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Brown adipose glucose tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107286/deletion-of-hepatic-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice
#1
Tara Jois, Weiyi Chen, Victor Howard, Rebecca Harvey, Kristina Youngs, Claudia Thalmann, Pradip Saha, Lawrence Chan, Michael A Cowley, Mark W Sleeman
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a transcription factor that responds to glucose and activates genes involved in the glycolytic and lipogenic pathways. Recent studies have linked adipose ChREBP to insulin sensitivity in mice. However, while ChREBP is most highly expressed in the liver, the effect of hepatic ChREBP on insulin sensitivity remains unknown. To clarify the importance of hepatic ChREBP on glucose homeostasis, we have generated a knockout mouse model that lacks this protein specifically in the liver (Liver-ChREBP KO)...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106496/transplantation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice-contribution-of-the-activated-fgf-21-adiponectin-axis
#2
Masakazu Kikai, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Kensuke Terada, Keita Yamamoto, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Irie, Taku Kato, Hiroyuki Kawahito, Takehiro Ogata, Satoaki Matoba
Aims: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as an endocrine organ that maintains metabolic homeostasis; however, the effects on atherosclerosis remain undefined. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental BAT transplantation on atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Interscapular BAT was dissected from 12-week-old wild-type mice and transplanted into the visceral cavity of 12-week-old apoE-/- mice. Oil-red O staining of whole aortas after 3 months of a high-cholesterol diet showed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area in BAT-transplanted mice by 20% compared with the sham control mice...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104746/multimodal-imaging-for-the-detection-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-women-a-pilot-study-using-nirs-and-infrared-thermography
#3
Valentina Hartwig, Letizia Guiducci, Martina Marinelli, Laura Pistoia, Tommaso Minutoli Tegrimi, Giorgio Iervasi, Alfredo Quinones-Galvan, Antonio L'Abbate
Purpose: A clear link between obesity and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction has been recently demonstrated. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 2D imaging together with infrared thermography (IRT) is capable of identifying thermal and vascular response in the supraclavicular (SCV) areas after the ingestion of an oral glucose load as a thermogenic stimulation. Method: We studied two groups of women (obese versus lean) for discerning their different responses...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066461/inactivation-of-spak-kinase-reduces-body-weight-gain-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-by-improving-energy-expenditure-and-insulin-sensitivity
#4
Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Luz Graciela Cervantes-Perez, Lilia G Noriega, Jose V Jimenez, Norma Uribe, Maria Chavez-Canales, Claudia Tovar-Palacio, Braulio A Marfil-Garza, Nimbe Torres, Norma A Bobadilla, Armando R Tovar, Gerardo Gamba
The STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) controls the activity of the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters (SLC12 family) and thus physiological processes such as modulation of cell volume, intracellular chloride concentration [Cl-]i and transepithelial salt transport. Modulation of SPAK kinase activity may have an impact on hypertension and obesity as STK39, the gene encoding SPAK has been suggested as a hypertension and obesity susceptibility gene. In fact, the absence of SPAK activity in mice in which the activating threonine in the T-loop was substituted by alanine (SPAK-KI mice) is associated with decreased blood pressure; however its consequences in metabolism have not been explored...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058611/adiponectin-is-required-for-maintaining-normal-body-temperature-in-a-cold-environment
#5
Qiong Wei, Jong Han Lee, Hongying Wang, Odelia Y N Bongmba, Chia-Shan Wu, Geetali Pradhan, Zilin Sun, Lindsey Chew, Mandeep Bajaj, Lawrence Chan, Robert S Chapkin, Miao-Hsueh Chen, Yuxiang Sun
BACKGROUND: Thermogenic impairment promotes obesity and insulin resistance. Adiponectin is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. While many beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin resemble that of activated thermogenesis, the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis is not clear. In this study, we investigated the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis using adiponectin-null mice (Adipoq (-/-)). METHODS: Body composition was measured using EchoMRI. Metabolic parameters were determined by indirect calorimetry...
