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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904673/mutations-in-rpob-and-katg-genes-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-undetectable-using-genotyping-diagnostic-methods
#1
Faustinos Tatenda Takawira, Racheal Shamiso Dube Mandishora, Zephaniah Dhlamini, Ellen Munemo, Babill Stray-Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains the leading causes of death worldwide with frequencies of mutations in rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates varying according to geographical location. There is limited information in Zimbabwe on specific antibiotic resistance gene mutation patterns in MTB and hence, increased rate of discordant results and mortality due to inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. The rpoB and katG genes molecular markers are used for detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance respectively...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#2
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802405/detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-paraffin-embedded-tissues-by-genexpert-mtb-rif
#3
Laura Rindi, Greta Alì, Barbara Fabiani, Gabriella Fontanini, Carlo Garzelli
GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay, a rapid and automated system based on real-time PCR and molecular beacon technology, proved to be a sensitive and specific tool capable of detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in clinical specimens. In this study we provide a Xpert-dedicated successful protocol for processing paraffin-embedded tissue and assess the feasibility of the Xpert assay-based tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis on these specimens, thus proving the Xpert assay as a valuable TB diagnostic tool in supporting conventional histopathological methods...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794886/evaluation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-determination-of-rifampicin-resistance-among-new-tuberculosis-cases-in-west-and-northwest-iran
#4
S Atashi, B Izadi, S Jalilian, S H Madani, A Farahani, P Mohajeri
Despite a Mycobacterium tuberculosis control programme and anti-tuberculosis drugs, drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the most serious public health issues worldwide. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of M. tuberculosis is needed for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and to find the optimal treatment protocol. The purpose of this study was to detect resistance to rifampicin in new cases of TB using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF (M. tuberculosis/rifampicin) assay and the standard proportional method in west and northwest Iran...
September 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782605/drug-adherence-and-efficacy-of-smear-microscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-2-months-of-medication-in-north-western-tanzania
#5
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Jeremiah Kidola, Christa Kasang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the Tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence level and the efficacy of smear microscopy in the diagnosing pulmonary TB at month 2. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the four sites located in the Northern-western Tanzania. New smear positive, pulmonary TB patients were followed up and their adherence to TB medication assessed after 2 months of the treatment. In addition, the acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy was performed after 2 and 5 months of the treatment...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747367/rapid-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-blood-stream-infections-using-a-novel-assay-in-the-genexpert-system
#6
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Riccardo Russo, Eric Singleton, Darshini Shah, Bhavana Patel, Michele Burday, Ranie Koshy, Qing Wang, Martin Jones, Alexander Gall, Sergey Lokhov, Robert Kwiatkowski, David Persing, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND.Bacillus anthracis is a tier1 select agent with the potential to quickly cause severe disease. Rapid identification of this pathogen may accelerate treatment and reduce mortality in the event of a bioterrorism attack. We developed a rapid and sensitive assay to detect B. anthracis bacteremia using a system that is suitable for point of care testing.METHODS. A filter-based cartridge that included both sample processing and PCR amplification functions was loaded with all reagents needed for sample processing and multiplex nested PCR...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746979/feasibility-of-a-new-model-for-early-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-developed-setting-of-eastern-china
#7
Zhengwei Liu, Aizhen Pan, BeiBei Wu, Lin Zhou, Haibo He, Qiong Meng, Songhua Chen, Yu Pang, Xiaomeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The poor detection rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) highlights the urgent need to explore new case finding model to improve the detection of MDR-TB in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new model that combines molecular diagnostics and sputum transportation for early detection of MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang. METHODS: From May 2014 to January 2015, TB suspects were continuously enrolled at 6 county-level designated TB hospitals in Zhejiang...
