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Weakness and elderly and exercise

Charles P Gabel, Natalie Rando, Markus Melloh
To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Paolo Gava, Christian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Paolo Gargiulo, Kyle Edmunds, Íris Dröfn Árnadóttir, Sandra Zampieri, Barbara Ravara, Francesco Gava, Alessandra Nori, Valerio Gobbo, Stefano Masiero, Andrea Marcante, Alfonc Baba, Francesco Piccione, Sheila Schils, Amber Pond, Simone Mosole
Many factors contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle that occurs as we age. This is a reality that we may combat, but not prevent because it is written into our genome. The series of records from World Master Athletes reveals that skeletal muscle power begins to decline at the age of 30 years and continues, almost linearly, to zero at the age of 110 years. Here we discuss evidence that denervation contributes to the atrophy and slowness of aged muscle. We compared muscle from lifelong active seniors to that of sedentary elderly people and found that the sportsmen have more muscle bulk and slow fiber type groupings, providing evidence that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons which reinnervate muscle fibers...
September 3, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Dominik T Steck, Christine Choi, Suneeta Gollapudy, Paul S Pagel
INTRODUCTION: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by progressive asymmetric extremity weakness, oropharyngeal dysphagia, and the potential for exaggerated sensitivity to neuromuscular blockers and respiratory compromise. The authors describe their management of a patient with IBM undergoing urgent orthopedic surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: An 81-year-old man with IBM suffered a left intertrochanteric femoral fracture after falling down stairs...
April 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Slavko Rogan, Lorenz Radlinger, Heiner Baur, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher, Rob A de Bie, Eling D de Bruin
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of a combined innovative training regime consisting of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) and a dance video game (DVG) on physical performance and muscle strength in long-term-care dwelling elderly. METHODS: Thirthy long-term-care elderly were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n = 16) receiving combined SR-WBV training and DVG, or a sham group (SG; n = 14). IG performed five sets one minute of SR-WBV, with one minute rest between sets (base frequency 3 Hz up to 6 Hz, Noise 4) during the first five weeks on three days per week...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Cassandra M Germain, John A Batsis, Elizabeth Vasquez, Douglas R McQuoid
Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity...
2016: Journal of Aging Research
Carlos A Vaz Fragoso, Daniel P Beavers, Stephen D Anton, Christine K Liu, Mary M McDermott, Anne B Newman, Marco Pahor, Randall S Stafford, Thomas M Gill
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of structured physical activity on respiratory outcomes in community-dwelling elderly adults with mobility limitations. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized trial of physical activity vs health education, with respiratory variables prespecified as tertiary outcomes over an intervention period of 24-42 months. Physical activity included walking (goal of 150 min/week) and strength, flexibility, and balance training. Health education included workshops on topics relevant to older adults and upper extremity stretching exercises...
March 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Marianne Kirchhoff, Kirsten Damgaard
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that falls may be prevented, but effectiveness in reducing the risk of falling depends on the uptake of and the adherence to preventive actions. METHODS: 65+-year-old fallers identified by screening for fall risk were offered referral to a geriatric fall clinic together with fallers referred from general practitioners (GPs). They were assessed to identify individual risk factors for falling, and appropriate interventions were planned, including exercise classes...
January 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Han Suk Lee, Jeung Hun Park
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above. [Subjects] Twenty frail elderly individuals ≥70 years old were assigned to either a Nordic walking group (n=8) or general exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The duration of intervention was equal in both groups (3 sessions/week for 12 weeks, 60 min/session). Physical function (balance, upper extremity strength, lower extremity strength, weakness) and depression were examined before and after the interventions...
August 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Chang-Beom Kim, Jin-Mo Yang, Jong-Duk Choi
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chest expansion resistance exercises (CERE) on chest expansion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) in elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness. [Subjects] Thirty elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness (MIP < 80% of the predicted value) were randomly and equally assigned to a chest expansion resistance exercise (CERE) group, core conditioning exercise (CCE) group, and control group. [Methods] The intervention was applied to the CERE group and CCE group five times per week, 30 minutes each time, for six weeks...
April 2015: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Jeng Wang, Chia-Mou Lee, Chong-Fang Chang, Sui-Whi Jane, Mei-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: As life expectancy increases, being old is no longer synonymous with frailty, weakness, or poor health. Today, most people expect to maintain or promote their health by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. PURPOSE: This study developed and tested the psychometric Geriatric Health Promotion (GHP) scale. The GHP scale is a multidimensional instrument that attempts to evaluate lifestyle patterns prevalent among senior citizens in Taiwan. METHODS: Data used in this study were acquired from a large health-promotion study that targeted elderly residents of rural areas in Taiwan...
