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Lung function and pneumonia child

Heather J Zar
Pneumonia remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite improved preventative strategies. Increasing evidence also links early life pneumonia with the development of chronic non-communicable respiratory diseases into childhood and adulthood. The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a unique, multidisciplinary, South African birth cohort, investigating the incidence, risk factors, aetiology and long term impact of early life pneumonia on child health. The study provides novel data showing a high incidence of pneumonia despite excellent immunisation coverage; that pneumonia is due to multiple pathogens; that dysbiosis of the nasopharyngeal flora precedes and predisposes to pneumonia; and that early life pneumonia results in reduced lung function...
September 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna, Anna Breborowicz
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease and the potential role of triggering autoantigens or infectious factors have not been clearly defined. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease is a new and emerging condition in pediatric patients and to date, there have been only two reports regarding pulmonary manifestation of IgG4-RD in children recently published...
June 8, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Leticia Cristina Radin Pereira, Emilia Addison Machado Moreira, Gabriela Datsch Bennemann, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Ziliani da Silva Buss, Eliana Barbosa, Norberto Ludwig-Neto, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Tânia Silvia Fröde
AIMS: Recurrent infections and activation of the inflammatory response affect the prognosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We investigated the relationship between inflammatory response, infection, and pulmonary function in CF. MAIN METHODS: A clinical-cross-sectional study was conducted with 86 subjects: control group (CG, n=31, the same age and sex of the CF group), and CF group (CFG, n=55, age: 1-16 years), further distributed into CFG negative or positive bacteriology (CFGB(-)/CFGB(+)), and CFG negative or positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CFGPa(-)/CFGPa(+))...
July 25, 2014: Life Sciences
Sumin Shin, Joon Suk Park, Young Mog Shim, Ho Joong Kim, Jhingook Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to present clinical outcomes of malignant tumors involving the carina after surgery in order to establish the management guidelines. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2011, 30 patients underwent carinal resection and reconstruction for malignancy involving carina. We retrospectively analyzed their medical records. There were 22 cases of common type of NSCLC (squamous cell carcinoma/adenocarcinoma/large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma) and eight cases of carcinomas of salivary gland type (adenoid cystic carcinoma/mucoepidermoid carcinoma)...
September 2014: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Lea Bentur, Aviv Goldbart, Galit Livnat, Fahed Hakim, Yosef Weisman, Dov Tiosano
CONTEXT: Previous studies have reported an association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) patients provide a natural model to assess the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in regulating human lung immune responses and airway hyperreactivity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the role of the VDR on lung functions, airways, and systemic markers of inflammation and allergy in HVDRR patients...
September 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gregory J Redding, Rosalyn J Singleton, Patricia C Valery, Hayley Williams, Keith Grimwood, Peter S Morris, Paul J Torzillo, Gabrielle B McCallum, Lori Chikoyak, Robert C Holman, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory exacerbations (AREs) cause morbidity and lung function decline in children with chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, we determined the patterns of AREs and factors related to increased risks for AREs in children with CSLD/bronchiectasis. METHODS: Ninety-three indigenous children aged 0.5 to 8 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis in Australia (n = 57) and Alaska (n = 36) during 2004 to 2009 were followed for > 3 years...
September 2014: Chest
Thomas Menter, Carmen Giefing-Kroell, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Alexandar Tzankov
There is an increased susceptibility and mortality in the elderly due to pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. We aimed to assess the inflammatory cell composition with respect to age in pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Neutrophilic granulocytes and various lymphocyte and macrophage subpopulations were immunohistochemically quantified on lung tissue specimens of young (n = 5; mean age 8.4 years), middle-aged (n = 8; mean age 55.9 years) and elderly (n = 9; mean age 86.6 years) pneumonia patients with microbiologically proven S...
2014: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Yue-Jin Wu, Jie Sun, Jian-Hua Zhang, Ling-Ling Feng
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical efficacy of adjuvant therapy with glucocorticoids in children with lobar pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. METHODS: One hundred and eight children with lobar pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae were randomly divided into routine treatment and hormone treatment groups. Both groups were treated with azithromycin and other symptomatic therapies. In addition to the basic treatment, the hormone treatment group was given dexamethasone 0...
April 2014: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Yunlong Zuo, Yiyu Yang, Jie Hong, Zhiyuan Wu, Li Yu, Jianping Tao, Sitang Gong
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnosis and treatment characteristics of patients with severe Influenza A. METHOD: A retrospective investigation on the clinical manifestation, chest radiography, electronic fiber bronchoscopy and the histology of the cast, rescue course and outcome was conducted in 15 children with severe influenza A during January to May of 2013. RESULT: Eleven cases were male, the range of age was 2 to 6 years; 5 cases were female, the range of age was 1 month to 6 years, accouting for 4...
February 2014: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Bill B Chen, Tiffany A Coon, Jennifer R Glasser, Chunbin Zou, Bryon Ellis, Tuhin Das, Alison C McKelvey, Shristi Rajbhandari, Travis Lear, Christelle Kamga, Sruti Shiva, Chenjian Li, Joseph M Pilewski, Jason Callio, Charleen T Chu, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray, Yulia Y Tyurina, Valerian E Kagan, Rama K Mallampalli
Acute lung injury (ALI) is linked to mitochondrial injury, resulting in impaired cellular oxygen utilization; however, it is unknown how these events are linked on the molecular level. Cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific lipid, is generated by cardiolipin synthase (CLS1). Here, we show that S. aureus activates a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo15, that is sufficient to mediate proteasomal degradation of CLS1 in epithelia, resulting in decreased cardiolipin availability and disrupted mitochondrial function...