July 26, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744153/assessment-of-sputum-smear-positive-but-culture-negative-results-among-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-tanzania
#8
Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa, Esther S Ngadaya, Godfather Kimaro, Dong-Jin Kim, Rudovick Kazwala, Pammla Petrucka, Sayoki G Mfinanga
Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections among 94 "smear-positive culture-negative" patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733605/genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tuberculosis-from-urine-specimens
#9
Yu Pang, Yuanyuan Shang, Jie Lu, Qian Liang, Lingling Dong, Yunxu Li, Liping Zhao, Guanglu Jiang, Hairong Huang
Conventional bacteriological methods are not generally helpful in diagnosing urinary tuberculosis (UTB). GeneXpert is endorsed for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis, whereas the data on its utility for urine specimens is limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its performance on urine specimens in a country with high TB incidence. A total of 163 suspected UTB patients were consecutively enrolled in the analysis, including 37 (22.7%) culture-positive and 44 (27.0%) clinically diagnosed UTB cases. Compared with conventional culture, the sensitivity of GeneXpert (94...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732472/genexpert-hiv-1-quant-assay-a-new-tool-for-scale-up-of-viral-load-monitoring-in-the-success-of-art-programme-in-india
#10
Smita Kulkarni, Sushama Jadhav, Priyanka Khopkar, Suvarna Sane, Rajkumar Londhe, Vaishali Chimanpure, Veronica Dhilpe, Manisha Ghate, Rajendra Yelagate, Narayan Panchal, Girish Rahane, Dilip Kadam, Nitin Gaikwad, Bharat Rewari, Raman Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines identify virologic monitoring for diagnosing and confirming ART failure. In view of this, validation and scale up of point of care viral load technologies is essential in resource limited settings. METHODS: A systematic validation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Quant assay (a point-of-care technology) in view of scaling up HIV-1 viral load in India to monitor the success of national ART programme was carried out. Two hundred nineteen plasma specimens falling in nine viral load ranges (<40 to >5 L copies/ml) were tested by the Abbott m2000rt Real Time and GeneXpert HIV-1 Quant assays...
July 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721981/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-antigen-and-toxin-in-stool-specimens-comparison-of-the-c-difficile-quik-chek-complete-enzyme-immunoassay-and-genexpert-c-difficile-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay
#11
Abiola C Senok, Kamel M Aldosari, Rayan A Alowaisheq, Othman A Abid, Khalid A Alsuhaibani, Mohammad A Khan, Ali M Somily
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accurate and rapid laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains a significant challenge. A two-step algorithm for detection of toxigenic C. difficile in stool based on initial screening for glutamate dehydrogenase assay followed by confirmation by toxin A+B detection using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or molecular assay has been proposed. We aimed to evaluate the C. difficile Quik Chek Complete® (QCC-EIA) versus the GeneXpert® C. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in this two-step algorithm...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709488/endobronchial-ultrasound-experience-in-a-high-tuberculosis-prevalence-setting
#12
Balamugesh Thangakunam, Barney Thomas Jesudason Isaac, Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher
BACKGROUND: Most of the published endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) data are from the western countries, establishing the role of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. The etiology of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be different in an ethnic group with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology of mediastinal adenopathy in a high TB prevalence setting and to determine the performance of various tests in the diagnosis of tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707184/misdiagnosis-of-tuberculosis-associated-with-some-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-by-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay
#13
Yu Pang, Jie Lu, Biyi Su, Huiwen Zheng, Yanlin Zhao
Out of 12 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, 5 were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by GeneXpert at a bacterial load of 10(6). Notably, two species, including M. abscessus and M. smegmatis, were flagged as RIF-resistant MTB due to the high C(t) value of Probe E. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the misdiagnosis of MTB by GeneXpert assay is observed in five NTM species at a high bacterial load.
July 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686705/sputum-quality-and-diagnostic-performance-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-among-smear-negative-adults-with-presumed-tuberculosis-in-uganda
#14
Amanda J Meyer, Collins Atuheire, William Worodria, Samuel Kizito, Achilles Katamba, Ingvar Sanyu, Alfred Andama, Irene Ayakaka, Adithya Cattamanchi, Freddie Bwanga, Laurence Huang, J Lucian Davis
BACKGROUND: Introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay has constituted a major breakthrough for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics. Several patient factors may influence diagnostic performance of Xpert including sputum quality. OBJECTIVE: We carried out a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study to determine the effect of sputum quality on diagnostic performance of Xpert among presumed TB patients in Uganda. METHODS: We collected clinical and demographic information and two sputum samples from participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684611/rapid-and-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-women-and-men
#15
Charlotte A Gaydos, Jeffrey D Klausner, Nitika Pant Pai, Helen Kelly, Cordelia Coltart, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) is a highly prevalent parasitic infection worldwide. It is associated with many adverse reproductive health outcomes. Many infections are asymptomatic and syndromic management leads to underdetection of TV. Traditional methods of TV detection such as wet preparation are insensitive. New rapid, point-of-care (POC) tests can enhance the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. METHODS: The authors reviewed the literature and discuss older POC tests for TV detection, as well as the OSOM lateral flow test, the AmpliVue test, the Solana test and the GeneXpert test as well as the limitations of wet preparation and culture for detection of TV...
