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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332618/the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-promotes-granuloma-formation-by-sustaining-a-mycobacteria-induced-angiogenesis-programme
#1
Vincenzo Torraca, Claudia Tulotta, B Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Annemarie H Meijer
CXC chemokine receptor 4 plays a critical role in chemotaxis and leukocyte differentiation. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that links this receptor to angiogenesis. Using the well-established zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model for tuberculosis, angiogenesis was recently found to be important for the development of cellular aggregates called granulomas that contain the mycobacteria and are the hallmark of tuberculosis disease. Here, we found that initiation of the granuloma-associated proangiogenic programme requires CXCR4 signalling...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325862/reduced-pu-1-expression-underlies-aberrant-neutrophil-maturation-and-function-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-mice-and-patients
#2
Panjaree Siwaponanan, Jurre Ynze Siegers, Razi Ghazali, Thian Ng, Bradley McColl, Garrett Zhen-Wei Ng, Philip Sutton, Nancy Wang, Isabelle Ooi, Chayada Thiengtavor, Suthat Fucharoen, Pornthip Chaichompoo, Saovaros Svasti, Odilia Louise Wijburg, Jim Vadolas
β-Thalassemia is associated with several abnormalities of the innate immune system. Neutrophils in particular are defective, predisposing patients to life-threatening bacterial infections. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in impaired neutrophil function remain incompletely defined. We used the Hbb(th3/+) β-thalassemia mouse and HbE/β-thalassemia patients to investigate dysregulated neutrophil activity. Mature neutrophils from Hbb(th3/+) mice displayed a significant reduction in chemotaxis, opsonophagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), closely mimicking the defective immune functions observed in β-thalassemia patients...
March 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323919/steroids-regulate-cxcl4-in-the-human-endometrium-during-menstruation-to-enable-efficient-endometrial-repair
#3
J A Maybin, U Thiruchelvam, M Madhra, Ptk Saunders, Hod Critchley
Context: Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. Objective: To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium, as a putative repair factor at menses. Patients/Setting: Endometrium was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322874/reconstructing-the-genotype-to-fitness-map-for-the-bacterial-chemotaxis-network-and-its-emergent-behavioural-phenotypes
#4
Alberto Nakauma, G Sander van Doorn
The signal-transduction network responsible for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli has been characterised in extraordinary detail. Yet, relatively little is known about eco-evolutionary aspects of chemotaxis, such as how the network has been shaped by selection and to what extent natural populations may fine-tune their chemotactic behaviour to the ecological conditions. To address these questions, we here develop an evolutionary-systems-biology model of the chemotaxis network of E. coli, which we apply to estimate the resource accumulation rate (here used as a proxy for fitness) of wildtype and a large number of potential mutant genotypes...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322746/truncation-of-cxcl12-by-cd26-reduces-its-cxc-chemokine-receptor-4-and-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-dependent-activity-on-endothelial-cells-and-lymphocytes
#5
Rik Janssens, Anneleen Mortier, Daiane Boff, Pieter Ruytinx, Mieke Gouwy, Bo Vantilt, Olav Larsen, Viktorija Daugvilaite, Mette M Rosenkilde, Marc Parmentier, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf, Mauro M Teixeira, Flávio A Amaral, Paul Proost
The chemokine CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1/SDF-1 attracts hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature leukocytes through the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, it interacts with atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3 or CXCR7) and glycosaminoglycans. CXCL12 activity is regulated through posttranslational cleavage by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 that removes two N-terminal amino acids. CD26-truncated CXCL12 does not induce calcium signaling or chemotaxis of mononuclear cells...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321425/adult-cells-combined-with-platelet-rich-plasma-for-tendon-healing-cell-source-options
#6
Eva Rubio-Azpeitia, Pello Sánchez, Diego Delgado, Isabel Andia
BACKGROUND: The combination of cells with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may fulfill tendon deficits and help overcome the limited ability of tendons to heal. PURPOSE: To examine the suitability of 3 human cell types in combination with PRP and the potential impact of the tenocyte-conditioned media (CM) to enhance tendon healing. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Tenocytes, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and skin fibroblasts were cultured in 3-dimensional PRP hydrogels supplemented or not with CM, and cell proliferation and migration were examined...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320610/carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-401-suppresses-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-migratory-potential-by-modulating-f-actin-dynamics
#7
Ken Inoue, Eric K Patterson, Alfredo Capretta, Abdel R Lawendy, Douglas D Fraser, Gediminas Cepinskas