March 2015: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Sudhakar Veeranki, Lee J Winchester, Suresh C Tyagi
HHcy has been implicated in elderly frailty, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using C57 and CBS+/- mice and C2C12 cell line, we investigated mechanisms behind HHcy induced skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability. Possible alterations in metabolic capacity (levels of LDH, CS, MM-CK and COX-IV), in structural proteins (levels of dystrophin) and in mitochondrial function (ATP production) were examined. An exercise regimen was employed to reverse HHcy induced changes. CBS+/- mice exhibited more fatigability, and generated less contraction force...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Valter Santilli, Andrea Bernetti, Massimiliano Mangone, Marco Paoloni
Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Although it is primarily a disease of the elderly, its development may be associated with conditions that are not exclusively seen in older persons. Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and it is strictly correlated with physical disability, poor quality of life and death. Risk factors for sarcopenia include age, gender and level of physical activity...
September 2014: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
Shuzo Kumagai, Masahiro Sakita
Approximately 17% of Japanese older people fall for a year. The femoral neck fractures with falls caused by various functional problems make them depress remarkably activities of daily living and quality of life. In risk factors for falls in old people, muscle weakness, balance and gait disorders particularly increases to falls. The major results from recent systematic reviews have indicated that interventions of exercise, multifactorial, environmental modification and gradual withdrawal of psychotropic medication in community-dwelling elderly people were effective for preventing falls...
October 2014: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
E-M Hietavala, J R Stout, J J Hulmi, H Suominen, H Pitkänen, R Puurtinen, H Selänne, H Kainulainen, A A Mero
BACKGROUND: Diets rich in animal protein and cereal grains and deficient in vegetables and fruits may cause low-grade metabolic acidosis, which may impact exercise and health. We hypothesized that (1) a normal-protein diet with high amount of vegetables and fruits (HV) induces more alkaline acid-base balance compared with a high-protein diet with no vegetables and fruits (HP) and (2) diet composition has a greater impact on acid-base balance in the elderly (ELD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In all, 12-15 (adolescents (ADO)), 25-35 (young adults (YAD)) and 60-75 (ELD)-year-old male and female subjects (n=88) followed a 7-day HV and a 7-day HP in a randomized order and at the end performed incremental cycle ergometer tests...
March 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Francesco Carli, Rashami Awasthi, Chelsia Gillis, Wassim Kassouf
The purpose of this case report is to discuss the positive impact of a multimodal prehabilitation program on postoperative recovery of a frail patient undergoing radical cystectomy. An 85-year-old man with significant history for poorly controlled type II diabetes, anemia, chronic renal failure, and glaucoma was found to have muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with hydronephrosis. He was scheduled for elective radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal conduit diversion. He was enrolled in a multimodal prehabilitation program in view of his frailty (Fried score = 5), 15% body weight loss, weak grip strength, severe depression and moderate anxiety, poor nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment [PG-SGA] = B), low functional walking capacity (6-minute walking test [6MWT] = 210 metres, predicted 621 metres)...
November 2014: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Dirk W Droste, Jacqueline Safo, René J Metz, Nani Osada
BACKGROUND: Awareness of stroke risk factors is important for stroke prevention. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and awareness regarding the necessity of seeking urgent stroke treatment are vital to provide rapid admission to a stroke unit. Data on this specific knowledge in Luxemburg are lacking. METHODS: We investigated 420 patients from the Department of Neurology and their relatives using a questionnaire. There were 44% men and 56% women; 25% were immigrants and 75% Luxemburgish nationals; 13% already had had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); and the mean age was 55 years ranging from 18 to 87 years...
2014: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
Seon-Chill Kim, Sang-Yeol Lee, Young-Ik Lee
[Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased...
October 2014: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Thierry Paillard
With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e...
September 2014: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Pauline Arnold, Ivan Bautmans
Age-related muscle weakness is only partially related to muscle atrophy, due to neuromuscular changes including reduced voluntary muscle activation and antagonist muscle co-activation. The respective contribution of these mechanisms in exercise-induced strength gains at higher age is unclear. Here the literature was systematically reviewed for studies reporting exercise-induced effects on voluntary muscle activation and antagonist muscle co-activation in elderly persons. Seventeen relevant studies were identified, 4 investigated voluntary muscle activation, 8 antagonist muscle co-activation and 5 studies investigated both...
October 2014: Experimental Gerontology
Kiros Karamanidis, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Anja Niehoff, Gaspar Epro, Gert-Peter Brüggemann
OBJECTIVE: Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. METHODS: Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness...
2014: PloS One
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