April 24, 2014: Cell Reports
Sridaran Narayanan, Terri Magruder, Susan Chu Walley, Tony Powers, Terry Craft Wall
INTRODUCTION: The goals of this study are to identify factors associated with ordering of chest radiographs (CXR's) in children hospitalized with acute asthma exacerbations and determine the overall clinical impact of these CXR's. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with children ≥ 2 years of age admitted from our emergency department (ED) between 6/1/2011 and 5/31/2012 with a primary diagnosis of acute asthma exacerbation or status asthmaticus. Patients were excluded if they had been on antibiotics prior to the emergency visit, received continuous albuterol or intravenous magnesium during the hospitalization, or had another chronic disease affecting lung function...
September 2014: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease are usually associated with viral and bacterial pathogens. They contribute to declining lung function, poor quality of life and exert an excess burden on individuals, families, communities and the healthcare sector. Hence, preventing exacerbations is important in clinical management. Several vaccines providing protection against respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis and influenza) that can trigger exacerbations are available, but evidence to support their effectiveness in preventing exacerbations of chronic lung disease is limited...
February 2014: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Shan-shan Meng, Qing Yang, Guo-qiang Han, Jin-hong Yang, Hai-lin Zhang, Le-ping Ye, Yun-chun Luo, Chang-chong Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics of Streptococcus pneumonia-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (SP-HUS) in children. METHOD: Clinical and laboratory data of a pediatric case of SP-HUS were retrospectively analyzed and the key points of diagnosis and therapy were reviewed. RESULT: An 18-month old girl was admitted with chief complaint of fever and cough for 5 days combined with mild labored breath. Breath sound was found weakened in right lung with lower lobe dullness on percussion...
July 2013: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Antonio Moreno Galdó, Juan Solé Montserrat, Antonio Roman Broto
Lung transplantation has become in recent years a therapeutic option for infantswith terminal lung disease with similar results to transplantation in adults.In Spain, since 1996 114 children lung transplants have been performed; this corresponds to3.9% of the total transplant number.The most common indication in children is cystic fibrosis, which represents between 70-80% of the transplants performed in adolescents. In infants common indications areinterstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.In most children a sequential double lung transplant is performed, generally with the help ofextracorporeal circulation...
December 2013: Archivos de Bronconeumología
N Fukushima, M Ono, S Saito, Y Saiki, S Kubota, Y Tanoue, M Minami, S Konaka, J Ashikari
OBJECTIVE: Because the donor shortage is extremely severe in Japan because of a strict organ transplantation law, special strategies have been established to maximize heart and lung transplantations (HTs and LTs, respectively). We reviewed 100 consecutive brain-dead donors to evaluate our strategies to identify and manage heart and lung donors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all 100 consecutive brain-dead donors procured since the law was issued in 1997. There were 56 mens and the overall mean donor age was 43...
October 2013: Transplantation Proceedings
Xiao-Ying Wu, Zheng-Xiu Luo, Zhou Fu, En-Mei Liu, Jian Luo, Ling He
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in children. METHODS: The clinical data of 28 children with BO between July 2007 and April 2012 was retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: All patients presented with persistent or repeated cough and wheezing. Twenty-three cases were post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO), among whom the etiology were adenovirus (12 cases), measles (2 cases), influenza virus A (2 cases), mycoplasma pneumoniae (1 case), mycoplasma pneumoniae coinfection with adenovirus (1 case), respiratory syncytial virus coinfection with Parainfluenza type 3 virus (1 case) and pulmonary tuberculosis (1 case)...
October 2013: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Keith Grimwood, Allan Cripps, Edward K Mulholland, Peter Morris, Paul J Torzillo, Nicholas Wood, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Amber Revell, Andrew Wilson, Peter Van Asperen, Peter Richmond, Ruth Thornton, Sheree Rablin, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children...
2013: Trials
John K Wong, Sarath C Ranganathan, Emily Hart
Staphylococcus aureus: is a common bacterial organism infecting children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Emerging evidence suggests early lower airway infection with this organism in young children with CF results in the deterioration of lung function, poorer nutrition parameters and heightens the airway inflammatory response. Despite contributing significantly to the burden of early lung disease among this group, there are ongoing controversies in the management of S. aureus infection, and gaps in our understanding of exactly how this organism causes lung disease...
December 2013: Pediatric Pulmonology
L Pekka Malmberg, Anna S Pelkonen, Kristiina Malmström, Kristiina M Saarinen, Merja Kajosaari, Arja Hakulinen, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: The respiratory outcomes after preterm birth have changed, and it is unclear whether increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) later in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between AHR and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), including the alveolar concentration of nitric oxide, in school-age children with very low birth weight (VLBW). METHODS: Twenty-nine children with VLBW, 33 children with a history of early wheeze, and 60 healthy controls underwent a FeNO measurement and bronchial challenge test with histamine...
August 2013: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
C Delestrain, F Flamein, L Jonard, R Couderc, L Guillot, P Fanen, R Epaud
Pulmonary surfactant is a unique mixture of lipids and specific proteins that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface, preventing collapse of the lung at the end of expiration. Recessive loss-of-function mutations of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) was initially described in infants who develop respiratory failure at birth. More recently, mutations in other constitutive surfactant proteins like surfactant protein C or implied in its metabolism like ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 3 (ABCA3) or NK2 homeobox (NKX2-1) were identified in newborn with respiratory distress but also in children with diffuse infiltrative pneumonia...
August 2013: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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