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Stroke immune system

Alice Martinic, Javad Barouei, Zach Bendiks, Darya Mishchuk, Dustin D Heeney, Roy Martin, Maria L Marco, Carolyn M Slupsky
Obesity is a prevalent chronic condition in many developed and developing nations that raises the risk for developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Previous studies have shown that consuming particular probiotic strains of Lactobacillus is associated with improvement in the obese and diabetic phenotype; however, the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not well understood. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lard-based high fat diet for 15 weeks with Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation NCIMB8826 (Lp) between weeks 10 and 15 (n=10 per group)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Seyed Mostafa Parizadeh, Maryam Ghandehari, Motahareh Heydari-Majd, Sima Seifi, Ramin Mardani, Seyed Mohamahdreza Parizadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon A Ferns, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality, and associated with an important economic burden globally. Over the last decade, the prevalence of CVD has been rising globally, and is now associated with millions of death annually in both developed and developing countries. There is good evidence that the immune system is involved in the pathophysiology of CVD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their down-stream signaling pathways play an important role in the immune system...
June 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jun-Ichi Kawada
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement is observed in approximately one-third of neonatal HSV infections . In recent years, single-gene inborn errors of innate immunity have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to HSV encephalitis . Temporal lobe abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging-the most sensitive imaging method for HSV encephalitis-are considered strong evidence for the disease...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Can Zhang, Nicole R Brandon, Kerryann Koper, Pei Tang, Yan Xu, Huanyu Dou
Although a direct link has long been suspected between systemic immune responses and neuronal injuries after stroke, it is unclear which immune cells play an important role. A question remains as to whether the blood brain barrier (BBB) is transiently disrupted after circulatory arrest to allow peripheral immune cells to enter brain parenchyma. Here, we developed a clinically relevant cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in mice to investigate the BBB integrity using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Poornima Venkat, Jieli Chen, Michael Chopp
Ischemic stroke is caused by a regional interruption of cerebral blood flow to the brain. Rigorous pre-clinical and clinical research has made landmark progress in stroke treatment using thrombolytics and endovascular thrombectomy. Although numerous successful neuroprotective therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke have been reported in pre-clinical studies, most of them failed in clinical testing. Persistent pre-clinical research has demonstrated that the ischemic brain is not only passively dying but is also actively recovering...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Pio Conti, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Spyridon K Kritas, Alessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MCs) promote guest immune responses to parasites and play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. Once they have been activated, MCs release highly inflammatory compounds that can provoke serious pathologic signs that can lead to death. MCs generate a number of preformed, de novo synthesized compounds and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine synthesis in response to the high-affinity (Kd=10-10 M) immunoglobulin E receptor triggering. Circulating MC progenitors migrate into arterial intima and develop lesions, mediating inflammation...
January 31, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Ji Wang, Hongyi Xing, Lin Wan, Xingjun Jiang, Chen Wang, Yan Wu
As the first line of defense in the nervous system, resident microglia are the predominant immune cells in the brain. In diseases of the central nervous system such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, they often cause inflammation or phagocytosis; however, some studies have found that despite the current controversy over M1, M2 polarization could be beneficial. Ischemic stroke is the third most common cause of death in humans. Patients who survive an ischemic stroke might experience a clear decline in their quality of life, owing to conditions such as hemiplegic paralysis and aphasia...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Daniel M Altmann
An ever-increasing collection of neurological human diseases are becoming appreciated as encompassing a strong immunological component in pathogenesis or regulation. This derives to a large extent from genome-wide association studies that have highlighted association with immune system genes, including those in the HLA and KIR regions. Along with the genomic findings have come insights from immune phenotyping and assays for autoimmunity. This is a group of disease processes that includes Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's, stroke, narcolepsy, schizophrenia and psychosis...
June 2018: Immunology
Laura McCulloch, Alessio Alfieri, Barry W McColl
Changes to the immune system after stroke are complex and can result in both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive consequences. Following ischemic stroke, brain resident microglia are activated and circulating monocytes are recruited to the injury site. In contrast, there is a systemic deactivation of monocytes/macrophages that may contribute to immunosuppression and the high incidence of bacterial infection experienced by stroke patients. The manipulation of macrophage subsets may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce infection and improve outcome in patients after stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Elmina Mammadova-Bach, Maximilian Mauler, Attila Braun, Daniel Duerschmied
Platelets serotonin (5-hydroxytrytamine, 5-HT) uptake and storage in dense granules is tightly regulated by the serotonergic transport system in the blood. Several 5-HT transporters (5-HTTs) have been identified in the vasculature and blood cells, beyond them 5-HTT is the major 5-HT transporter in platelets. Abnormal 5-HT concentrations in the blood plasma or increased platelet 5-HT uptake or abnormal release contribute to the development of various diseases in the vasculature. Consequently, several clinical trials suggested the positive therapeutic effects of 5-HTT blockade in the circulation...
