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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874159/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-and-rpo-b-gene-in-respiratory-and-non-respiratory-clinical-specimens-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#1
Ali M Somily, Mazin A Barry, Hanan A Habib, Fawzia E Alotaibi, Fahad A Al-Zamil, Mohammed A Khan, Mohammed S Sarwar, Nawab D Bakhash, Abdulkarim A Alrabiaah, Zahid A Shakoor, Abiola C Senok
To assess the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF), against smear microscopy and culture method for diagnosis of MTB infection. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 103 respiratory and 137 non-respiratory patient specimens suspected of tuberculosis at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia performed between April 2014 and March 2015. Each sample underwent smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and GeneXpert MTB/RIF test...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865383/analytical-and-clinical-performance-characteristics-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-rif-inh-resistance-an-assay-for-the-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pulmonary-specimens
#2
Joshua Kostera, Gregor Leckie, Ning Tang, John Lampinen, Magdalena Szostak, Klara Abravaya, Hong Wang
Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847371/sensitive-detection-of-francisella-tularensis-directly-from-whole-blood-using-the-genexpert-system
#3
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Riccardo Russo, James Occi, Gabriel Meister, Kelly J Jones, Carl H Gelhaus, Michelle W Valderas, Martin Jones, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a potential bioterrorism agent that is highly infectious at very low doses. Diagnosis of tularemia by blood culture and nucleic acid based diagnostic tests are insufficiently sensitive. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive, F. tularensis assay that incorporates sample processing and detection into a single cartridge suitable for point of care detection. METHODS: Assay limit of detection (LOD) and dynamic range were determined in a filter based cartridge run on the GeneXpert system...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847010/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-fistula-in-ano-a-new-finding-and-its-implications
#4
Pankaj Garg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not known to be associated with fistula-in-ano. NTM was detected in three fistula-in-ano patients in our series. In this study, related data was reviewed to find the mycobacterial disease in patients in our database. METHODS: In this study, 311 consecutive fistula-in-ano patients operated over 2years were analyzed. The histopathology of anal fistula tract epithelial lining of every operated patient was analyzed and other tests (real-time-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR], GeneXpert, and mycobacterial culture) were conducted in patients with high index of suspicion of having mycobacterial disease...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846818/asymptomatic-and-yet-c-difficile-toxin-positive-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-among-geriatric-in-patients
#5
Klaus Nissle, Daniel Kopf, Alexander Rösler
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the most frequent cause of diarrhoea in hospitals. Geriatric patients are more often affected by the condition, by a relapse and complications. Therefore, a crucial question is how often colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs in elderly patients without diarrhoea and whether there is a "risk pattern" of colonized patients that can be defined by geriatric assessment. Furthermore, the probability for those asymptomatic carriers to develop a symptomatic infection over time has not been sufficiently explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798497/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#6
Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is a devastating infection that is hard to diagnose and treat. We have reviewed tuberculous meningitis original research published within the past 18 months, selecting studies which we consider have most advanced knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: We review advances in diagnostic methods, anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, and the common complications of tuberculous meningitis. New commercial molecular diagnostic tests, such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, have an important role in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis, but as with all other available tests, they lack sensitivity and cannot rule out the disease...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790312/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-genexpert-a-rapid-and-accurate-diagnostic-tool-for-the-management-of-tuberculosis-of-the-spine
#7
Ayush Sharma, Harvinder Singh Chhabra, Rajat Mahajan, Tarun Chabra, Sahil Batra
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze various diagnostic tools, including GeneXpert, for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Traditional diagnostic methods of microscopy, histology, and culture have low sensitivity and specificity for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. METHODS: Of the 262 treated cases of spinal tuberculosis, data on 1 year follow-up was available for 217 cases...
October 2016: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756279/smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-prison-settings-of-north-gondar-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#8
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746398/a-novel-strategy-based-on-genomics-and-specific-pcr-reveals-how-a-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strain-became-prevalent-in-equatorial-guinea-15%C3%A2-years-after-its-emergence
#9
Laura Pérez-Lago, Santiago Izco, Marta Herranz, Griselda Tudó, María Carcelén, Iñaki Comas, Olalla Sierra, Juliá González, María Jesús Ruiz-Serrano, Juan Eyene, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
OBJECTIVE: Molecular epidemiology techniques in tuberculosis (TB) can identify high-risk strains that are actively transmitted. We aimed to implement a novel strategy to optimize the identification and control of MDR-TB in a specific population. METHODS: We developed a strain-specific-PCR tailored from whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) data to track a specific multidrug-resistant prevalent strain in Equatorial Guinea (EG-MDR). RESULTS: The PCR was applied prospectively on remnants of GeneXpert reaction mixtures owing to the lack of culture facilities in EG...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742463/differentiating-between-live-and-dead-mycobacterium-smegmatis-using-autofluorescence
#10
Cynthia Wong, Ngan P Ha, Michal E Pawlowski, Edward A Graviss, Tomasz S Tkaczyk
While there have been research efforts to find faster and more efficient diagnostic techniques for tuberculosis (TB), it is equally important to monitor a patient's response to treatment over time, especially with the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) TB. Between sputum smear microscopy, culture, and GeneXpert, only culture can verify viability of mycobacteria. However, it may take up to six weeks to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), during which time the patient may have responded to treatment or the mycobacteria are still viable because the patient has MDR or XDR TB...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730779/abdominal-tuberculosis
#11
Pravin Rathi, Pravir Gambhire
