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Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Laura Pérez-Lago, Santiago Izco, Marta Herranz, Griselda Tudó, María Carcelén, Iñaki Comas, Olalla Sierra, Juliá González, María Jesús Ruiz-Serrano, Juan Eyene, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
OBJECTIVE: Molecular epidemiology techniques in tuberculosis (TB) can identify high-risk strains that are actively transmitted. We aimed to implement a novel strategy to optimize the identification and control of MDR-TB in a specific population. METHODS: We developed a strain-specific-PCR tailored from whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) data to track a specific multidrug-resistant prevalent strain in Equatorial Guinea (EG-MDR). RESULTS: The PCR was applied prospectively on remnants of GeneXpert reaction mixtures owing to the lack of culture facilities in EG...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Cynthia Wong, Ngan P Ha, Michal E Pawlowski, Edward A Graviss, Tomasz S Tkaczyk
While there have been research efforts to find faster and more efficient diagnostic techniques for tuberculosis (TB), it is equally important to monitor a patient's response to treatment over time, especially with the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) TB. Between sputum smear microscopy, culture, and GeneXpert, only culture can verify viability of mycobacteria. However, it may take up to six weeks to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), during which time the patient may have responded to treatment or the mycobacteria are still viable because the patient has MDR or XDR TB...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Pravin Rathi, Pravir Gambhire
Abdomen is involved in 11% of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; The most common site of involvement is the ileocaecal region, other locations of involvement, in order of descending frequency, are the ascending colon, jejunum, appendix, duodenum, stomach, oesophagus, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Apart from the basic work up, Investigations like CT scan, EUS, Capsule endoscopy, Balloon enteroscopy, Ascitic fluid ADA, TB-PCR, GeneXpert, Laproscopy are being increasingly used to diagnose tuberculosis.Therapy with standard antituberculous drugs is usually highly effective for intestinal TB...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
B Kullin, J Wojno, V Abratt, S J Reid
The molecular epidemiology of C. difficile strains causing disease in South Africa is currently unknown. Previously, multidrug resistant ribotype (RT)017 strains were those most commonly isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. This larger study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of C. difficile strains in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. C. difficile strains were isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending hospitals in the Western Cape region of South Africa that tested positive using the GeneXpert CDiff diagnostic test...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
George Sikalengo, Adria Ramirez, Diana Faini, Kim Mwamelo, Manuel Battegay, Levan Jugheli, Christoph Hatz, Klaus Reither, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of EPTB is challenging in resource-limited settings due to difficulties in obtaining samples, as well as the paucibacillarity of the specimens. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-35 % of EPTB cases, with vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) representing 50 % of the cases. We present two cases of suspected Pott's disease, diagnosed through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in urine at a rural Tanzanian hospital...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Husseiny Sh Moussa, Faten S Bayoumi, Ahmed M Ali
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for direct diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).   METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2013 and February 2016 at Abbassaia Chest Hospital and Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Inclusion criteria were adults between 18 and 60 years with suspected PTB and classified into 5 clinical categories based on their clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings:  confirmed TB, probable TB, possible TB, unlikely TB, and not TB...
October 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Tsedale Semunigus, Belay Tessema, Setegn Eshetie, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the globe's deadliest communicable diseases. The homeless individuals are at high risk to acquire TB and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), because of their poor living conditions and risky behaviors. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB in the homeless individuals can pose a risk to entire communities. However, the magnitude of the problem is not known in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) and MDR-TB among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Yuliya Zboromyrska, Cristina De la Calle, Marcelo Soto, Laura Sampietro-Colom, Alex Soriano, Míriam José Alvarez-Martínez, Manel Almela, Francesc Marco, Ruth Arjona, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Laura Morata, José Mensa, José Antonio Martínez, Aurea Mira, Jordi Vila
Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter...
2016: PloS One
Marina Oviaño, Isabel Torres, Maria González, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the LightMix(®) modular carbapenemase kits for the rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and the application of these kits to the direct detection of colonized patients and bacteraemias. METHODS: The modular multiplex PCR kits targeting blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaOXA-48-like carbapenem resistance genes were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for carbapenemase resistance in a set of 118 labelled clinical isolates...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Gareth Gerrard, Hui En Foong, Katherine Mudge, Mary Alikian, Jane F Apperley, Letizia Foroni
Molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 expression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is well established. As the International Scale (IS) normalised BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio at 3 months post-treatment is now an important milestone in patients' treatment schedule, the reliable and reproducible measurement of BCR-ABL1 levels is therefore paramount. IS conversion factors (CF) are established via sample exchange and yearly ratification with an external reference laboratory. Since any change to an established IS CF could lead to discontinuity in longitudinal results, we wished to add an internal verification step as an additional safeguard...
