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Stroke immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651950/roles-of-traf6-in-central-nervous-system
#1
Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651914/inflammatory-pathways-are-central-to-posterior-cerebrovascular-artery-remodelling-prior-to-the-onset-of-congenital-hypertension
#2
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Eva von Linstow Roloff, Jane Coghill, Christy Waterfall, Julian Fr Paton
Cerebral artery hypoperfusion may provide the basis for linking ischemic stroke with hypertension. Brain hypoperfusion may induce hypertension that may serve as an auto-protective mechanism to prevent ischemic stroke. We hypothesised that hypertension is caused by remodelling of the cerebral arteries, which is triggered by inflammation. We used a congenital rat model of hypertension and examined age-related changes in gene expression of the cerebral arteries using RNA sequencing. Prior to hypertension, we found changes in signalling pathways associated with the immune system and fibrosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651704/hdac9-polymorphism-alters-blood-gene-expression-in-patients-with-large-vessel-atherosclerotic-stroke
#3
Natasha Shroff, Bradley P Ander, Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, DaZhi Liu, Heather Hull, Farah R Hamade, Cheryl Dykstra-Aiello, Kwan Ng, Frank R Sharp, Glen C Jickling
The histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) polymorphism rs2107595 is associated with an increased risk for large vessel atherosclerotic stroke (LVAS). In humans, there remains a need to better understand this HDAC9 polymorphism's contribution to large vessel stroke. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether the HDAC9 polymorphism rs2107595 is associated with differences in leukocyte gene expression in patients with LVAS. HDAC9 SNP rs2107595 was genotyped in 155 patients (43 LVAS and 112 vascular risk factor controls)...
April 13, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600006/stroke-induced-immunosuppression-and-poststroke-infection
#4
REVIEW
Kaibin Shi, Kristofer Wood, Fu-Dong Shi, Xiaoying Wang, Qiang Liu
Infections occur commonly after stroke and are strongly associated with an unfavourable functional outcome of these patients. Approaches for effective management of poststroke infection remain scarce, presenting an urgent need for preventive anti-infection strategies for patients who have suffered a stroke. Emerging evidence indicates that stroke impairs systemic immune responses and increases the susceptibility to infections, suggesting that the modification of impaired immune defence could be beneficial. In this review, we summarised previous attempts to prevent poststroke infections using prophylactic antibiotics and the current understanding of stroke-induced immunosuppression...
March 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576323/immunomodulatory-treatment-with-systemic-gm-csf-augments-pulmonary-immune-responses-and-improves-neurological-outcome-after-experimental-stroke
#5
Claudia Dames, Katarzyna Winek, Yasmin Beckers, Odilo Engel, Andreas Meisel, Christian Meisel
Stroke-induced immunodepression is an independent risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke and been demonstrated to reverse immunodepression in sepsis patients. However, whether GM-CSF restores immune function after stroke preventing SAP and improving outcome is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that GM-CSF treatment improved peripheral and pulmonary leukocyte numbers, peripheral cytokine responses, lowered lung bacterial burden in the early course and improved long-term functional outcome after experimental stroke...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550910/shifts-in-leukocyte-counts-drive-the-differential-expression-of-transcriptional-stroke-biomarkers-in-whole-blood
#6
Grant C O'Connell, Madison B Treadway, Connie S Tennant, Noelle Lucke-Wold, Paul D Chantler, Taura L Barr
Our group recently identified a panel of ten genes whose RNA expression levels in whole blood have utility for detection of stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which these genes become differentially expressed during stroke pathology. First, we assessed the transcriptional distribution of the ten genes across the peripheral immune system by measuring their expression levels on isolated neutrophils, monocytes, B-lymphocytes, CD-4+ T-lymphocytes, CD-8+ T-lymphocytes, and NK-cells generated from the blood of healthy donors (n = 3)...
March 17, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548995/adrenal-hormones-and-circulating-leukocyte-subtypes-in-stroke-patients-treated-with-reperfusion-therapy
#7
Francesc Miró-Mur, Carlos Laredo, Arturo Renú, Salvatore Rudilosso, Yashu Zhao, Sergio Amaro, Laura Llull, Xabier Urra, Anna M Planas, Ángel Chamorro
Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544517/lentivirus-mediated-overexpression-of-otulin-ameliorates-microglia-activation-and-neuroinflammation-by-depressing-the-activation-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats
#8
Hongbei Xu, Wenyi Qin, Xiao Hu, Song Mu, Jun Zhu, Wenhao Lu, Yong Luo
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke-induced neuroinflammation is mainly mediated by microglial cells. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is the key transcriptional pathway that initiates inflammatory responses following cerebral ischemia. OTULIN, a critical negative regulator of the NF-κΒ signaling pathway, exerts robust effects on peripheral immune cell-mediated inflammation and is regarded as an essential mediator for repressing inflammation in vivo. The effect of OTULIN on inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS) was previously unstudied...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542687/sickle-cell-disease
#9
REVIEW
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540615/brain-released-alarmins-and-stress-response-synergize-in-accelerating-atherosclerosis-progression-after-stroke
#10
Stefan Roth, Vikramjeet Singh, Steffen Tiedt, Lisa Schindler, Georg Huber, Arie Geerlof, Daniel J Antoine, Antoine Anfray, Cyrille Orset, Maxime Gauberti, Antoine Fournier, Lesca M Holdt, Helena Erlandsson Harris, Britta Engelhardt, Marco E Bianchi, Denis Vivien, Christof Haffner, Jürgen Bernhagen, Martin Dichgans, Arthur Liesz
Stroke induces a multiphasic systemic immune response, but the consequences of this response on atherosclerosis-a major source of recurrent vascular events-have not been thoroughly investigated. We show that stroke exacerbates atheroprogression via alarmin-mediated propagation of vascular inflammation. The prototypic brain-released alarmin high-mobility group box 1 protein induced monocyte and endothelial activation via the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-signaling cascade and increased plaque load and vulnerability...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518012/individual-and-neighborhood-stressors-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514802/novel-gene-variants-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Dag Leonard, Elisabet Svenungsson, Johanna Dahlqvist, Andrei Alexsson, Lisbeth Ärlestig, Kimberly E Taylor, Johanna K Sandling, Christine Bengtsson, Martina Frodlund, Andreas Jönsen, Susanna Eketjäll, Kerstin Jensen-Urstad, Iva Gunnarsson, Christopher Sjöwall, Anders A Bengtsson, Maija-Leena Eloranta, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Lindsey A Criswell, Lars Rönnblom
OBJECTIVES: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at autoimmunity risk loci were associated with CVD in SLE and RA. METHODS: Patients with SLE (n=1045) were genotyped using the 200K Immunochip SNP array (Illumina). The allele frequency was compared between patients with and without different manifestations of CVD...