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress inflammation by reducing polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the affected organs. We investigated modulation of PMN-endothelial cell adhesive interactions by water-soluble CORM-401 using an experimental model of endotoxemia in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown on laminar-flow perfusion channels were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide for 6 hours and perfused with 100 μmol/L CORM-401 (or inactive compound iCORM-401)-pretreated PMN for 5 minutes in the presence of 1...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314368/metallic-nanoparticles-reduce-the-migration-of-human-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#8
Larissa Fernanda de Araújo Vieira, Marvin Paulo Lins, Iana Mayane Mendes Nicácio Viana, Jeniffer Estevão Dos Santos, Salete Smaniotto, Maria Danielma Dos Santos Reis
Nanoparticles have extremely wide applications in the medical and biological fields. They are being used in biosensors, local drug delivery, diagnostics, and medical therapy. However, the potential effects of nanoparticles on target cell and tissue function, apart from cytotoxicity, are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on human fibroblasts with respect to their interaction with the extracellular matrix and in cell migration...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306307/barrier-crossing-in-escherichia-coli-chemotaxis
#9
Zhaojun Li, Qiuxian Cai, Xuanqi Zhang, Guangwei Si, Qi Ouyang, Chunxiong Luo, Yuhai Tu
We study cell navigation in spatiotemporally complex environments by developing a microfluidic racetrack device that creates a traveling wave with multiple peaks and a tunable wave speed. We find that while the population-averaged chemotaxis drift speed increases with wave speed for low wave speed, it decreases sharply for high wave speed. This reversed dependence of population-averaged chemotaxis drift speed on wave speed is caused by a "barrier-crossing" phenomenon, where a cell hops backwards from one peak attractant location to the peak behind by crossing an unfavorable (barrier) region with low attractant concentrations...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304245/kineothrix-alysoides-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-saccharolytic-butyrate-producer-within-the-family-lachnospiraceae
#10
Kelly Nicole Haas, Jeffrey L Blanchard
An anaerobic, saccharolytic, spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain KNHs209T, was isolated from a switchgrass microcosm seeded with forest soil. Cells were highly motile rods, often forming long filamentous chains which were easily observed moving under the microscope. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Eisenbergiella tayi (16S rRNA gene sequence identity 94.2 %), although it was easily distinguishable based on its morphology and physiology. Whole-genome sequencing enabled development of a minimal medium, and also suggested that the organism is capable of fixing nitrogen...
February 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302905/protein-kinase-a-regulates-the-ras-rap1-and-torc2-pathways-in-response-to-the-chemoattractant-camp-in-dictyostelium
#11
Margarethakay Scavello, Alexandra R Petlick, Ramya Ramesh, Valery F Thompson, Pouya Lotfi, Pascale G Charest
Efficient directed migration requires tight regulation of chemoattractant signal transduction pathways in both space and time, but the mechanisms involved in such regulation are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Protein Kinase A (PKA) in controlling signaling of the chemoattractant cAMP in Dictyostelium We found that cells lacking PKA display severe chemotaxis defects, including impaired directional sensing. Although PKA is an important regulator of developmental gene expression, including the cAMP receptor cAR1, our studies using exogenously expressed cAR1 in cells lacking PKA, cells lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), and cells treated with the PKA-selective pharmacological inhibitor H89, suggest that PKA controls chemoattractant signal transduction, in part, through the regulation of RasG, Rap1, and TORC2...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302111/quantifying-the-roles-of-random-motility-and-directed-motility-using-advection-diffusion-theory-for-a-3t3-fibroblast-cell-migration-assay-stimulated-with-an-electric-field
#12
Matthew J Simpson, Kai-Yin Lo, Yung-Shin Sun
BACKGROUND: Directed cell migration can be driven by a range of external stimuli, such as spatial gradients of: chemical signals (chemotaxis); adhesion sites (haptotaxis); or temperature (thermotaxis). Continuum models of cell migration typically include a diffusion term to capture the undirected component of cell motility and an advection term to capture the directed component of cell motility. However, there is no consensus in the literature about the form that the advection term takes...
March 17, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301917/signaling-pathways-controlling-microglia-chemotaxis
#13
Yang Fan, Lirui Xie, Chang Y Chung
Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the first line of defense of the brain's innate immune response against infection, injury, and diseases. Microglia respond to extracellular signals and engulf unwanted neuronal debris by phagocytosis, thereby maintaining normal cellular homeostasis in the CNS. Pathological stimuli such as neuronal injury induce transformation and activation of resting microglia with ramified morphology into a motile amoeboid form and activated microglia chemotax toward lesion site...
