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Brown adipose glucose tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323915/insulin-igf-1-and-gh-receptors-are-altered-in-an-adipose-tissue-depot-specific-manner-in-male-mice-with-modified-gh-action
#1
Rikke Hjortebjerg, Darlene E Berryman, Ross Comisford, Stuart J Frank, Edward O List, Mette Bjerre, Jan Frystyk, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) is an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using seven-month-old bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression patterns of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice that may explain why GH effects depend on AT location...
February 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291835/adipocyte-arrestin-domain-containing-3-protein-arrdc3-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-ucp1-expression-in-white-adipose-independently-of-canonical-changes-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-signaling
#2
Shannon H Carroll, Ellen Zhang, Bing F Wang, Katherine B LeClair, Arifeen Rahman, David E Cohen, Jorge Plutzky, Parth Patwari, Richard T Lee
Adaptive thermogenesis and cold-induced activation of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) in brown adipose tissue in rodents is well-described and attributed to sympathetic activation of β-adrenergic signaling. The arrestin domain containing protein Arrdc3 is a regulator of obesity in mice and also appears linked to obesity in humans. We generated a mouse with conditional deletion of Arrdc3, and here we present evidence that genetic ablation of Arrdc3 specifically in adipocytes results in increased Ucp1 expression in subcutaneous and parametrial adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288167/erythropoietin-epo-ameliorates-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-promoting-thermogenesis-and-endocrine-function-of-classical-brown-adipose-tissue-bat-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#3
Kazuki Kodo, Satoru Sugimoto, Hisakazu Nakajima, Jun Mori, Ikuyo Itoh, Shota Fukuhara, Keiichi Shigehara, Taichiro Nishikawa, Kitaro Kosaka, Hajime Hosoi
Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271034/divergent-effects-of-a-designer-natriuretic-peptide-cd-np-in-the-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-and-metabolism
#4
Anja Glöde, Jennifer Naumann, Thorsten Gnad, Valentina Cannone, Ana Kilic, John C Burnett, Alexander Pfeifer
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is defined as an abnormal increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and correlates with leanness. Natriuretic peptides have been shown to be beneficial for brown adipocyte differentiation and browning of WAT. METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects of an optimized designer natriuretic peptide (CD-NP) on murine adipose tissues in vitro and in vivo...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245284/metabolically-distinct-weight-loss-by-10-12-cla-and-caloric-restriction-highlight-the-importance-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-for-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#5
Laura J den Hartigh, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Tomasz Wietecha, Barbara Houston, Mohamed Omer, Kayoko Ogimoto, Savitha Subramanian, G A Nagana Gowda, Kevin D O'Brien, Karl J Kaiyala, Gregory J Morton, Alan Chait
BACKGROUND: Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. METHODS: Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242773/adipose-specific-deletion-of-kif5b-exacerbates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Ju Cui, Jing Pang, Ya-Jun Lin, Huan Gong, Zhen-He Wang, Yun-Xuan Li, Jin Li, Zai Wang, Ping Jiang, Da-Peng Dai, Jian Li, Jian-Ping Cai, Jian-Dong Huang, Tie-Mei Zhang
Recent studies have shown that KIF5B (conventional kinesin heavy chain) mediates glucose transporter type 4 translocation and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting an involvement of KIF5B in the homeostasis of metabolism. However, the in vivo physiologic function of KIF5B in adipose tissue remains to be determined. In this study, adipose-specific Kif5b knockout (F-K5bKO) mice were generated using the Cre-LoxP strategy. F-K5bKO mice had similar body weights to controls fed on a standard chow diet...
February 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240264/overexpressing-the-novel-autocrine-endocrine-adipokine-wisp2-induces-hyperplasia-of-the-heart-white-and-brown-adipose-tissues-and-prevents-insulin-resistance
#7
John R Grünberg, Jenny M Hoffmann, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Lachmi Jenndahl, Johannes Elvin, John Castellot, Lan Wei, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, Claes Ohlsson, Louise Mannerås Holm, Fredrik Bäckhed, Ismail Syed, Fatima Bosch, Alan Saghatelian, Barbara B Kahn, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith
WISP2 is a novel adipokine, most highly expressed in the adipose tissue and primarily in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. As a secreted protein, it is an autocrine/paracrine activator of canonical WNT signaling and, as an intracellular protein, it helps to maintain precursor cells undifferentiated. To examine effects of increased WISP2 in vivo, we generated an aP2-WISP2 transgenic (Tg) mouse. These mice had increased serum levels of WISP2, increased lean body mass and whole body energy expenditure, hyperplastic brown/white adipose tissues and larger hyperplastic hearts...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236404/petroleum-ether-sub-fraction-of-rosemary-extract-improves-hyperlipidemia-and-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-srebps
#8
Zhi-Shen Xie, Ling-Jun Zhong, Xiao-Meng Wan, Meng-Ning Li, Hua Yang, Ping Li, Xiao-Jun Xu
As a culinary and medicinal herb, rosemary is widely used. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of rosemary extracts on metabolic diseases and the underlying mechanisms of action. Liver cells stably expressing SREBP reporter were used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of different fractions of rosemary extracts on SREBP activity. The obese mice induced by Western-type diet were orally administered with rosemary extracts or vehicle for 7 weeks, the plasma and tissue lipids were analyzed. SREBPs and their target genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#9
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#10
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#11
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199304/adipose-derived-circulating-mirnas-regulate-gene-expression-in-other-tissues
#12
Thomas Thomou, Marcelo A Mori, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Christian Wolfrum, Tata Nageswara Rao, Jonathon N Winnay, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Steven K Grinspoon, Phillip Gorden, C Ronald Kahn
Adipose tissue is a major site of energy storage and has a role in the regulation of metabolism through the release of adipokines. Here we show that mice with an adipose-tissue-specific knockout of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer (ADicerKO), as well as humans with lipodystrophy, exhibit a substantial decrease in levels of circulating exosomal miRNAs. Transplantation of both white and brown adipose tissue-brown especially-into ADicerKO mice restores the level of numerous circulating miRNAs that are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and a reduction in hepatic Fgf21 mRNA and circulating FGF21...