March 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513402/inflammation-in-cns-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Jodie Stephenson, Erik Nutma, Paul van der Valk, Sandra Amor
Neurodegenerative diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and disability is gaining increased attention as it imposes a considerable socioeconomic impact, due in part to the ageing community. Neuronal damage is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia and multiple sclerosis, although such damage is also observed following neurotropic viral infections, stroke, genetic white matter diseases and paraneoplastic disorders...
March 7, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502719/nosocomial-infections-in-the-neurointensive-care-unit
#14
REVIEW
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498242/cell-based-and-exosome-therapy-in-diabetic-stroke
#15
Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
Stroke is a global health concern and it is imperative that therapeutic strategies with wide treatment time frames be developed to improve neurological outcome in patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus who suffer a stroke have worse neurological outcomes and long-term functional recovery than nondiabetic stroke patients. Diabetes induced vascular damage and enhanced inflammatory milieu likely contributes to worse post stroke outcomes. Diabetic stroke patients have an aggravated pathological cascade, and treatments that benefit nondiabetic stroke patients do not necessarily translate to diabetic stroke patients...
March 2, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494762/immune-responses-in-stroke-how-the-immune-system-contributes-to-damage-and-healing-after-stroke-and-how-this-knowledge-could-be-translated-to-better-cures
#16
Aditya Rayasam, Martin Hsu, Julie A Kijak, Lee Kissel, Gianna Hernandez, Matyas Sandor, Zsuzsanna Fabry
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The long-standing dogma that stroke is exclusively a vascular disease has been questioned by extensive clinical findings of immune factors that are associated mostly with inflammation after stroke. These have been confirmed in preclinical studies using experimental animal models. It is now accepted that inflammation and immune mediators are critical in acute and long-term neuronal tissue damage and healing following thrombotic and ischemic stroke...
March 1, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492737/treatment-of-tuberculous-meningitis-and-its-complications-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Angharad Davis, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a global health problem. In this review, we systematically evaluate the evidence for current and emerging antimicrobials, host-directed therapies and supportive managements. RECENT FINDINGS: Current antimicrobial regimes do not factor the differing ability of drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier. Rifampicin may be more effective at higher doses yet the most recent clinical trial failed to demonstrate survival benefit at 15 mg/kg/day...
February 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473512/the-role-of-inflammatory-response-in-stroke-associated-programmed-cell-death
#18
K Duris, Z Splichal, M Jurajda
Stroke represents devastating pathology which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Initial damage caused directly by the onset of stroke, primary injury, may be eclipsed by secondary injury which may have a much more devastating effect on the brain. Primary injury is predominantly associated with necrotic cell death due to fatal insufficiency of oxygen and glucose. Secondary injury may on the contrary, lead apoptotic cell death due to structural damage which is not compatible with cellular functions or which may even represent the danger of malign transformation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414673/evolving-targets-for-the-treatment-of-atherosclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Ankita Solanki, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Thomas P Johnston
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large arteries and a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Chronic inflammation, aberrant immune response, and disturbances to key enzymes involved with lipid metabolism are characteristic features of atherosclerosis. Apart from targeting the derangements in lipid metabolism, therapeutic modulation to regulate chronic inflammation and the immune system response may prove to be very promising strategies in the management of atherosclerosis. In recent years, various targets have been studied for the treatment of atherosclerosis...
February 4, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404875/acute-agranulocytosis-after-oral-administration-of-dabigatran-a-rare-case-report-and-a-short-review-of-literature
#20
Sergio Fasullo, Stefania Davì, Gioacchino Cosenza, Francesca Di Franco, Nicola La Manna, Alfonso Giubilato, Graziella Vetrano, Giorgio Maringhini
This case report describes agranulocytosis immediately after oral administration of dabigatran in a 68 years old man with atrial fibrillation (AF). Dabigatran is an oral, reversible and competitive thrombin inhibitor that has shown promising results. In patients with atrial fibrillation of RE-LY study (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy), dabigatran administered at a dose of 150 mg, as compared with warfarin, was associated with lower rates of stroke and systemic embolism but similar rates of major hemorrhage...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
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