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Electrochemical reforming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871368/microbial-bioelectrosynthesis-of-hydrogen-current-challenges-and-scale-up
#1
REVIEW
Michael Kitching, Robin Butler, Enrico Marsili
Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775092/enhanced-methane-steam-reforming-activity-and-electrochemical-performance-of-ni0-9fe0-1-supported-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-with-infiltrated-ni-tio2-particles
#2
Kai Li, Lichao Jia, Xin Wang, Jian Pu, Bo Chi, Jian Li
Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768075/combustion-characterization-and-model-fuel-development-for-micro-tubular-flame-assisted-fuel-cells
#3
Ryan J Milcarek, Michael J Garrett, Amrish Baskaran, Jeongmin Ahn
Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale power generation and micro combustion as well as development in fuel cell research has created new means of power generation that combine solid oxide fuel cells with open flames and combustion exhaust. Instead of relying upon the heat of combustion, these solid oxide fuel cell systems rely on reforming of the fuel via combustion to generate syngas for electrochemical power generation...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748588/fluorescence-monitored-voltammetry-of-single-attolitre-droplets
#4
Christopher Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher A Little, Stanislav V Sokolov, Enno Kätelhön, Giorgia Zampardi, Richard G Compton
The lipid soluble fluorophore Nile Red (9-diethylamino-5-benzo[α]phenoxazinone) is used to fluorescently and electrochemically label an organic-in-water emulsion, where the organic phase is an ionic liquid [P6,6,6,14][FAP]/toluene mixture. The optical detection of the individual droplets is enabled facilitating the in-situ tracking and sizing of the suspended particles (average diameter = 530 nm, interquartile range = 180 nm). Through the use of a combined thin-layer optical/electrochemical cell, the irreversible accumulation of the droplets at an optically opaque carbon fibre electrode (diameter ~ 7...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699715/l-cysteine-assisted-synthesis-of-urchin-like-%C3%AE-mns-and-its-lithium-storage-properties
#5
Dan Xu, Ranran Jiao, Yuanwei Sun, Dezhi Sun, Xianxi Zhang, Suyuan Zeng, Youying Di
MnS has been attracting more and more attentions in the fields of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high energy density and low voltage potential. In this paper, we present a simple method for the preparation of urchin-like γ-MnS microstructures using L-cysteine and MnCl2 · 4H2O as the starting materials. The urchin-like γ-MnS microstructures exhibit excellent cycling stability (823.4 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 500 mA g(-1), after 1000 cycles). And the discharge voltage is about 0...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636565/phase-restructuring-in-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-for-highly-stable-energy-storage
#6
Kai Leng, Zhongxin Chen, Xiaoxu Zhao, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Chang Tai Nai, Wu Zhou, Kian Ping Loh
Achieving homogeneous phase transition and uniform charge distribution is essential for good cycle stability and high capacity when phase conversion materials are used as electrodes. Herein, we show that chemical lithiation of bulk 2H-MoS2 distorts its crystalline domains in three primary directions to produce mosaic-like 1T' nanocrystalline domains, which improve phase and charge uniformity during subsequent electrochemical phase conversion. 1T'-LixMoS2, a macroscopic dense material with interconnected nanoscale grains, show unprecedented cycle stability and rate capability in lithium rechargeable battery compared to bulk or exfoliated-restacked MoS2...
September 16, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610415/electrochemical-partial-reforming-of-ethanol-into-ethyl-acetate-using-ultrathin-co3o4-nanosheets-as-a-highly-selective-anode-catalyst
#7
Lei Dai, Qing Qin, Xiaojing Zhao, Chaofa Xu, Chengyi Hu, Shiguang Mo, Yu Olivia Wang, Shuichao Lin, Zichao Tang, Nanfeng Zheng
Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets...
August 24, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570502/detailed-multi-dimensional-modeling-of-direct-internal-reforming-solid-oxide-fuel-cells
#8
K Tseronis, I S Fragkopoulos, I Bonis, C Theodoropoulos
Fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and can be attributed to their high operating temperature. Here we consider a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell setup in which a separate fuel reformer is not required. We construct a multidimensional, detailed model of a planar solid oxide fuel cell, where mass transport in the fuel channel is modeled using the Stefan-Maxwell model, whereas the mass transport within the porous electrodes is simulated using the Dusty-Gas model...