February 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183446/genetic-ablation-of-phosphatidylcholine-transfer-protein-stard2-in-ob-ob-mice-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-increasing-energy-expenditure
#13
Tibor I Krisko, Katherine B LeClair, David E Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is highly expressed in liver and oxidative tissues. PC-TP promotes hepatic glucose production during fasting and aggravates glucose intolerance in high fat fed mice. However, because PC-TP also suppresses thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), its direct contribution to obesity-associated diabetes in mice remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of genetic PC-TP ablation on glucose homeostasis in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which exhibit both diabetes and altered thermoregulation...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121617/antidiabetic-effect-of-ruta-montana-l-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Omar Farid, Morad Hebi, Mohammed Ajebli, Ahmed El Hidani, Mohamed Eddouks
BACKGROUND: Ruta montana (L.) is known as a medicinal plant with many beneficial effects, including those that can be used in the treatment of diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate the antidiabetic effect of this plant in diabetic rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated the effects of an aerial part aqueous extract (APAE) of Ruta montana (L.) (RM) at a dose of 5 mg/kg on blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092745/omija-fruit-ethanol-extract-improves-adiposity-and-related-metabolic-disturbances-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Hyo Jin Park, Hye-Jin Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Myung-Sook Choi, Un Ju Jung
This study investigated the biological and molecular mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effect of omija fruit ethanol extract (OFE) in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD (20% fat, w/w) with or without OFE (500 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. Dietary OFE significantly increased brown adipose tissue weight and energy expenditure while concomitantly decreasing white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and adipocyte size by up-regulating the expression of brown fat-selective genes in WAT...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051940/a-maternal-low-fiber-diet-predisposes-offspring-to-improved-metabolic-phenotypes-in-adulthood-in-an-herbivorous-rodent
#16
Xue-Ying Zhang, Mei-Fang Lou, Wei Shen, Rong-Shu Fu, De-Hua Wang
The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009534/ldb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-during-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Christine Loyd, Yanping Liu, Teayoun Kim, Cassie Holleman, Jamie Galloway, Maigen Bethea, Benjamin N Ediger, Yawen Tang, Thomas A Swain, Doris A Stoffers, Glenn C Rowe, Martin Young, Chad Steele, Kirk M Habegger, Chad S Hunter
The broadly-expressed transcriptional coregulator, Ldb1, is essential for β-cell development and glucose homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether Ldb1 has metabolic roles beyond the β-cell, especially under metabolic stress. Global Ldb1 deletion results in early embryonic lethality; thus, we utilized global heterozygous Ldb1(+/-) and inducible β-cell-specific Ldb1-deficient (Ldb1(Δβ-cell)) mice. We assessed glucose and insulin tolerance, body composition, feeding, and energy expenditure during high-fat diet exposure...
December 23, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987017/life-in-the-fat-lane-seasonal-regulation-of-insulin-sensitivity-food-intake-and-adipose-biology-in-brown-bears
#18
K S Rigano, J L Gehring, B D Evans Hutzenbiler, A V Chen, O L Nelson, C A Vella, C T Robbins, H T Jansen
Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940206/hydroxytyrosol-ameliorates-metabolic-cardiovascular-and-liver-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-pharmacological-and-metabolism-based-investigation
#19
Hemant Poudyal, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Panagiotis Efentakis, Evangelos Gikas, Maria Halabalaki, Ioanna Andreadou, Leandros Skaltsounis, Lindsay Brown
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as an important dietary pattern to confer cardioprotection by attenuating risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is present in olive fruit and oil, which are basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we have shown that treatment with HT (20mg/kg/d for 8 weeks) decreased adiposity, improved impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, improved endothelial function with lower systolic blood pressure, decreased left ventricular fibrosis and resultant diastolic stiffness and reduced markers of liver damage in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#20
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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