October 2016: Leukemia Research
Yanal M Murad, Justo Perez, Gustavo Ybazeta, Sarah Mavin, Sebastien Lefebvre, J Scott Weese, Joyce Rousseau, Francisco Diaz-Mitoma, Reza Nokhbeh
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is paramount for patient management. The wrong diagnosis places patients at risk, delays treatment, and/ or contributes to transmission of infection in the healthcare setting. Although amplification of the toxin B gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detecting toxigenic C. difficile, false negative results still occur and could impact the diagnosis and treatment of this infection. METHODS: This study investigated 48 patients that tested negative for toxigenic C...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
R Geiger, D M Smith, S J Little, S R Mehta
OBJECTIVES: The GeneXpert(®) CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) assay is a point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostic assay designed to rapidly test for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). However, the test is only approved for vaginal swabs, urine, and endocervical swabs. Here, we performed an evaluation of the GeneXpert(®) CT/NG assay to detect the presence of CT and GC on male pharyngeal and rectal swabs. METHODS: Men who have sex with men participating in an HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) screening program providing consent were enrolled into the study...
2016: Austin J HIV AIDS Res
Jonathan A Otter, Eleonora Dyakova, Karen N Bisnauthsing, Antonio Querol-Rubiera, Amita Patel, Chioma Ahanonu, Olga Tosas Auguet, Jonathan D Edgeworth, Simon D Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are an emerging threat for healthcare providers worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine CPE carriage rates and risk factors in an unselected hospital cohort at the time of admission. METHODS: We approached 4567 patients within 72 h of admission to provide a rectal swab and answer a questionnaire on risk factors for carriage. Rectal swabs were cultured for carbapenem-resistant organisms on chromogenic and non-chromogenic agar, and tested for carbapenemase production by PCR (Check-Direct CPE)...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kemal Bilgin, Keramettin Yanik, Adil Karadağ, Hakan Odabaşi, Hakan Taş, Murat Günaydin
BASCKGROUND/AIM: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a major health problem throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Disease control heavily depends on the establishment of early diagnosis. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of culture, GeneXpert MTB/RIF device, and Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen direct microscopic method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 927 samples (243 respiratory and 684 nonrespiratory), which were sent to Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Tuberculosis Laboratory on suspicion of M...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Rechel Geiger, David M Smith, Susan J Little, Sanjay R Mehta
The GeneXpert CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostic assay designed to detect Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). However, the test is only approved for urine, vaginal, and endocervical swabs. Here, we evaluated the GeneXpert CT/NG assay on male pharyngeal and rectal swabs. Men-who-have-sex-with-men participating in a sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening program collected two sets of paired pharyngeal and rectal swabs. One set was tested using GeneXpert and the other using the APTIMA (Hologic, San Diego, CA, USA)...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Óscar Herráez, María Ángeles Asencio-Egea, María Huertas-Vaquero, Rafael Carranza-González, Jesús Castellanos-Monedero, María Franco-Huerta, José Ramón Barberá-Farré, José María Tenías-Burillo
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a molecular biology technique for the diagnosis of tuberculosis compared to the classical diagnostic alternative. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the theoretical implementation of a molecular biology method including two alternative techniques for early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, and resistance to rifampicin (alternative1: one determination in selected patients; alternative2: two determinations in all the patients)...
July 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Amanda Semper, M Jana Broadhurst, Jade Richards, Geraldine M Foster, Andrew Simpson, Elisabetta Groppelli, Julie Johnson, J Dan Kelly, Tim Brooks, Christopher H Logue, Ann Miller, Megan Murray, Nira R Pollock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Monika Agrawal, Ashish Bajaj, Vinay Bhatia, Sarjana Dutt
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases. There are number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity and culture although gold standard, but takes longer time for positivity. On the other side, Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity and sensitivity not only help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis especially in patients with high clinical suspicion like immunocompromised patients, history of contact with active tuberculosis patient etc...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Z F Chen, H L Lao, X H Li, J Wang, Q Chen, Z X Wang, D C Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application value of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detection of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin. METHODS: A total of 150 samples were collected, including 33 needle aspirates from lymphoid tuberculosis, 23 needle aspirates from spinal tuberculosis, 49 from tuberculous pleural effusions, 24 from cerebrospinal fluid of tuberculous cephalomeningitis, and 21 urinary sediment samples from renal tuberculosis. Smear microscopy, mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and the MTB/RIF method were used to examine these samples and their positive rates were compared...
July 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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