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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528167/cxcl1-inhibition-regulates-uvb-induced-skin-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-xpa-deficient-mice
#1
Makoto Kunisada, Chieko Hosaka, Chihiro Takemori, Eiji Nakano, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) is a hereditary disease characterized by early onset of skin cancers and freckles-like pigmented maculae in the sun-exposed sites. Although etiology of predisposition to UV-induced skin tumors in XP-A is well investigated as a repair deficiency in UV-induced DNA damage, the mechanism of exaggerated sunburn in patients with XP-A and whether UV-induced inflammation relates to skin tumor-prone phenotype remains to be elucidated. Using gene profiling of XP-A model mice, Xpa-deficient mice, we found that expression of CXCL1 in the skin and blood levels of in Xpa-deficient mice increased significantly after UVB exposure at an even a limited area in comparison to those of wild-type mice...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526442/comparative-study-of-interleukin-17c-il-17c-and-il-17d-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-reveals-their-similar-but-differential-functional-activity
#2
Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Xinhua Chen
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) family members are key players in regulating the immune response in mammals. Here, we identified the IL-17C and IL-17D homologs from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), named LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D, respectively. The deduced LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D proteins possessed the typical IL-17 domain and shared a conserved arrangement of eight cysteine residues. Both LcIL-17C and LcIL-17Dc genes were constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, although at different levels. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression of LcIL-17C and LcIL-17D was significantly increased in gills, head kidney, and spleen...
May 16, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526411/jnj10181457-a-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist-regulates-in-vivo-microglial-functions-and-improves-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice
#3
Tomomitsu Iida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Brain histamine acts as a neurotransmitter and regulates various physiological functions, such as learning and memory, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite regulation. We have recently shown that histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed in primary mouse microglia and has a strong influence on critical functions in microglia, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion in vitro. However, the importance of H3R in microglial activity in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of JNJ10181457 (JNJ), a selective and potent H3R inverse agonist, on microglial functions ex vivo and in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516399/hangeshashinto-tj-14-prevents-radiation-induced-mucositis-by-suppressing-cyclooxygenase-2-expression-and-chemotaxis-of-inflammatory-cells
#4
D Kamide, T Yamashita, K Araki, M Tomifuji, A Shiotani
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis is the most common side effect of radiotherapy in head and neck cancer; however, effective modalities for its prevention have not been established. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of Hangeshashinto (TJ-14), a Japanese herbal medicine, for preventing radiation-induced mucositis and elucidated its effect on inflammatory responses, including inflammatory cell chemotaxis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression, in an animal model. METHODS: Syrian hamsters, 8-9 weeks old, were enrolled in this study...
May 17, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512464/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-proliferation-on-the-special-microbes-mediated-by-phenolic-acids-in-the-radix-pseudostellariae-rhizosphere-under-continuous-monoculture-regimes
#5
Hongmiao Wu, Junjian Xu, Juanying Wang, Xianjin Qin, Linkun Wu, Zhicheng Li, Sheng Lin, Weiwei Lin, Quan Zhu, Muhammad U Khan, Wenxiong Lin
As potent allelochemicals, phenolic acids are believed to be associated with replanting disease and cause microflora shift and structural disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae. The transcriptome sequencing was used to reveal the mechanisms underlying the differential response of pathogenic bacterium Kosakonia sacchari and beneficial bacterium Bacillus pumilus on their interactions with phenolic acids, the main allelochemicals in root exudates of R. pseudostellariae in the monoculture system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509882/emerging-evidence-on-neutrophil-motility-supporting-its-usefulness-to-define-vitamin-c-intake-requirements
#6
Volker Elste, Barbara Troesch, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Peter Weber
Establishing intake recommendations for vitamin C remains a challenge, as no suitable functional parameter has yet been agreed upon. In this report, we review the emerging evidence on neutrophil motility as a possible marker of vitamin C requirements and put the results in perspective with other approaches. A recent in vitro study showed that adequate levels of vitamin C were needed for this function to work optimally when measured as chemotaxis and chemokinesis. In a human study, neutrophil motility was optimal at intakes ≥250 mg/day...
