the potential relationships between biofilm formation and genes involved in P...
April 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437580/differential-gene-expression-in-narrow-and-broad-headed-european-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla-points-to-a-transcriptomic-link-of-head-shape-dimorphism-with-growth-rate-and-chemotaxis
#5
J De Meyer, G E Maes, R P Dirks, D Adriaens
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanisms underlying morphological dimorphism and plasticity, including the genomic basis of traits and links to ecology. At the yellow eel stage of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), two morphotypes are found: broad- and narrow-heads. This dimorphism has been linked to dietary differences, with broad-heads feeding on harder, larger prey than narrow-heads. However, recent research showed that both morphotypes could be distinguished at the glass eel stage, the non-feeding predecessor of the yellow eel stage, implying that non-dietary factors play a role in the development of this head shape dimorphism...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433721/optimizing-the-restored-chemotactic-behavior-of-anticancer-agent-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009
#6
Katherine M Broadway, Seungbeum Suh, Bahareh Behkam, Birgit E Scharf
Bacteria, including strains of Salmonella, have been researched and applied as therapeutic cancer agents for centuries. Salmonella are particularly of interest due to their facultative anaerobic nature, facilitating colonization of differentially oxygenated tumor regions. Additionally, Salmonella can be manipulated with relative ease, resulting in the ability to attenuate the pathogen or engineer vectors for drug delivery. It was recently discovered that the anti-cancer Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain VNP20009 is lacking in chemotactic ability, due to a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in cheY...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432900/lysophosphatidic-acid-induces-expression-of-genes-in-human-oral-keratinocytes-involved-in-wound-healing
#7
Hong Huynh Thorlakson, Stian Andre Engen, Olav Schreurs, Karl Schenck, Inger Johanne Schytte Blix
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). DESIGN: HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432436/chemokine-involvement-in-lung-injury-secondary-to-ischaemia-reperfusion
#8
Lisa Rancan, Sergio D Paredes, Luis Huerta, Javier Casanova, Jorge Guzmán, Ignacio Garutti, Federico González-Aragoneses, Carlos Simón, Elena Vara
INTRODUCTION: During transplant surgeries, the lung experiences an ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced damage identified as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms by which I/R induces leucocyte accumulation and subsequent tissue damage in lung surgeries remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in leucocyte chemotaxis related to lung injury secondary to I/R...
April 21, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432145/bacterial-siderophores-hijack-neutrophil-functions
#9
Piu Saha, Beng San Yeoh, Rodrigo A Olvera, Xia Xiao, Vishal Singh, Deepika Awasthi, Bhagawat C Subramanian, Qiuyan Chen, Madhu Dikshit, Yanming Wang, Carole A Parent, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Neutrophils are the primary immune cells that respond to inflammation and combat microbial transgression. To thrive, the bacteria residing in their mammalian host have to withstand the antibactericidal responses of neutrophils. We report that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore expressed by Escherichia coli, inhibited PMA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mouse and human neutrophils. Ent also impaired the degranulation of primary granules and inhibited phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils, without affecting their migration and chemotaxis...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431394/effect-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009-and-vnp20009-with-restored-chemotaxis-on-4t1-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-progression
#10
Sheryl L Coutermarsh-Ott, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf, Irving C Allen
A variety of bacterial strains have been evaluated as bio-therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents to treat cancer. One such strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009, which is attenuated by a purine auxotrophic mutation and modified lipid A, is characterized in previous models as a safely administered, tumor colonizing agent. However, earlier work tended to use less aggressive cancer cell lines and immunocompromised animal models. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of VNP20009 in a highly malignant murine model of human breast cancer...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429504/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reduce-neutrophil-chemotaxis-via-activating-grk2-in-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury
#11
Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Shiuan Lin, Wei-Chih Chen, Wen-Kuang Yu, Yen-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yu Chen, Kuang-Yao Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in moderating neutrophil chemotaxis in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice at 8-12 weeks of age were studied. Murine iPSCs were delivered through the tail veins of mice 4 h after intratracheal instillation of endotoxin. Lung histopathological findings, neutrophil counts in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), bone marrow (BM) cell distribution, expression of chemokine receptors and regulatory signalling pathways were analysed after 24 h...
April 21, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429334/thrombolysis-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-inhibiting-chemotaxis-of-macrophage-by-mcp-1-blockage
#12
Z-W Wang, J-J Wang, J-Z Zhang, Z-J Xue, J Miao, L Li, W-X Hu
OBJECTIVE: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one common vascular complication after trauma or surgery. Macrophage plays an important role in recanalization of thrombosis and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) has a potent chemotactic role for macrophage. This study investigated the role of MCP-1 and macrophage in DVT thrombolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DVT mice model was established for evaluating thrombosis grades, and divided into DVT, DVT + MCP-1 recombinant protein, and DVT + MCP-1 neutralizing antibody groups...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429264/lymphocytes-incubated-in-the-presence-of-il-2-lose-the-capacity-for-chemotaxis-but-acquire-antitumor-activity
#13
E A Romanova, E A Dukhanina, T N Sharapova, L P Sashchenko, N V Gnuchev, D V Yashin
Naïve non-activated lymphocytes are capable of releasing the chemoattractant complex Tag7-Mts1 and can migrate along the gradient of its concentration. After activation of these cells by IL-2, they acquire the abilities to kill tumor cells and to release the cytotoxic Tag7-Hsp70 complex, which is accompanied by a loss of both the Tag7-Mts1-mediated lymphocyte chemotaxis and the ability to release this chemoattractant into the conditioned medium.