Abdomen is involved in 11% of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; The most common site of involvement is the ileocaecal region, other locations of involvement, in order of descending frequency, are the ascending colon, jejunum, appendix, duodenum, stomach, oesophagus, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Apart from the basic work up, Investigations like CT scan, EUS, Capsule endoscopy, Balloon enteroscopy, Ascitic fluid ADA, TB-PCR, GeneXpert, Laproscopy are being increasingly used to diagnose tuberculosis.Therapy with standard antituberculous drugs is usually highly effective for intestinal TB...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696234/toxin-a-negative-toxin-b-positive-ribotype-017-clostridium-difficile-is-the-dominant-strain-type-in-patients-with-diarrhoea-attending-tuberculosis-hospitals-in-cape-town-south-africa
#12
B Kullin, J Wojno, V Abratt, S J Reid
The molecular epidemiology of C. difficile strains causing disease in South Africa is currently unknown. Previously, multidrug resistant ribotype (RT)017 strains were those most commonly isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. This larger study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of C. difficile strains in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. C. difficile strains were isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending hospitals in the Western Cape region of South Africa that tested positive using the GeneXpert CDiff diagnostic test...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670679/tuberculous-spondylitis-diagnosed-through-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-urine-a-case-report
#13
George Sikalengo, Adria Ramirez, Diana Faini, Kim Mwamelo, Manuel Battegay, Levan Jugheli, Christoph Hatz, Klaus Reither, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of EPTB is challenging in resource-limited settings due to difficulties in obtaining samples, as well as the paucibacillarity of the specimens. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-35 % of EPTB cases, with vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) representing 50 % of the cases. We present two cases of suspected Pott's disease, diagnosed through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in urine at a rural Tanzanian hospital...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652357/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-direct-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Husseiny Sh Moussa, Faten S Bayoumi, Ahmed M Ali
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for direct diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).   METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2013 and February 2016 at Abbassaia Chest Hospital and Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Inclusion criteria were adults between 18 and 60 years with suspected PTB and classified into 5 clinical categories based on their clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings:  confirmed TB, probable TB, possible TB, unlikely TB, and not TB...
October 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581729/smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-homeless-individuals-in-dessie-and-debre-birhan-towns-northeast-ethiopia
#15
Tsedale Semunigus, Belay Tessema, Setegn Eshetie, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the globe's deadliest communicable diseases. The homeless individuals are at high risk to acquire TB and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), because of their poor living conditions and risky behaviors. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB in the homeless individuals can pose a risk to entire communities. However, the magnitude of the problem is not known in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) and MDR-TB among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571200/rapid-diagnosis-of-staphylococcal-catheter-related-bacteraemia-in-direct-blood-samples-by-real-time-pcr
#16
Yuliya Zboromyrska, Cristina De la Calle, Marcelo Soto, Laura Sampietro-Colom, Alex Soriano, Míriam José Alvarez-Martínez, Manel Almela, Francesc Marco, Ruth Arjona, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Laura Morata, José Mensa, José Antonio Martínez, Aurea Mira, Jordi Vila
Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566313/evaluation-of-a-novel-procedure-for-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-using-the-lightmix%C3%A2-modular-carbapenemase-kits
#17
Marina Oviaño, Isabel Torres, Maria González, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the LightMix(®) modular carbapenemase kits for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the application of these kits to the direct detection of colonized patients and bacteraemias. METHODS: The modular multiplex PCR kits targeting blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48-like carbapenem resistance genes were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase resistance in a set of 118 labelled clinical isolates...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552679/cepheid-xpert-monitor-platform-for-the-confirmation-of-bcr-abl1-is-conversion-factors-for-the-molecular-monitoring-of-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#18
Gareth Gerrard, Hui En Foong, Katherine Mudge, Mary Alikian, Jane F Apperley, Letizia Foroni
Molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 expression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is well established. As the International Scale (IS) normalised BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio at 3 months post-treatment is now an important milestone in patients' treatment schedule, the reliable and reproducible measurement of BCR-ABL1 levels is therefore paramount. IS conversion factors (CF) are established via sample exchange and yearly ratification with an external reference laboratory. Since any change to an established IS CF could lead to discontinuity in longitudinal results, we wished to add an internal verification step as an additional safeguard...
October 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543102/false-negative-results-in-clostridium-difficile-testing
#19
Yanal M Murad, Justo Perez, Gustavo Ybazeta, Sarah Mavin, Sebastien Lefebvre, J Scott Weese, Joyce Rousseau, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma, Reza Nokhbeh
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is paramount for patient management. The wrong diagnosis places patients at risk, delays treatment, and/ or contributes to transmission of infection in the healthcare setting. Although amplification of the toxin B gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detecting toxigenic C. difficile, false negative results still occur and could impact the diagnosis and treatment of this infection. METHODS: This study investigated 48 patients that tested negative for toxigenic C...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536736/validation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-ct-ng-assay-for-use-with-male-pharyngeal-and-rectal-swabs
#20
R Geiger, D M Smith, S J Little, S R Mehta
OBJECTIVES: The GeneXpert(®) CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) assay is a point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostic assay designed to rapidly test for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). However, the test is only approved for vaginal swabs, urine, and endocervical swabs. Here, we performed an evaluation of the GeneXpert(®) CT/NG assay to detect the presence of CT and GC on male pharyngeal and rectal swabs. METHODS: Men who have sex with men participating in an HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening program providing consent were enrolled into the study...
2016: Austin Journal of HIV/AIDS Research
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