May 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507547/deletion-of-dock10-in-b-cells-results-in-normal-development-but-a-mild-deficiency-upon-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-stimulations
#7
Natalija Gerasimčik, Minghui He, Marisa A P Baptista, Eva Severinson, Lisa S Westerberg
We sought to identify genes necessary to induce cytoskeletal change in B cells. Using gene expression microarray, we compared B cells stimulated with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and anti-CD40 antibodies that induce B cell spreading, cell motility, tight aggregates, and extensive microvilli with B cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide that lack these cytoskeletal changes. We identified 84 genes with 10-fold or greater expression in anti-CD40 + IL-4 stimulated B cells, one of these encoded the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) dedicator of cytokinesis 10 (Dock10)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507166/matrix-stiffness-regulates-migration-of-human-lung-fibroblasts
#8
Shuichi Asano, Satoru Ito, Kota Takahashi, Kishio Furuya, Masashi Kondo, Masahiro Sokabe, Yoshinori Hasegawa
In patients with pulmonary diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, progressive pulmonary fibrosis is caused by dysregulated wound healing via activation of fibroblasts after lung inflammation or severe damage. Migration of fibroblasts toward the fibrotic lesions plays an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic tissue in the lung is much stiffer than normal lung tissue. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that the stiffness of the matrix is not only a consequence of fibrosis, but also can induce fibroblast activation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507154/information-socialtaxis-and-efficient-collective-behavior-emerging-in-groups-of-information-seeking-agents
#9
Ehud D Karpas, Adi Shklarsh, Elad Schneidman
Individual behavior, in biology, economics, and computer science, is often described in terms of balancing exploration and exploitation. Foraging has been a canonical setting for studying reward seeking and information gathering, from bacteria to humans, mostly focusing on individual behavior. Inspired by the gradient-climbing nature of chemotaxis, the infotaxis algorithm showed that locally maximizing the expected information gain leads to efficient and ethological individual foraging. In nature, as well as in theoretical settings, conspecifics can be a valuable source of information about the environment...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507122/control-of-metastatic-niche-formation-by-targeting-apba3-mint3-in-inflammatory-monocytes
#10
Toshiro Hara, Hiroki J Nakaoka, Tetsuro Hayashi, Kouhei Mimura, Daisuke Hoshino, Masahiro Inoue, Fumitaka Nagamura, Yoshinori Murakami, Motoharu Seiki, Takeharu Sakamoto
Cancer metastasis is intricately orchestrated by both cancer and normal cells, such as endothelial cells and macrophages. Monocytes/macrophages, which are often co-opted by cancer cells and promote tumor malignancy, acquire more than half of their energy from glycolysis even during normoxic conditions. This glycolytic activity is maintained during normoxia by the functions of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and its activator APBA3. The mechanism by which APBA3 inhibition partially suppresses macrophage function and affects cancer metastasis is of interest in view of avoidance of the adverse effects of complete suppression of macrophage function during therapy...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506928/distinct-phosphodiesterase-5a-containing-compartments-allow-selective-regulation-of-cgmp-dependent-signalling-in-human-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Lindsay S Wilson, Manhong Guo, M Bibiana Umana, Donald H Maurice
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) translates and integrates much of the information encoded by nitric oxide (NO(·)) and several natriuretic peptides, including the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Previously, we reported that integration of a cGMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, namely phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A), into a protein kinase G (PKG)- and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signalosome allows localized control of PDE5A activity and of PKG-dependent inhibition of IP3-mediated release of ER Ca(2+) in human platelets...