January 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428554/network-assisted-analysis-of-gwas-data-identifies-a-functionally-relevant-gene-module-for-childhood-onset-asthma
#14
Y Liu, M Brossard, C Sarnowski, A Vaysse, M Moffatt, P Margaritte-Jeannin, F Llinares-López, M H Dizier, M Lathrop, W Cookson, E Bouzigon, F Demenais
The number of genetic factors associated with asthma remains limited. To identify new genes with an undetected individual effect but collectively influencing asthma risk, we conducted a network-assisted analysis that integrates outcomes of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and protein-protein interaction networks. We used two GWAS datasets, each consisting of the results of a meta-analysis of nine childhood-onset asthma GWASs (5,924 and 6,043 subjects, respectively). We developed a novel method to compute gene-level P-values (fastCGP), and proposed a parallel dense-module search and cross-selection strategy to identify an asthma-associated gene module...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425142/signaling-complexes-control-the-chemotaxis-kinase-by-altering-its-apparent-rate-constant-of-autophosphorylation
#15
Wenlin Pan, Frederick W Dahlquist, Gerald L Hazelbauer
Autophosphorylating histidine kinase CheA is central to signaling in bacterial chemotaxis. The kinase donates its phosphoryl group to two response regulators, CheY that controls flagellar rotation and thus motility and CheB, crucial for sensory adaptation. As measured by coupled CheY phosphorylation, incorporation into signaling complexes activates the kinase ∼1,000-fold and places it under control of chemoreceptors. By the same assay, receptors modulate kinase activity ∼100-fold as a function of receptor ligand occupancy and adaptational modification...
April 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424660/ccl2-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-and-parathyroid-hormone-action-on-bone
#16
REVIEW
Jawed Akhtar Siddiqui, Nicola C Partridge
Chemokines are small molecules that play a crucial role as chemoattractants for several cell types, and their components are associated with host immune responses and repair mechanisms. Chemokines selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and induce chemotaxis through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors. Two well-described chemokine families (CXC and CC) are known to regulate the localization and trafficking of immune cells in cases of injury, infection, and tumors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the important chemokines from the CC family that controls migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages during inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424616/whole-blood-cytokine-response-to-local-traffic-related-particulate-matter-in-peruvian-children-with-and-without-asthma
#17
Jesse P Negherbon, Karina Romero, D'Ann L Williams, Rafael E Guerrero-Preston, Thomas Hartung, Alan L Scott, Patrick N Breysse, William Checkley, Nadia N Hansel
This study sought to investigate if acute phase immune responses of whole blood from Peruvian children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma differed from children without asthma, following exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TRPM). TRPM, including particulate matter from diesel combustion, has been shown to stimulate acute airway inflammation in individuals with and without asthma. For this study, a whole blood assay (WBA) was used to test peripheral whole blood samples from 27 children with asthma, and 12 without asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424419/integrated-analysis-of-genes-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis
#18
Zhenyuan Qian, Guobing Zhang, Guangyuan Song, Ji Shi, Lijie Gong, Yiping Mou, Yong Han
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignances in the gut. Liver is the most common metastasis site of CRC. This study focuses on the primary CRC and its liver metastasis, aiming to discover several liver metastasis related genes and provide therapeutic candidates. We compared gene expression patterns among the groups of normal colorectal mucosa, primary tumor and the liver metastasis using a CRC gene expression dataset. 84 genes were found to be upregulated in both primary tumor and liver metastases...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424337/physical-and-chemical-gradients-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-regulate-tumor-cell-invasion-migration-and-metastasis
#19
Madeleine J Oudin, Valerie M Weaver
Cancer metastasis requires the invasion of tumor cells into the stroma and the directed migration of tumor cells through the stroma toward the vasculature and lymphatics where they can disseminate and colonize secondary organs. Physical and biochemical gradients that form within the primary tumor tissue promote tumor cell invasion and drive persistent migration toward blood vessels and the lymphatics to facilitate tumor cell dissemination. These microenvironment cues include hypoxia and pH gradients, gradients of soluble cues that induce chemotaxis, and ions that facilitate galvanotaxis, as well as modifications to the concentration, organization, and stiffness of the extracellular matrix that produce haptotactic, alignotactic, and durotactic gradients...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422986/a-critical-like-collective-state-leads-to-long-range-cell-communication-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-aggregation
#20
Giovanna De Palo, Darvin Yi, Robert G Endres
The transition from single-cell to multicellular behavior is important in early development but rarely studied. The starvation-induced aggregation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum into a multicellular slug is known to result from single-cell chemotaxis towards emitted pulses of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, how exactly do transient, short-range chemical gradients lead to coherent collective movement at a macroscopic scale? Here, we developed a multiscale model verified by quantitative microscopy to describe behaviors ranging widely from chemotaxis and excitability of individual cells to aggregation of thousands of cells...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
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