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Stroke immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767614/primary-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-in-an-elderly-female-patient-a-case-report-on-a-rare-cause-of-secondary-immunodeficiency
#1
Xaver Huber, Lukas Degen, Simone Muenst, Marten Trendelenburg
Protein loss via the gut can be caused by a number of gastrointestinal disorders, among which intestinal lymphangiectasia has been described to not only lead to a loss of proteins but also to a loss of lymphocytes, resembling secondary immunodeficiency. We are reporting on a 75-year-old female patient who came to our hospital because of a minor stroke. She had no history of serious infections. During the diagnostic work-up, we detected an apparent immunodeficiency syndrome associated with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754131/a-translocator-protein-18%C3%A2-kda-agonist-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Han-Dong Li, Minshu Li, Elaine Shi, Wei-Na Jin, Kristofer Wood, Rayna Gonzales, Qiang Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia is a leading cause of death and disability with limited treatment options. Although inflammatory and immune responses participate in ischemic brain injury, the molecular regulators of neuroinflammation after ischemia remain to be defined. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) mainly localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane is predominantly expressed in glia within the central nervous system during inflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of a TSPO agonist, etifoxine, on neuroinflammation and brain injury after ischemia/reperfusion...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732504/ischaemic-stroke-and-the-recanalization-drug-tissue-plasminogen-activator-interfere-with-antibacterial-phagocyte-function
#3
Antje Vogelgesang, Claudia Lange, Lara Blümke, Georg Laage, Sarah Rümpel, Sönke Langner, Barbara M Bröker, Alexander Dressel, Johanna Ruhnau
BACKGROUND: Stroke induces immune alterations such as impaired oxidative burst and reduced release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We hypothesised that key enzymes of these defence mechanisms may be altered in ischaemic stroke. Therefore, we analysed the intra- and extracellular amounts of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) in patient sera and granulocytes and monocytes. Because the autonomous nervous system is thought to mediate stroke-induced immune alterations, we also studied the influence of stress hormones and acetylcholine on MPO and NE...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#4
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700299/chronic-health-conditions-and-key-health-indicators-among-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-older-us-adults-2013-2014
#5
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen, Hyun-Jun Kim, Chengshi Shui, Amanda E B Bryan
OBJECTIVES: To examine disparities in chronic conditions and health indicators among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 years or older in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey to compare disparities in chronic conditions, health outcomes and behaviors, health care access, and preventive health care by sexual orientation and gender. RESULTS: LGB older adults were significantly more likely than heterosexual older adults to have a weakened immune system and low back or neck pain...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684538/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-regulates-macrophage-activation-and-innate-immunity
#6
Elisabetta Mantuano, Pardis Azmoon, Coralie Brifault, Michael A Banki, Andrew S Gilder, Wendy M Campana, Steven L Gonias
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the major intravascular activator of fibrinolysis and a ligand for receptors involved in cell-signaling. In cultured macrophages, tPA inhibits the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by a pathway that apparently requires LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1). Herein, we show that the mechanism by which tPA neutralizes LPS involves rapid reversal of IκBα phosphorylation. tPA independently induced transient IκBα phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation in macrophages; however, these events that did not trigger inflammatory mediator expression...
July 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684305/emerging-roles-of-protein-kinases-in-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#7
REVIEW
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation...
July 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676010/kca3-1-channel-modulators-as-potential-therapeutic-compounds-for-glioblastoma
#8
Brandon M Brown, Brandon Pressley, Heike Wulff
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is widely expressed in cells of the immune system such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and microglia, but also found in dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and many cancer cells including pancreatic, prostate, leukemia and glioblastoma. In all these cell types KCa3.1 plays an important role in cellular activation, migration and proliferation by regulating membrane potential and Ca2+ signaling. KCa3.1 therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for diseases involving excessive proliferation or activation of one more of these cell types and researchers both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry have developed several potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of KCa3...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667557/atherosclerosis
#9
Mohammed Shamim Rahman, Kevin Woollard
In this chapter, we discuss the manner through which the immune system regulates the cardiovascular system in health and disease. We define the cardiovascular system and elements of atherosclerotic disease, the main focus in this chapter. Herein we elaborate on the disease process that can result in myocardial infarction (heart attack), ischaemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease. We have discussed broadly the homeostatic mechanisms in place that help autoregulate the cardiovascular system including the vital role of cholesterol and lipid clearance as well as the role lipid homeostasis plays in cardiovascular disease in the context of atherosclerosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658137/cardiovascular-disease-in-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-6-cohorts
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez, Pedro P Perrotti, Javier P Gisbert, Eugeni Domènech, Antonio Fernández-Nebro, Juan D Cañete, Carlos Ferrándiz, Jesús Tornero, Valle García-Sánchez, Julián Panés, Eduardo Fonseca, Francisco Blanco, Jesús Rodríguez-Moreno, Patricia Carreira, Antonio Julià, Sara Marsal, Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez
To analyze in several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) the influence of demographic and clinical-related variables on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and compare their standardized prevalences.Cross-sectional study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, or ulcerative colitis, from rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology tertiary care outpatient clinics located throughout Spain, between 2007 and 2010...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609584/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-triggers-inflammatory-responses-in-the-brain-of-male-rats-exposed-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a role in preserving and maintaining the brain's microcirculation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and migration. Inhibition of eNOS activity results in exacerbation of neuronal injury after ischemia by triggering diverse cellular mechanisms, including inflammatory responses. To examine the relative contribution of eNOS in stroke-induced neuroinflammation, we analyzed the effects of systemic treatment with l-N-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (L-NIO), a relatively selective eNOS inhibitor, on the expression of MiR-155-5p, a key mediator of innate immunity regulation and endothelial dysfunction, in the cortex of male rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) followed by 24 hr of reperfusion...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597983/celecoxib-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
REVIEW
Mahir Fidahic, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Mislav Radic, Livia Puljak
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic auto-immune disorder that causes widespread and persistent inflammation of the synovial lining of joints and tendon sheaths. Presently, there is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis and treatment focuses on managing symptoms such as pain, stiffness and mobility, with the aim of achieving stable remission and improving mobility. Celecoxib is a selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for treatment of people with rheumatoid arthritis...
