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Cardiac surgical critical care

Anton Krige, Martin Bland, Thomas Fanshawe
BACKGROUND: Passive leg raising (PLR) is a so called self-volume challenge used to test for fluid responsiveness. Changes in cardiac output (CO) or stroke volume (SV) measured during PLR are used to predict the need for subsequent fluid loading. This requires a device that can measure CO changes rapidly. The Vigileo™ monitor, using third-generation software, allows continuous CO monitoring. The aim of this study was to compare changes in CO (measured with the Vigileo device) during a PLR manoeuvre to calculate the accuracy for predicting fluid responsiveness...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Anuradha Singal, Ramesh Menon, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Alka Mohan, Mala Manral, Divya Singh, V Devagouru, Sachin Talwar, Shiv Kumar Choudhary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Gail G Salvatierra, Ruth C Bindler, Kenn B Daratha
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Yuko Ono, Takuya Sugiyama, Yasuyuki Chida, Tetsuya Sato, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Daiji Suzuki, Masakazu Ikeda, Koichi Tanigawa, Kazuaki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: A reduction in medical staff such as occurs in hospitals during nights and weekends (off hours) is associated with a worse outcome in patients with several unanticipated critical conditions. Although difficult airway management (DAM) requires the simultaneous assistance of several appropriately trained medical caregivers, data are scarce regarding the association between off-hour presentation and endotracheal intubation (ETI)-related adverse events, especially in the trauma population...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
J C Galán Gutiérrez, F E Fernández Suárez, P Miranda García, L A Sopena Zubiria
Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a complex combination of cardiovascular abnormalities defined as pulmonary hypertension with investment or bidirectional flow through an intracardiac or aortopulmonary communication, usually secondary to a congenital heart disease not resolved promptly. It carries a significant risk of perioperative mortality, with an incidence close to 30% for non-cardiac surgery. We report the anaesthetic management in a ES patient undergoing breast surgery, which was successfully performed under general anaesthesia combined with thoracic analgesic blocks...
August 20, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Simon Lammy, James P Blackmur, Jeremy M T Perkins
BACKGROUND: There have been enormous advances in the screening, diagnosis, intervention and overall prognosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the last decade, but despite these, ruptured AAAs (rAAAs) still cause around 3500 to 6000 deaths in England and Wales each year. Open repair remains standard treatment for rAAA in most centres but increasingly endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is being adopted. This has a 30-day postoperative mortality of 40%. This has remained static despite surgical, anaesthetic and critical care advances...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maung Hlaing
Patients undergoing aortic arch surgery are at high risk for stroke, delirium, low cardiac output, respiratory failure, renal failure, and coagulopathy. A significantly higher mortality is seen in patients experiencing any of these complications when compared with those without complications. As surgical, perfusion, and anesthetic techniques improve, the incidence of major complications have decreased. A recent paradigm shift in cardiac surgery has focused on rapid postoperative recovery, and a similar change has affected the care of patients after arch surgery...
August 5, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Naheed Rajabali, Darryl Rolfson, Sean M Bagshaw
Frailty is a clearly emerging theme in acute care medicine, with obvious prognostic and health resource implications. "Frailty" is a term used to describe a multidimensional syndrome of loss of homeostatic reserves that gives rise to a vulnerability to adverse outcomes after relatively minor stressor events. This is conceptually simple, yet there has been little consensus on the operational definition. The gold standard method to diagnose frailty remains a comprehensive geriatric assessment; however, a variety of validated physical performance measures, judgement-based tools, and multidimensional scales are being applied in critical care, cardiology, and cardiac surgery settings, including open cardiac surgery and transcatheter aortic value replacement...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas, Martin Girard, Georges Desjardins, André Y Denault
BACKGROUND: Acute deterioration in respiratory status commonly occurs in patients who cannot be transported for imaging studies, particularly during surgical procedures and in critical care settings. Transthoracic lung ultrasonography has been developed to allow rapid diagnosis of respiratory conditions at the bedside. Nevertheless, the thorax is not always accessible, especially in the perioperative setting. Transesophageal lung ultrasonography (TELU) can be used to circumvent this problem...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Suze Dominique Bruins, Pauline Meng Choo Leong, Shin Yi Ng
INTRODUCTION: We reviewed patients with critical incidents that occurred in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) at a major tertiary hospital, and the effect of these incidents on PACU length of stay and discharge disposition was assessed. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients in the PACU over a two-year period from 24 June 2011 to 23 August 2013. Data on critical incidents were recorded in the administrative database using a standardised data form...
July 21, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Russell D MacDonald, Felipe Allendes
OBJECTIVE: Transport of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP)-dependent patients between hospitals is increasingly common. The transports are typically time-sensitive and require personnel familiar with IABP operation and management of a potentially unstable patient. This study examined transports performed by specially trained critical care paramedics in a large air medical and land critical care transport service. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive review prospectively collected data for IABP-dependent patient transports in Ontario, Canada in a 10-year interval beginning September 2003...