June 2016: Fuel Cells (Weinheim)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417536/stabilizing-a-high-temperature-electrochemical-silver-carbonate-co2-capture-membrane-by-atomic-layer-deposition-of-a-zro2-overcoat
#9
Peng Zhang, Jingjing Tong, Youngseok Jee, Kevin Huang
A high-selectivity and high-flux electrochemical silver-carbonate dual-phase membrane was coated with a nanoscaled ZrO2 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for stable CO2 capture at high-temperature (≥800 °C); the latter has an important implication for direct dry methane reforming with the captured CO2 and O2 for syngas production.
July 28, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26914281/doping-evolution-and-junction-formation-in-stacked-cyanine-dye-light-emitting-electrochemical-cells
#10
Sandra Jenatsch, Lei Wang, Matia Bulloni, Anna C Véron, Beat Ruhstaller, Stéphane Altazin, Frank Nüesch, Roland Hany
Cyanine dyes are fluorescent organic salts with intrinsic conductivity for ionic and electronic charges. Recently ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 18008 - 18011 ), these features have been exploited in cyanine light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Here, we demonstrate that stacked, constant-voltage driven trimethine cyanine LECs with various counteranions develop a p-i-n junction that is composed of p- and n-doped zones and an intrinsic region where light-emission occurs. We introduce a method that combines spectral photocurrent response measurements with optical modeling and find that at maximum current the intrinsic region is centered at ∼37% away from the anode...
March 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853700/towards-redox-driven-unidirectional-molecular-motion
#11
Hella Logtenberg, Jetsuda Areephong, Jurica Bauer, Auke Meetsma, Ben L Feringa, Wesley R Browne
Redox-driven molecular motion is an attractive alternative to light-driven processes. Here, the ability of an overcrowded alkene-based unimolecular light-driven rotary motor (A) to be driven by oxidation/reduction cycles is explored. We show that two-electron oxidation of A is followed by irreversible deprotonation and reduction to form a monocationic species D(+) , in which the stereogenic center is lost. This latter species was isolated through preparative electrolysis and its structure was confirmed by using single-crystal X-ray analysis...
June 17, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824406/tracking-sodium-antimonide-phase-transformations-in-sodium-ion-anodes-insights-from-operando-pair-distribution-function-analysis-and-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#12
Phoebe K Allan, John M Griffin, Ali Darwiche, Olaf J Borkiewicz, Kamila M Wiaderek, Karena W Chapman, Andrew J Morris, Peter J Chupas, Laure Monconduit, Clare P Grey
Operando pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and ex situ (23)Na magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS ssNMR) spectroscopy are used to gain insight into the alloying mechanism of high-capacity antimony anodes for sodium-ion batteries. Subtraction of the PDF of crystalline NaxSb phases from the total PDF, an approach constrained by chemical phase information gained from (23)Na ssNMR in reference to relevant model compounds, identifies two previously uncharacterized intermediate species formed electrochemically; a-Na(3-x)Sb (x ≈ 0...
February 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692568/passivation-layer-and-cathodic-redox-reactions-in-sodium-ion-batteries-probed-by-haxpes
#13
Siham Doubaji, Bertrand Philippe, Ismael Saadoune, Mihaela Gorgoi, Torbjorn Gustafsson, Abderrahim Solhy, Mario Valvo, Håkan Rensmo, Kristina Edström
The cathode material P2-Nax Co2/3 Mn2/9 Ni1/9 O2, which could be used in Na-ion batteries, was investigated through synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). Nondestructive analysis was made through the electrode/electrolyte interface of the first electrochemical cycle to ensure access to information not only on the active material, but also on the passivation layer formed at the electrode surface and referred to as the solid permeable interface (SPI). This investigation clearly shows the role of the SPI and the complexity of the redox reactions...
January 8, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377877/polymer-electrolyte-membrane-electrolyzers-utilizing-non-precious-mo-based-hydrogen-evolution-catalysts
#14
Jia Wei Desmond Ng, Thomas R Hellstern, Jakob Kibsgaard, Allison C Hinckley, Jesse D Benck, Thomas F Jaramillo
The development of low-cost hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts that can be readily integrated into electrolyzers is critical if H2 from renewable electricity-powered electrolysis is to compete cost effectively with steam reforming. Herein, we report three distinct earth-abundant Mo-based catalysts, namely those based on MoSx , [Mo3 S13 ](2-) nanoclusters, and sulfur-doped Mo phosphide (MoP|S), loaded onto carbon supports. The catalysts were synthesized through facile impregnation-sulfidization routes specifically designed for catalyst-device compatibility...