May 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505786/nonequilibrium-nature-of-adaptation-in-bacterial-chemotaxis-a-fluctuation-dissipation-theorem-approach
#12
Chen Jia
Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. In this paper, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) serves as an ideal mathematical tool to study adaptation. With the aid of the nonequilibrium FDT developed by Seifert and Speck [Europhys. Lett. 89, 10007 (2010)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/89/10007], we demonstrate the nonequilibrium nature of adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis. We further show that nonequilibrium is a necessary condition for adaptation even beyond the linear response regime using the spectral theory of generator matrices...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501636/determining-whether-observed-eukaryotic-cell-migration-indicates-chemotactic-responsiveness-or-random-chemokinetic-motion
#13
A C Szatmary, R Nossal
Chemotaxis, the motion of cells directed by a gradient of chemoattractant molecules, guides cells in immune response, development, wound healing, and cancer. Unfortunately, this process is difficult to distinguish from chemokinesis, i.e., stimulated random cell motion. Chemotaxis is frequently inferred by determining how many cells cross a boundary in a chemotaxis assay, for example how many cells crawl into a chemoattractant-infused filter, or how many cells enter a defined region in an under-agarose assay or agarose spot assay...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500338/inflammatory-bacteriome-featuring-fusobacterium-nucleatum-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-identified-in-association-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Akram Thabet Nasher, Mohamed Yousef Maryoud, Husham E Homeida, Tsute Chen, Ali Mohamed Idris, Newell W Johnson
Studies on the possible association between bacteria and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain inconclusive, largely due to methodological variations/limitations. The objective of this study was to characterize the species composition as well as functional potential of the bacteriome associated with OSCC. DNA obtained from 20 fresh OSCC biopsies (cases) and 20 deep-epithelium swabs (matched control subjects) was sequenced for the V1-V3 region using Illumina's 2 × 300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a prioritized BLASTN-algorithm...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500273/fundamental-trade-offs-between-information-flow-in-single-cells-and-cellular-populations
#15
Ryan Suderman, John A Bachman, Adam Smith, Peter K Sorger, Eric J Deeds
Signal transduction networks allow eukaryotic cells to make decisions based on information about intracellular state and the environment. Biochemical noise significantly diminishes the fidelity of signaling: networks examined to date seem to transmit less than 1 bit of information. It is unclear how networks that control critical cell-fate decisions (e.g., cell division and apoptosis) can function with such low levels of information transfer. Here, we use theory, experiments, and numerical analysis to demonstrate an inherent trade-off between the information transferred in individual cells and the information available to control population-level responses...
May 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495875/macrophage-function-in-tissue-repair-and-remodeling-requires-il-4-or-il-13-with-apoptotic-cells
#16
Lidia Bosurgi, Y Grace Cao, Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Andrea Tucci, Lindsey D Hughes, Yong Kong, Jason S Weinstein, Paula Licona-Limon, Edward T Schmid, Facundo Pelorosso, Nicola Gagliani, Joseph E Craft, Richard A Flavell, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Tissue repair is a subset of a broad repertoire of IL-4/IL-13-dependent host responses during helminth infection. Here, we show that IL-4/IL-13 alone were not sufficient, but IL-4/IL-13 together with apoptotic cells induced the tissue repair program in macrophages. Genetic ablation of sensors of apoptotic cells impaired the proliferation of tissue-resident macrophages and the induction of anti-inflammatory/tissue repair genes in the lung following helminth infection or in the gut following induction of colitis...
May 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490808/dendritic-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-recruitment
#17
Andreia M Silva, Maria I Almeida, José H Teixeira, André F Maia, George A Calin, Mário A Barbosa, Susana G Santos
Orchestration of bone repair processes requires crosstalk between different cell populations, including immune cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). Extracellular vesicles (EV) as mediators of these interactions remain vastly unexplored. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of MSC recruitment by Dendritic Cells (DC), hypothesising that it would be mediated by EV. Primary human DC-secreted EV (DC-EV), isolated by ultracentrifugation, were characterized for their size, morphology and protein markers, indicating an enrichment in exosomes...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490755/thigmotaxis-mediates-trail-odour-disruption
#18
Lloyd D Stringer, Joshua E Corn, Hyun Sik Roh, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Lee-Anne M Manning, Aimee R Harper, David M Suckling
Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490713/phospholipase-d-is-dispensable-for-epidermal-growth-factor-induced-chemotaxis
#19
Chihoko Hirai, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed Badawy, Lifang Zhang, Taro Okada, Taketoshi Kajimoto, Shunichi Nakamura
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, known collectively as the synucleinopathies. α-Syn is known to be secreted from the cells and may contribute to the progression of the disease. Although extracellular α-Syn is shown to impair platelet-derived growth factor-induced chemotaxis, molecular mechanism of α-Syn-induced motility failure remains elusive. Here we have aimed at phospholipase D (PLD) as a potential target for α-Syn and examined the involvement of this enzyme in α-Syn action...
May 9, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489917/mucosal-fluid-glycoprotein-dmbt1-suppresses-twitching-motility-and-virulence-of-the-opportunistic-pathogen-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Jianfang Li, Matteo M E Metruccio, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
It is generally thought that mucosal fluids protect underlying epithelial surfaces against opportunistic infection via their antimicrobial activity. However, our published data show that human tear fluid can protect against the major opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa independently of bacteriostatic activity. Here, we explored the mechanisms for tear protection, focusing on impacts of tear fluid on bacterial virulence factor expression. Results showed that tear fluid suppressed twitching motility, a type of surface-associated movement conferred by pili...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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