March 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300261/quantifying-3d-chemotaxis-in-microfluidic-based-chips-with-step-gradients-of-collagen-hydrogel-concentrations
#14
C Del Amo, C Borau, N Movilla, Jesús Asín, J M García-Aznar
Cell migration is an essential process involved in crucial stages of tissue formation, regeneration or immune function as well as in pathological processes including tumor development or metastasis. During the last few years, the effect of gradients of soluble molecules on cell migration has been widely studied, and complex systems have been used to analyze cell behavior under simultaneous mechano-chemical stimuli. Most of these chemotactic assays have, however, focused on specific substrates in 2D. The aim of the present work is to develop a novel microfluidic-based chip that allows the long-term chemoattractant effect of growth factors (GFs) on 3D cell migration to be studied, while also providing the possibility to analyze the influence of the interface generated between different adjacent hydrogels...
March 16, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300149/corrigendum-innate-positive-chemotaxis-to-pollen-from-crops-and-banker-plants-in-predaceous-biological-control-agents-towards-new-field-lures
#15
Shu Li, Xiaoling Tan, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Jing Zhao, Xinhai Li, Fan Zhang, Xiwu Gao, Su Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299345/neutrophils-and-immunity-from-bactericidal-action-to-being-conquered
#16
REVIEW
Tie-Shan Teng, Ai-Ling Ji, Xin-Ying Ji, Yan-Zhang Li
The neutrophil is the major phagocyte and the final effector cell of the innate immunity, with a primary role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens. Using the broad array of cytokines, extracellular traps, and effector molecules as the humoral arm, neutrophils play a crucial role in the host defense against pathogen infections. On the other hand, the pathogen has the capacity to overcome neutrophil-mediated host defense to establish infection causing human disease. Pathogens, such as S. aureus, have the potential to thwart neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis and thereby succeed in evading killing by neutrophils...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298605/cxcr5-dependent-entry-of-cd8-t-cells-into-rhesus-macaque-b-cell-follicles-achieved-through-t-cell-engineering
#17
Victor I Ayala, Claire Deleage, Matthew T Trivett, Sumiti Jain, Lori V Coren, Matthew W Breed, Joshua A Kramer, James A Thomas, Jacob D Estes, Jeffrey D Lifson, David E Ott
Follicular helper CD4 T cells, TFH, residing in B-cell follicles within secondary lymphoid tissues, are readily infected by AIDS viruses and are a major source of persistent virus despite relative control of viral replication. This persistence is due at least in part to a relative exclusion of effective antiviral CD8 T cells from B-cell follicles. To determine whether CD8 T cells could be engineered to enter B-cell follicles, we genetically modified unselected CD8 T cells to express CXCR5, the chemokine receptor implicated in cellular entry into B-cell follicles...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296262/the-c-terminal-region-of-the-major-outer-sheath-protein-msp-of-treponema-denticola-inhibits-neutrophil-chemotaxis
#18
Megan M Jones, Stephen T Vanyo, Michelle B Visser
Treponema denticola is an oral spirochete strongly associated with severe periodontal disease. A prominent virulence factor, the major outer sheath protein (Msp), disorients neutrophil chemotaxis by altering the cellular phosphoinositide balance, leading to impairment of downstream chemotactic events including actin rearrangement, Rac1 activation and Akt activation in response to chemoattractant stimulation. The specific regions of Msp responsible for interactions with neutrophils remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of truncated Msp regions on neutrophil chemotaxis and associated signaling pathways...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294319/grpr-antagonist-protects-from-drug-induced-liver-injury-by-impairing-neutrophil-chemotaxis-and-motility
#19
Rafael S Czepielewski, Natália Jaeger, Pedro E Marques, Maísa M Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Débora M Alvarenga, Rafaela V Pereira, Rodrigo D da Silva, Tiago G Lopes, Vinícius D da Silva, Bárbara N Porto, Gustavo B Menezes, Cristina Bonorino
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), where hepatocyte necrotic products trigger liver inflammation, release of CXCR2 ligands (IL-8) and other neutrophil chemotactic molecules. Liver infiltration by neutrophils is a major cause of the life threatening tissue damage that ensues. A GRPR (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor) antagonist impairs IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. We investigated its potential to reduce acetaminophen-induced ALF, neutrophil migration and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293262/transcriptome-profiling-of-il-17a-preactivated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-comparative-study-to-unmodified-and-ifn-%C3%AE-modified-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Kisha Nandini Sivanathan, Darling Rojas-Canales, Shane T Grey, Stan Gronthos, Patrick T Coates
Human mesenchymal stem cells pretreatment with IL-17A (MSC-17) potently enhances T cell immunosuppression but not their immunogenicity, in addition to avidly promoting the induction of suppressive regulatory T cells. The aim of this study was to identify potential mechanisms by which human MSC-17 mediate their superior immunomodulatory function. Untreated-MSC (UT-MSC), IFN-γ treated MSC (MSC-γ), and MSC-17 were assessed for their gene expression profile by microarray. Significantly regulated genes were identified for their biological functions (Database for Annotation, Visualisation and Integrated Discovery, DAVID)...
2017: Stem Cells International
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