October 26, 2015: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25727894/electrolytic-reduction-of-liquid-metal-oxides-and-its-application-to-reconfigurable-structured-devices
#15
Jinqi Wang, Kanagasundar Appusamy, Sivaraman Guruswamy, Ajay Nahata
Structured metallic patterns are routinely used for a wide variety of applications, ranging from electronic circuits to plasmonics and metamaterials. Numerous techniques have been developed for the fabrication of these devices, in which the metal patterns are typically formed using conventional metals. While this approach has proven very successful, it does generally limit the ability to reconfigure the geometry of the overall device. Here, we demonstrate the ability to create artificially structured metallic devices using liquid metals, in which the configuration can be altered via the electrolysis of saline solutions or deionized water...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25599129/an-operando-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-study-of-carbon-deposition-on-sofc-anodes
#16
Xiaxi Li, Mingfei Liu, Jung-pil Lee, Dong Ding, Lawrence A Bottomley, Soojin Park, Meilin Liu
Thermally robust and chemically inert Ag@SiO2 nanoprobes are employed to provide the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect for an in situ/operando study of the early stage of carbon deposition on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. The enhanced sensitivity to carbon enables the detection of different stages of coking, offering insights into intrinsic coking tolerance of material surfaces. Application of a thin coating of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) enhances the resistance to coking of nickel surfaces...
September 7, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25104378/ammonia-synthesis-ammonia-synthesis-by-n%C3%A2-and-steam-electrolysis-in-molten-hydroxide-suspensions-of-nanoscale-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2
#17
Stuart Licht, Baochen Cui, Baohui Wang, Fang-Fang Li, Jason Lau, Shuzhi Liu
The Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia for fertilizer currently relies on carbon-intensive steam reforming of methane as a hydrogen source. We present an electrochemical pathway in which ammonia is produced by electrolysis of air and steam in a molten hydroxide suspension of nano-Fe2O3. At 200°C in an electrolyte with a molar ratio of 0.5 NaOH/0.5 KOH, ammonia is produced at 1.2 volts (V) under 2 milliamperes per centimeter squared (mA cm(-2)) of applied current at coulombic efficiency of 35% (35% of the applied current results in the six-electron conversion of N2 and water to ammonia, and excess H2 is cogenerated with the ammonia)...
August 8, 2014: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24967506/fuel-from-water-the-photochemical-generation-of-hydrogen-from-water
#18
Zhiji Han, Richard Eisenberg
Hydrogen has been labeled the fuel of the future since it contains no carbon, has the highest specific enthalpy of combustion of any chemical fuel, yields only water upon complete oxidation, and is not limited by Carnot considerations in the amount of work obtained when used in a fuel cell. To be used on the scale needed for sustainable growth on a global scale, hydrogen must be produced by the light-driven splitting of water into its elements, as opposed to reforming of methane, as is currently done. The photochemical generation of H2, which is the reductive side of the water splitting reaction, is the focus of this Account, particularly with regard to work done in the senior author's laboratory over the last 5 years...
August 19, 2014: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24892771/nanotechnology-makes-biomass-electrolysis-more-energy-efficient-than-water-electrolysis
#19
Y X Chen, A Lavacchi, H A Miller, M Bevilacqua, J Filippi, M Innocenti, A Marchionni, W Oberhauser, L Wang, F Vizza
The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg(-1)H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26...
2014: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24842005/redox-triggered-reversible-interconversion-of-a-monocyclic-and-a-bicyclic-phosphorus-heterocycle
#20
Dominikus Heift, Zoltán Benkő, Hansjörg Grützmacher
Molecules which change their structures significantly and reversibly upon an oxidation or reduction process have potential as future components of smart materials. A prerequisite for such an application is that the molecules should undergo the redox-coupled transformation within a reasonable electrochemical window and lock into stable redox states. Sodium phosphaethynolate reacts with two equivalents of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) to yield an anionic, imino-functionalized 1,3,5-diazaphosphinane [3 a](-)...
June 23, 2014: Angewandte Chemie
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