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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703104/-ethical-legal-and-social-issues-elsi-in-gambling-disorder-and-its-treatment
#1
Nariakira Moriyama
Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyƫ No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659018/hospitalization-among-hiv-infected-u-s-marshals-service-prisoners
#2
Valisha D Price, Barbara A Swanson, Briana J Jegier, Janice Phillips, Kathryn Swartout, Louis Fogg
The U.S. Marshals Service (USMS) prisoner population is diverse and includes immigration violators, fugitives that have evaded apprehension, perpetrators of Medicaid fraud, and parole and probation violators. Unlike state and local jails, the USMS has numerous housing options for its prisoners. Given the unique characteristics, federal prisoners' quality of care, and subsequent clinical outcomes, may differ from those of state and local inmates. However, little is known about hospitalization rates and length of stay for HIV-positive USMS prisoners...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528494/interventions-to-reduce-corruption-in-the-health-sector
#3
REVIEW
Rakhal Gaitonde, Andrew D Oxman, Peter O Okebukola, Gabriel Rada
BACKGROUND: Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349898/the-smokefreetxt-sftxt-study-web-and-mobile-data-collection-to-evaluate-smoking-cessation-for-young-adults
#4
Linda Squiers, Derick Brown, Sarah Parvanta, Suzanne Dolina, Bridget Kelly, Jill Dever, Brian G Southwell, Amy Sanders, Erik Augustson
BACKGROUND: Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study's operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274020/learning-temporal-rules-to-forecast-instability-in-continuously-monitored-patients
#5
Mathieu Guillame-Bert, Artur Dubrawski, Donghan Wang, Marilyn Hravnak, Gilles Clermont, Michael R Pinsky
Inductive machine learning, and in particular extraction of association rules from data, has been successfully used in multiple application domains, such as market basket analysis, disease prognosis, fraud detection, and protein sequencing. The appeal of rule extraction techniques stems from their ability to handle intricate problems yet produce models based on rules that can be comprehended by humans, and are therefore more transparent. Human comprehension is a factor that may improve adoption and use of data-driven decision support systems clinically via face validity...
June 6, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932306/pain-leads-the-way-the-development-of-evidence-based-medicine-for-pain-relief
#6
Phil Wiffen, Andrew Moore
This paper describes the development of evidence based methods in pain medicine since the 1980s at the Pain Research Department of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University. Pain medicine can be said to have led the way in terms of developing registers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in developing appropriate methodology for assessing clinical trials and developing metanalytical techniques. This paper tells the story of that development which occurred in conjunction with the development of the Cochrane Collaboration...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876730/strategies-for-using-plagiarism-software-in-the-screening-of-incoming-journal-manuscripts-recommendations-based-on-a-recent-literature-survey
#7
Jens Lykkesfeldt
In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts...
August 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549771/commercialisation-of-biomarker-tests-for-mental-illnesses-advances-and-obstacles
#8
REVIEW
Man K Chan, Jason D Cooper, Sabine Bahn
Substantial strides have been made in the field of biomarker research for mental illnesses over the past few decades. However, no US FDA-cleared blood-based biomarker tests have been translated into routine clinical practice. Here, we review the challenges associated with commercialisation of research findings and discuss how these challenges can impede scientific impact and progress. Overall evidence indicates that a lack of research funding and poor reproducibility of findings were the most important obstacles to commercialization of biomarker tests...
December 2015: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536312/is-food-allergen-analysis-flawed-health-and-supply-chain-risks-and-a-proposed-framework-to-address-urgent-analytical-needs
#9
M J Walker, D T Burns, C T Elliott, M H Gowland, E N Clare Mills
Food allergy is an increasing problem for those affected, their families or carers, the food industry and for regulators. The food supply chain is highly vulnerable to fraud involving food allergens, risking fatalities and severe reputational damage to the food industry. Many facets are being pursued to ameliorate the difficulties including better food labelling and the concept of thresholds of elicitation of allergy symptoms as risk management tools. These efforts depend to a high degree on the ability reliably to detect and quantify food allergens; yet all current analytical approaches exhibit severe deficiencies that jeopardise accurate results being produced particularly in terms of the risks of false positive and false negative reporting...
January 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522522/open-data-can-it-prevent-research-fraud-promote-reproducibility-and-enable-big-data-analytics-in-clinical-research
#10
COMMENT
Patrick O Myers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457747/physicians-and-insider-trading
#11
REVIEW
Aaron S Kesselheim, Michael S Sinha, Steven Joffe
Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential...
December 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289019/research-misconduct-and-data-fraud-in-clinical-trials-prevalence-and-causal-factors
#12
REVIEW
Stephen L George
The disclosure of cases of research misconduct in clinical trials, conventionally defined as fabrication, falsification or plagiarism, has been a disturbingly common phenomenon in recent years. Such cases can potentially harm patients enrolled on the trials in question or patients treated based on the results of those trials and can seriously undermine the scientific and public trust in the validity of clinical trial results. Here, I review what is known about the prevalence of research misconduct in general and the contributing or causal factors leading to the misconduct...