July 2016: Air Medical Journal
Edvin Prifti, Fadil Ademaj, Klodian Krakulli, Edlira Rruci, Merita Zeka, Aurel Demiraj
BACKGROUND: Coronary arteries originating from the right coronary ostium in the ascending aorta represent a very rare anatomic presentation. Also, the presence of a single coronary ostium is an extremely rare finding. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 74-year-old Albanian man from Kosovo. He had unstable angina due to critical triple vessel disease and a single coronary artery originating from a single ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva with an anomalous course of his left anterior descending artery anteriorly to the right ventricular outflow tract as a "T-vessel" from which originated the proximal and distal left anterior descending artery, the circumflex artery originating from the mid portion of the right coronary artery which had a normal course...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Matthew M Churpek, Blair Wendlandt, Frank J Zadravecz, Richa Adhikari, Christopher Winslow, Dana P Edelson
BACKGROUND: Previous research investigating the impact of delayed intensive care unit (ICU) transfer on outcomes has utilized subjective criteria for defining critical illness. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of delayed ICU transfer using the electronic Cardiac Arrest Risk Triage (eCART) score, a previously published early warning score, as an objective marker of critical illness. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Medical-surgical wards at 5 hospitals between November 2008 and January 2013...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Punkaj Gupta, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Howard E Jeffries, Nancy Brundage, Barry P Markovitz, Matthew C Scanlon, Janet M Simsic
BACKGROUND: Multicenter data regarding the around-the-clock (24/7) presence of an in-house critical care attending physician with outcomes in children undergoing cardiac operations are limited. METHODS: Patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent operations (with or without cardiopulmonary bypass [CPB]) for congenital heart disease at 1 of the participating intensive care units (ICUs) in the Virtual PICU Systems (VPS, LLC) database were included (2009-2014)...
June 18, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Joseph A Dearani, Jeffrey P Jacobs, R Morton Bolman, JaBaris D Swain, Luca A Vricella, Samuel Weinstein, Emily A Farkas, John H Calhoon
Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care...
September 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Julia K Gunn, John Beca, Rodney W Hunt, Michelle Goldsworthy, Christian P Brizard, Kirsten Finucane, Susan Donath, Lara S Shekerdemian
OBJECTIVE: Historical cohort studies have reported adverse neurodevelopment following cardiac surgery during early infancy. Advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care have coincided with updating of neurodevelopmental assessment tools. We aimed to determine perioperative risk factors for impaired neurodevelopment at 2 years following surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in early infancy. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We undertook a prospective longitudinal study of 153 full-term infants undergoing surgery for CHD before 2 months of age...
June 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Mehreen T Kisat, Asad Latif, Cheryl K Zogg, Elliott R Haut, Syed Nabeel Zafar, Zain G Hashmi, Tolulope A Oyetunji, Edward E Cornwell, Hasnain Zafar, Adil H Haider
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS) is associated with high mortality for medical and surgical patients. Existing literature suggests that this may not be true for trauma patients. The objective of this study was to determine mortality associated with varying ICU-LOS among trauma patients and to assess for independent predictors of mortality. METHODS: Adult ICU patients (16-64 years) in the National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2012) were categorized by ICU-LOS: 1, 2-9, 10-40, and >40 days (determined based on inflection points)...
September 2016: Surgery
Afrothite Kotsakis, Derek Stevens, Helena Frndova, Richard Neal, Grace Williamson, Hadi Mohseni-Bod, Christopher S Parshuram
OBJECTIVES: ICU readmission within 48 hours of discharge is associated with increased mortality. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of, factors associated with, and outcomes associated with unplanned PICU readmission. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study was performed. We evaluated 13 candidate risk factors and report patient outcomes following readmission. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients discharged from the cardiac PICU and medical-surgical PICU...
June 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
E G Agavelyan, E M Svarinskaya, S V Ovchinnikov
The article describes a clinical case of treating a few- hours-life child with birth body weight--2900 g, length--50 cm, who had been extremely rare complex congenital malformations: fetus in fetu in the epigastrium with satisfactorily formed the lower half of the body of the failed twin, omphalocele and severe CHD. The surgical treatment was in terms of multicomponent endotracheal anesthesia. At the end of surgery puncture and catheterization of the epidural space at the level of L1/L2 holding the catheter up to Th9/Th10 for postoperative analgesia was made...
January 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
E Guasch, F Gilsanz
Massive obstetric hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is defined (among others) as the loss of>2,500ml of blood, and is associated to a need for admission to critical care and/or hysterectomy. The relative hemodilution and high cardiac output found in normal pregnancy allows substantial bleeding before a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit can be identified. Some comorbidities associated with pregnancy can contribute to the occurrence of catastrophic bleeding with consumption coagulopathy, which makes the situation even worse...
June 2016: Medicina Intensiva
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