June 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585898/circulating-extracellular-dna-levels-are-acutely-elevated-in-ischaemic-stroke-and-associated-with-innate-immune-system-activation
#13
Grant C O'Connell, Ashley B Petrone, Connie S Tennant, Noelle Lucke-Wold, Yasser Kabbani, Abdul R Tarabishy, Paul D Chantler, Taura L Barr
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to assess the ability of peripheral blood cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels to identify ischaemic stroke early in the acute phase of care, as well as to examine the relationship between peripheral blood cfDNA levels and stroke-induced innate immune system activation. METHODS: Upon emergency department admission, peripheral blood samples were obtained from 43 patients experiencing acute ischaemic stroke and 20 patients identified as stroke mimics...
June 6, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541444/blood-brain-barrier-pericyte-importance-in-malignant-gliomas-what-we-can-learn-from-stroke-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Sadhana Jackson, Ayman ElAli, Daniela Virgintino, Mark R Gilbert
The pericyte, a constitutive component of the central nervous system, is a poorly understood cell type that envelops the endothelial cell with the intended purpose of regulating vascular flow and endothelial cell permeability. Previous studies of pericyte function have been limited to a small number of disease processes such as ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, publications have postulated a link between glioma stem cell differentiation and pericyte function. These studies suggest that there may be an important interaction of pericytes with tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment in malignant primary glial neoplasms, most notably glioblastoma...
September 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540600/microglial-interferon-signaling-and-white-matter
#15
Ashley McDonough, Richard V Lee, Jonathan R Weinstein
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, are primary regulators of the neuroimmune response to injury. Type I interferons (IFNs), including the IFNαs and IFNβ, are key cytokines in the innate immune system. Their activity is implicated in the regulation of microglial function both during development and in response to neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegeneration. Data from numerous studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke suggest that type I IFNs can modulate the microglial phenotype, influence the overall neuroimmune milieu, regulate phagocytosis, and affect blood-brain barrier integrity...
May 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535201/regulatory-t-cells-ameliorate-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-after-stroke
#16
Leilei Mao, Peiying Li, Wen Zhu, Wei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Yanling Wang, Wenli Luo, Ruth A Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Weifeng Yu, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Gang Chen, Xiaoming Hu
Delayed thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may exacerbate blood-brain barrier breakdown after ischaemic stroke and lead to lethal haemorrhagic transformation. The immune system is a dynamic modulator of stroke response, and excessive immune cell accumulation in the cerebral vasculature is associated with compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported that regulatory T cells, which function to suppress excessive immune responses, ameliorated blood-brain barrier damage after cerebral ischaemia...
July 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517732/t-cells-and-macrophages-peak-weeks-after-experimental-stroke-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics
#17
Nina Vindegaard, Clara Muñoz-Briones, Henrik H El Ali, Lotte Kellemann Kristensen, Rune Skovgaard Rasmussen, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Henrik Hasseldam
The activities of the central and peripheral immune systems impact neurological outcome after ischemic stroke. However, studies investigating the temporal profile of leukocyte infiltration, especially T-cell recruitment, are sparse. Our aim was to investigate leukocyte infiltration at different time points after experimental stroke in mice. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed on 11 weeks old C57BL/6J mice, allowed to survive for 1, 3, 8, 14 or 28 days. In addition to infarct size measurements, detailed immunohistochemical analyses of T-cell and macrophage influx were performed...
May 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488363/the-role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-nervous-system-pathologies
#18
REVIEW
Samuel S Duffy, Brooke A Keating, Chamini J Perera, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a special subpopulation of immunosuppressive T cells that are essential for sustaining immune homeostasis. They maintain self-tolerance, inhibit autoimmunity, and act as critical negative regulators of inflammation in various pathological states including autoimmunity, injury, and degeneration of the nervous system. Treg cells are known to convey both beneficial and detrimental influences in certain disease contexts, and accumulating research suggests that their action may be altered in a range of peripheral and central nervous system pathologies...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485026/giant-cell-arteritis-beyond-temporal-artery-biopsy-and-steroids
#19
REVIEW
Jem V Ninan, Susan Lester, Catherine L Hill
Giant cell arteritis is the commonest primary vasculitis of the elderly. The acute complications of untreated Giant cell arteritis such as vision loss or occasionally stroke can be devastating. The diagnosis is however not altogether straightforward due to variable sensitivities of the temporal artery biopsy as a reference diagnostic test. In this review, we discuss the increasing role of imaging in the diagnosis of Giant cell arteritis. Glucocorticoid treatment is the backbone of therapy but it is associated with significant adverse effects...
May 9, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483458/killer-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Tin Kyaw, Peter Tipping, Ban-Hock Toh, Alex Bobik
Cytotoxic lymphocytes (killer cells) play a critical role in host defence mechanisms, protecting against infections and in tumour surveillance. They can also exert detrimental effects in chronic inflammatory disorders and in autoimmune diseases. Tissue cell death and necrosis are prominent features of advanced atherosclerotic lesions including vulnerable/unstable lesions which are largely responsible for most heart attacks and strokes. Evidence for accumulation of killer cells in both human and mouse lesions together with their cytotoxic potential strongly suggest that these cells contribute to cell death and necrosis in lesions leading to vulnerable plaque development and potentially plaque rupture...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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