February 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194810/strategies-for-dealing-with-fraud-in-clinical-trials
#13
REVIEW
Jay Herson
Research misconduct and fraud in clinical research is an increasing problem facing the scientific community. This problem is expected to increase due to discoveries in central statistical monitoring and with the increase in first-time clinical trial investigators in the increasingly global reach of oncology clinical trials. This paper explores the most common forms of fraud in clinical trials in order to develop offensive and defensive strategies to deal with fraud. The offensive strategies are used when fraud is detected during a trial and the defensive strategies are those design strategies that seek to minimize or eliminate the effect of fraud...
February 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973346/investigating-the-efficacy-of-clinical-trial-monitoring-strategies-design-and-implementation-of-the-cluster-randomized-start-monitoring-substudy
#14
Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Jonathan M Kagan, Nicole Engen, Jesper Grarup, Fleur Hudson, Eileen T Denning, Catherine Carey, David Courtney-Rodgers, Elizabeth B Finley, Per O Jansson, Mary T Pearson, Dwight E Peavy, Waldo H Belloso
BACKGROUND: Trial monitoring protects participant safety and study integrity. While monitors commonly go on-site to verify source data, there is little evidence that this practice is efficient or effective. An ongoing international HIV treatment trial (START) provides an opportunity to explore the usefulness of different monitoring approaches. METHODS: All START sites are centrally monitored and required to follow a local monitoring plan requiring specific quality assurance activities...
March 1, 2015: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25868196/-perspectives-of-research-and-publication-by-japanese-anesthesiologists-preface-and-comments
#15
Takashi Asai
Quality of Japanese research has risen and studies are now routinely published in international journals. Nevertheless, the number of studies reported by Japanese anesthesiologists is rapidly decreasing. Greater clinical workload, increased rules for carrying out clinical research and publication, and reported incidents of scientific fraud might have been the cause. In this issue, 6 authors from Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists and editors of anesthesia journals analyze the current state of research activity by Japanese anesthesiologists and indicate some practical solutions to increase research activity...
January 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729561/data-fraud-in-clinical-trials
#16
Stephen L George, Marc Buyse
Highly publicized cases of fabrication or falsification of data in clinical trials have occurred in recent years and it is likely that there are additional undetected or unreported cases. We review the available evidence on the incidence of data fraud in clinical trials, describe several prominent cases, present information on motivation and contributing factors and discuss cost-effective ways of early detection of data fraud as part of routine central statistical monitoring of data quality. Adoption of these clinical trial monitoring procedures can identify potential data fraud not detected by conventional on-site monitoring and can improve overall data quality...
2015: Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25694302/research-ethics-for-clinical-researchers
#17
John D Harnett, Richard Neuman
This chapter describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics is discussed and varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. The paramount importance of protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research participants is discussed at length. Particular emphasis is placed on the process of informed consent, and step-by-step practical guidelines are described...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25586897/stories-of-the-accused-a-phenomenological-inquiry-of-mfts-and-accusations-of-unprofessional-conduct
#18
Jacey S Coy, Jessica E Lambert, Marianne M Miller
Interviews were conducted with 10 MFTs (six females and four males) who had received a formal accusation of unprofessional conduct and went before state licensure boards in three different states. Accusations included dual relationships, financial fraud/errors, receiving DUIs, sexual misconduct, and emotionally harming a client. Utilizing Moustakas' (1994, Phenomenological research methods, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage) transcendental phenomenology, five essential themes emerged: (a) The experience of being formally accused of unprofessional conduct is life-changing, (b) state MFT licensing boards are more punitive than rehabilitative, (c) obtaining support is vital, (d) making accusations creates stigma, (e) therapists were unprepared to handle accusations of unprofessional conduct...
January 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25535618/what-pharmacy-practitioners-need-to-know-about-ethics-in-scientific-publishing
#19
REVIEW
Lejla Zunic, Izet Masic
Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery...
October 2014: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25184098/implementation-and-impact-of-icd-10-part-ii
#20
Gazanfar Rahmathulla, H Gordon Deen, Judith A Dokken, Stephen M Pirris, Mark A Pichelmann, Eric W Nottmeier, Ronald Reimer, Robert E Wharen
BACKGROUND: The transition from the International Classification of Disease-9(th) clinical modification to the new ICD-10 was all set to occur on 1 October 2015. The American Medical Association has previously been successful in delaying the transition by over 10 years and has been able to further postpone its introduction to 2015. The new system will overcome many of the limitations present in the older version, thus paving the way to more accurate capture of clinical information. METHODS: The benefits of the new ICD-10 system include improved quality of care, potential cost savings, reduction of unpaid claims, and improved tracking of healthcare data...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
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