October 23, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038358/expression-of-genes-involved-in-carbohydrate-lipid-metabolism-in-muscle-and-fat-tissues-in-the-initial-stage-of-adult-age-obesity-in-fed-and-fasted-mice
#6
Nadezhda M Bazhan, Alexandr V Baklanov, Julia V Piskunova, Antonina J Kazantseva, Elena N Makarova
C57Bl mice exhibit impaired glucose metabolism by the late adult age under standard living conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle expression of genes involved in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism at postpubertal stages preceding the late adult age in C57Bl mice. Muscle mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 3 (Ucp3) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1) (indicators of FFA oxidation), WAT mRNA levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (Lipe) and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) (indicators of lipolysis and lipogenesis), muscle and WAT mRNA levels of the type 4 glucose transporter Slc2a4 (indicators of insulin-dependent glucose uptake), and BAT mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) (indicator of thermogenesis) were measured in fed and 16 h-fasted mice in three age groups: 10-week-old (young), 15-week-old (early adult), and 30-week-old (late adult)...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#7
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978546/subcutaneous-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-is-responsive-to-but-dispensable-for-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-exercise
#8
Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Carly M Knuth, Michelle T Foster, David C Wright
Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT) like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852070/overexpression-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-endothelial-cells-protects-against-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-during-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Cho-Rong Bae, Jun Hino, Hiroshi Hosoda, Yuji Arai, Cheol Son, Hisashi Makino, Takeshi Tokudome, Tsutomu Tomita, Toru Kimura, Takashi Nojiri, Kiminori Hosoda, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
The endogenous peptide C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) binds its receptor, guanylyl cyclase B (GCB), and is expressed by endothelial cells in diverse tissues. Because the endothelial cells of visceral adipose tissue have recently been reported to play a role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, we investigated the effects of CNP on features of obesity by using transgenic (Tg) mice in which CNP was placed under the control of the Tie2 promoter and was thus overexpressed in endothelial cells (E-CNP). Here we show that increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in E-CNP Tg mice increased energy expenditure, decreased mesenteric white adipose tissue (MesWAT) fat weight and adipocyte hypertrophy, and prevented the development of fatty liver...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842503/the-c-terminal-fibrinogen-like-domain-of-angiopoietin-like-4-stimulates-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-promotes-energy-expenditure
#10
Allison E McQueen, Deepthi Kanamaluru, Kimberly Yan, Nora E Gray, Leslie Wu, Mei-Lan Li, Anthony Chang, Adeeba Hasan, Daniel Stifler, Suneil K Koliwad, Jen-Chywan Wang
Angptl4 (Angiopoietin-like 4) is a circulating protein secreted by white and brown adipose tissues and the liver. Structurally, Angptl4 contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) connected to a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain (FLD) via a cleavable linker, and both full-length Angptl4 and its individual domains circulate in the bloodstream. Angptl4 inhibits extracellular lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulates the lipolysis of triacylglycerol stored by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT)...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#11
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774822/browning-deficiency-and-low-mobilization-of-fatty-acids-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissue-leads-to-decreased-cold-tolerance-of-transglutaminase-2-knock-out-mice
#12
András Mádi, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Kinga Lénárt, Attila Pap, Zoltán András Mezei, Endre Kristóf, Anna Oláh, György Vámosi, Zsolt Bacsó, Péter Bai, László Fésüs
During cold-exposure 'beige' adipocytes with increased mitochondrial content are activated in white adipose tissue (WAT). These cells, similarly to brown adipose tissue (BAT), dissipate stored chemical energy in the form of heat with the help of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated the effect of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) ablation on the function of ATs in mice. Although TG2(+/+) and TG2(-/-) mice had the same amount of WAT and BAT, we found that TG2(+/+) animals could tolerate acute cold exposure for 4h, whereas TG2(-/-) mice only for 3h...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762248/engineering-brown-fat-into-skeletal-muscle-using-ultrasound-targeted-microbubble-destruction-gene-delivery-in-obese-zucker-rats-proof-of-concept-design
#13
Raul A Bastarrachea, Jiaxi Chen, Jack W Kent, Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Ernesto Rodriguez-Ayala, Marcel M Daadi, Barbara Jorge, Hugo Laviada-Molina, Anthony G Comuzzie, Shuyuan Chen, Paul A Grayburn
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a novel means of tissue-specific gene delivery. This approach systemically infuses transgenes precoupled to gas-filled lipid microbubbles that are burst within the microvasculature of target tissues via an ultrasound signal resulting in release of DNA and transfection of neighboring cells within the tissue. Previous work has shown that adenovirus containing cDNA of UCP-1, injected into the epididymal fat pads in mice, induced localized fat depletion, improving glucose tolerance, and decreasing food intake in obese diabetic mice...