June 4, 2018: Platelets
Yoichi Yoshida, Takaki Hiwasa, Toshio Machida, Eiichi Kobayashi, Seiichiro Mine, Jun Matsushima, Masaki Takiguchi, Yasuo Iwadate
Recent clinical research has revealed a significant correlation between atherosclerosis, one of the primary etiologies of ischemic stroke, and the immune system. Assuming that "disease-specific autoantibodies are produced in the sera of patients with ischemic stroke," we investigated multiple arteriosclerosis-related antibodies using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX), an established method for identifying antigenic proteins. We either screened a human aortic endothelial cell cDNA library or conducted protein array screening using the sera from patients with ischemic stroke, such as carotid artery stenosis or transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
May 31, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Reinhard J Sauter, Manuela Sauter, Edimara S Reis, Frederic N Emschermann, Henry Nording, Sonja Ebenhöch, Peter Kraft, Patrick Münzer, Maximilian Mauler, Johannes Rheinlaender, Johannes Madlung, Frank Edlich, Tilman E Schäffer, Sven G Meuth, Daniel Düerschmied, Tobias Geisler, Oliver Borst, Meinrad Gawaz, Christoph Kleinschnitz, John D Lambris, Harald F Langer
Background -Platelets have distinct roles in the vascular system as they are the major mediator of thrombosis, critical for restoration of tissue integrity and players in vascular inflammatory conditions. In close spatiotemporal proximity, the complement system acts as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms and is also a key mediator of inflammation. Whereas the fluid phase crosstalk between the complement and coagulation systems is well appreciated, the understanding of the pathophysiological implications of such interactions is still scant...
May 25, 2018: Circulation
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
Gyeong Joon Moon, Yeon Hee Cho, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hee Sung, Jeong Pyo Son, Sooyoon Kim, Jae Min Cha, Oh Young Bang
Stroke induces complex and dynamic, local and systemic changes including inflammatory reactions, immune responses, and repair and recovery processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance neurological recovery after stroke. We hypothesized that serum factors play a critical role in the activation of bone marrow (BM) MSCs after stroke such as by increasing proliferation, paracrine effects, and rejuvenation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were grown in fetal bovine serum (FBS), normal healthy control serum (NS), or stroke patient serum (SS)...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Daniela Talhada, Monika Rabenstein, Karsten Ruscher
Upon ischaemic stroke, brain-resident and peripheral immune cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). Interestingly, these cells express pattern specific to neurotransmitter receptors and, therefore, seem to be susceptible to neurotransmitter stimulation, potentially modulating their properties and functions. One of the principal neurotransmitters in the CNS, dopamine, is involved in the regulation of processes of brain development, motor control and higher brain functions. It is constantly released in the brain and there is experimental and clinical evidence that dopaminergic signalling is involved in recovery of lost neurological function after stroke...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Sebastian Luger, Annette Schwebler, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Sandra Labocha, Yannick Schreiber, Robert Brunkhorst, Helmuth Steinmetz, Josef Pfeilschifter, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Background: Sphingolipids are versatile signaling molecules derived from membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells. Ceramides regulate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and are involved in cellular stress responses. Experimental evidence suggests a pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. A neuroprotective effect has been shown for beta-adrenergic antagonists in rodent stroke models and supported by observational clinical data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Ali Alawieh, E Farris Langley, Stephen Tomlinson
Ischemic stroke results from the interruption of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-term motor and cognitive neurological deficits, and it is a leading cause of death and disability. Current interventions focus on the restoration of blood flow to limit neuronal death, but these treatments have a therapeutic window of only a few hours and do not address post-stroke cerebral inflammation. The complement system, a component of the innate immune system, is activated by natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies that recognize neoepitopes expressed in the brain after ischemic stroke...
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Rodney M Ritzel, Yun-Ju Lai, Joshua D Crapser, Anita R Patel, Anna Schrecengost, Jeremy M Grenier, Nickolas S Mancini, Anthony Patrizz, Evan R Jellison, Diego Morales-Scheihing, Venugopal R Venna, Julia K Kofler, Fudong Liu, Rajkumar Verma, Louise D McCullough
The peripheral immune system plays a critical role in aging and in the response to brain injury. Emerging data suggest inflammatory responses are exacerbated in older animals following ischemic stroke; however, our understanding of these age-related changes is poor. In this work, we demonstrate marked differences in the composition of circulating and infiltrating leukocytes recruited to the ischemic brain of old male mice after stroke compared to young male mice. Blood neutrophilia and neutrophil invasion into the brain were increased in aged animals...
May 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Antonio Uccelli, Marco Gattorno
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are a distinct group of diseases characterised by a dysregulation of the innate immune response leading to systemic inflammation. The clinical spectrum of these conditions is extremely variable and possibly every system and tissue can be involved, including the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, neurological manifestations may dominate the clinical picture from disease onset in some rare conditions. However, the involvement of the CNS in AIDs is not a disease in itself, but represents a rare complication which is consequent to a systemic or local immune response, mainly involving cells of the innate immunity...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Ashkan Madani, Katharina Alack, Manuel Jonas Richter, Karsten Krüger
Long-term cigarette smoking (LTCS) represents an important risk factor for cardiac infarction and stroke and the central risk factor for the development of a bronchial carcinoma, smoking-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pathophysiologic development of these diseases is suggested to be promoted by chronic and progressive inflammation. Cigarette smoking induces repetitive inflammatory insults followed by a chronic and progressive activation of the immune system...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
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