July 6, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674714/genexpert-technology-a-breakthrough-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pericarditis-and-pleuritis-in-less-than-2-hours
#16
Muhammad Saeed, Mobeen Ahmad, Shagufta Iram, Saba Riaz, Mehwish Akhtar, Maleeha Aslam
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic validity of GeneXpert for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in pericardial and pleural effusions samples. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at the Mycobacteriology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 286 (158 pleural and 128 pericardial fluids) samples were received from tuberculosis (TB) suspects between January 2014 and August 2016. Every sample was processed for Ziehl-Neelsen (Zn) smear, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture, GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay according to standard protocols...
July 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665950/mortality-among-pcr-negative-admitted-ebola-suspects-during-the-2014-15-outbreak-in-conakry-guinea-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Brecht Ingelbeen, Elhadj Ibrahima Bah, Tom Decroo, Idrissa Balde, Helena Nordenstedt, Johan van Griensven, Anja De Weggheleire
Non-cases are suspect Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) cases testing negative by EVD RT-PCR after admission to an Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC). Admitting non-cases to an ETC prompts concerns on case- and workload in the ETC, risk for nosocomial EVD infection, and delays in diagnosis and disease-specific treatment. We retrospectively analysed characteristics, outcomes and determinants of death of EVD cases and non-cases admitted to the Conakry ETC in Guinea between 03/2014 and 09/2015. Of the 2362 admitted suspects who underwent full confirmatory PCR testing, 1540 (65...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630849/a-case-of-chronic-inflammation-of-the-ankle-joint-with-subtle-signs-of-inflammation-a-rare-presentation-of-tuberculosis-ankle
#18
Jeevan Pereira, S Anoop, George Joy Pettah
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) of the ankle is an uncommon presentation of extrapulmonary infection. The early diagnosis of TB arthritis of the ankle is difficult because of the uncommon site, the ability of TB to mimic other disorders and, all too common, lack of awareness of about this infection in ankle joint. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of right ankle pain and swelling. He denied any history of recent infection but had had recurrent ankle pain that had been treated accordingly...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615471/clostridium-difficile-pcr-cycle-threshold-predicts-free-toxin
#19
Fiona Senchyna, Rajiv L Gaur, Saurabh Gombar, Cynthia Y Truong, Lee F Schroeder, Niaz Banaei
There is no stand-alone Clostridium difficile diagnostic that can sensitively and rapidly detect fecal free toxins. We investigated the performance of the C. difficile PCR cycle threshold (CT ) for predicting free toxin status. Consecutive stool samples (n = 312) positive for toxigenic C. difficile by the GeneXpert C. difficile/Epi tcdB PCR assay were tested with the rapid membrane C. Diff Quik Chek Complete immunoassay (RMEIA). RMEIA toxin-negative samples were tested with the cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and tgcBIOMICS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612135/comparative-study-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-and-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-suspected-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#20
Anil Kumar Sah, Bishnu Joshi, Dhruba Kumar Khadka, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Anurag Adhikari, Subodh Kant Singh, Ganesh Rai, Geeta Shrestha Vaidya, Reema Rajbhandari, Basant Pant, Shiba Kumar Rai
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries. The objective of this study was to compare rapid diagnostics technique, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) and Multiplex PCR assay (MPCR) targeting IS6110 segment and mpb64 gene for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in suspected PTB patients. A cross sectional study was carried among 105 sputum samples from suspected PTB patients to evaluate GeneXpert and Multiplex PCR who visited National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal...
September 2017: Current Microbiology
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