September 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760424/anthocyanins-in-chokeberry-and-purple-maize-attenuate-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#14
Maharshi Bhaswant, Siti Raihanah Shafie, Michael L Mathai, Peter Mouatt, Lindsay Brown
OBJECTIVE: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables as functional foods leads to the reduction of signs of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to measure and compare cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters following chronic administration of the same dose of anthocyanins either from chokeberry (CB) or purple maize (PM) in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a maize starch (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) and divided into six groups for 16 wk...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752043/adipocyte-lipid-synthesis-coupled-to-neuronal-control-of-thermogenic-programming
#15
Adilson Guilherme, David J Pedersen, Elizabeth Henchey, Felipe S Henriques, Laura V Danai, Yuefei Shen, Batuhan Yenilmez, DaeYoung Jung, Jason K Kim, Irfan J Lodhi, Clay F Semenkovich, Michael P Czech
BACKGROUND: The de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids (DNL) through fatty acid synthase (FASN) in adipocytes is exquisitely regulated by nutrients, hormones, fasting, and obesity in mice and humans. However, the functions of DNL in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. METHODS & RESULTS: Here we show adipocyte DNL controls crosstalk to localized sympathetic neurons that mediate expansion of beige/brite adipocytes within inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721439/effects-of-insulin-and-exercise-training-on-fgf21-its-receptors-and-target-genes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Rikke Kruse, Sara G Vienberg, Birgitte F Vind, Birgitte Andersen, Kurt Højlund
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pharmacological doses of FGF21 improve glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in rodents. Induced expression and secretion of FGF21 from muscle may increase browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in a myokine-like manner. Recent studies have reported that insulin and exercise increase FGF21 in plasma. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are potentially FGF21-resistant states, but to what extent FGF21 responses to insulin and exercise training are preserved, and whether FGF21, its receptors and target genes are altered, remains to be established...
October 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691397/cyanidin-3-glucoside-increases-whole-body-energy-metabolism-by-upregulating-brown-adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-function
#17
Yilin You, Xiaoxue Yuan, Xiaomeng Liu, Chen Liang, Minghui Meng, Yuanyuan Huang, Xue Han, Jielong Guo, Yu Guo, Chenglong Ren, Qianwen Zhang, Xiangyu Sun, Tingting Ma, Guojie Liu, Wanzhu Jin, Weidong Huang, Jicheng Zhan
SCOPE: Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and function increases energy expenditure and may protect against obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is an anthocyanin compound that occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of C3G on the prevention of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Db/db mice received C3G dissolved in drinking water for 16 wk; drinking water served as the vehicle treatment...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665305/plantago-asiatica-l-seed-extract-improves-lipid-accumulation-and-hyperglycemia-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Qiming Yang, Meng Qi, Renchao Tong, Dandan Wang, Lili Ding, Zeyun Li, Cheng Huang, Zhengtao Wang, Li Yang
Obesity and its common association with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases are worldwide epidemics. Currently, to prevent or treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders, herbal dietary supplements or medicines have attracted more and more attention owing to their relative effectiveness with fewer significant side effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of Plantago asiatica L. seed extract (PSE) on obesity and associated metabolic disorders in high-fat (HF) diet-induced mice...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663239/secretory-phospholipase-a2-group-iia-modulates-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#19
Michael S Kuefner, Kevin Pham, Jeanna R Redd, Erin J Stephenson, Innocence Harvey, Xiong Deng, Dave Bridges, Eric Boilard, Marshall B Elam, Edwards A Park
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a member of a family of secretory phospholipases that have been implicated in inflammation, atherogenesis, and antibacterial actions. Here, we evaluated the role of PLA2G2A in the metabolic response to a high fat diet. C57BL/6 (BL/6) mice do not express PLA2g2a due to a frameshift mutation. We fed BL/6 mice expressing the human PLA2G2A gene (IIA+ mice) a fat diet and assessed the physiologic response. After 10 weeks on the high fat diet, the BL/6 mice were obese, but the IIA+ mice did not gain weight or accumulate lipid...
September 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611668/selective-tissue-distribution-mediates-tissue-dependent-ppar%C3%AE-activation-and-insulin-sensitization-by-int131-a-selective-ppar%C3%AE-modulator
#20
Xinni Xie, Wei Chen, Ning Zhang, Mei Yuan, Cheng Xu, Zhibing Zheng, Hua Li, Lili Wang
The mechanisms underlying the enhancement of insulin sensitivity by selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulators (sPPARγMs) are still not completely known. Here, the representative sPPARγM, INT131, was used as a probe to investigate the insulin-sensitizing mechanisms of sPPARγM in the context of tissue selective compound distribution and PPARγ regulation. First, 30 mg kg(-1) INT131 was observed to produce an insulin-sensitizing effect comparable to that of 10 mg kg(-1) rosiglitazone (RSG) in both db/db and DIO mice using the oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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