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Stroke immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042780/frequencies-of-circulating-b-and-t-lymphocytes-as-indicators-for-stroke-outcomes
#1
Yanling Wang, Jihong Liu, Xuemei Wang, Zongjian Liu, Fengwu Li, Fenghua Chen, Xiaokun Geng, Zhili Ji, Huishan Du, Xiaoming Hu
BACKGROUND: Stroke has high mortality and morbidity. Biomarkers are required for to predict stroke outcomes, which could help clinicians to provide rationale approaches for patient management. The dynamic changes in circulating immune cells have been reported in stroke patients and animal models of stroke. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore biomarkers to predict stroke outcomes by investigating the relationship between the frequencies of circulating immune cells and stroke outcomes...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030487/macrophage-specific-expression-of-il-37-in-hyperlipidemic-mice-attenuates-atherosclerosis
#2
Sara McCurdy, Yvonne Baumer, Emma Toulmin, Bog-Hieu Lee, William A Boisvert
Atherosclerosis, the progressive buildup of plaque within arterial blood vessels, can lead to fatal downstream events, such as heart attack or stroke. A key event contributing to the development of atherosclerosis is the infiltration of monocytes and its associated inflammation, as well as the formation of lipid-laden macrophage foam cells within the vessel wall. IL-37 is recognized as an important anti-inflammatory cytokine expressed especially by immune cells. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of macrophage-expressed IL-37 in reducing the production and effects of proinflammatory cytokines, preventing foam cell formation, and reducing the development of atherosclerosis...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023416/neuro-coagulopathy-blood-coagulation-factors-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ciro De Luca, Assunta Virtuoso, Nicola Maggio, Michele Papa
Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021532/monocyte-lymphocyte-cross-communication-via-soluble-cd163-directly-links-innate-immune-system-activation-and-adaptive-immune-system-suppression-following-ischemic-stroke
#4
Grant C O'Connell, Connie S Tennant, Noelle Lucke-Wold, Yasser Kabbani, Abdul R Tarabishy, Paul D Chantler, Taura L Barr
CD163 is a scavenger receptor expressed on innate immune cell populations which can be shed from the plasma membrane via the metalloprotease ADAM17 to generate a soluble peptide with lympho-inhibitory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate CD163 as a possible effector of stroke-induced adaptive immune system suppression. Liquid biopsies were collected from ischemic stroke patients (n = 39), neurologically asymptomatic controls (n = 20), and stroke mimics (n = 20) within 24 hours of symptom onset...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983775/deficiency-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-dada2-an-inherited-cause-of-polyarteritis-nodosa-and-a-mimic-of-other-systemic-rheumatologic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Hasan Hashem, Susan J Kelly, Nancy J Ganson, Michael S Hershfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A new autoinflammatory disease, deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2), caused by mutations in the CECR1 gene, was first reported in 2014. This review aims to update progress in defining, treating, and understanding this multi-faceted disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: DADA2 was first described in patients with systemic inflammation, mild immune deficiency, and vasculopathy manifested as recurrent stroke or polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). More than 125 patients have now been reported, and the phenotype has expanded to include children and adults presenting primarily with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), or with antibody deficiency...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975471/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-on-brain-and-peripheral-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Sonia Villapol
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases involving diabetes, stroke, cancer, or obesity. It is expressed in diverse cell types, including vessels, immune and glial cells, and neurons. PPARγ plays crucial roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism, or glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands also exert effects on attenuating degenerative processes in the brain, as well as in peripheral systems, and it has been associated with the control of anti-inflammatory mechanisms, oxidative stress, neuronal death, neurogenesis, differentiation, and angiogenesis...
October 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974520/improving-assessment-of-drug-safety-through-proteomics-early-detection-and-mechanistic-characterization-of-the-unforeseen-harmful-effects-of-torcetrapib
#7
Stephen A Williams, Ashwin C Murthy, Robert K DeLisle, Craig Hyde, Anders Malarstig, Rachel Ostroff, Sophie J Weiss, Mark R Segal, Peter Ganz
Background -Early detection of adverse effects of novel therapies and understanding of their mechanisms could improve the safety and efficiency of drug development. We have retrospectively applied large-scale proteomics to blood samples from ILLUMINATE, a trial of torcetrapib (a cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor), that involved 15,067 participants at high cardiovascular risk. ILLUMINATE was terminated at a median of 550 days due to significant absolute increases of 1.2% in cardiovascular events and 0...
October 3, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971282/investigating-the-candidacy-of-the-serotype-specific-rhamnan-polysaccharide-based-glycoconjugates-to-prevent-disease-caused-by-the-dental-pathogen-streptococcus-mutans
#8
Frank St Michael, Qingling Yang, Chantelle Cairns, Evgeny Vinogradov, Perry Fleming, Alexander C Hayes, Annie Aubry, Andrew D Cox
Dental caries remains a major health issue and the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans is considered as the major pathogen causing caries. More recently, S. mutans has been recognised as a cause of endocarditis, ulcerative colitis and fatty acid liver disease along with the likelihood of increased cerebral hemorrhage following a stroke if S. mutans is present systemically. We initiated this study to examine the vaccine candidacy of the serotype specific polysaccharides elaborated by S. mutans. We have confirmed the carbohydrate structures for the serotype specific rhamnan containing polysaccharides from serotypes c, f and k...
October 2, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962814/nosocomial-infections-in-the-neurointensive-care-unit
#9
REVIEW
Katharina Maria Busl
Infectious complications in the neurointensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are common, including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection, and intracranial infection. The neuro-ICU population poses a specific challenge in the diagnosis of infections, because of the high incidence of fever in acutely brain-injured patients. Furthermore, susceptibility to infections is likely enhanced by brain-injury (induced immune modulation). This article reviews the concept of brain injury-induced immune modulation, and summarizes available data and knowledge on nosocomial meningitis and ventriculitis, and systemic infectious complications in patients with traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and status epilepticus...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956063/nrf2-are-pathway-inhibits-ros-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-bv2-cells-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#10
Xiujian Xu, Liang Zhang, Xinchun Ye, Qi Hao, Tao Zhang, Guiyun Cui, Ming Yu
OBJECTIVE: Current therapies for ischemia/reperfusion are insufficient because of our poor understanding of the mechanisms of brain injury after ischemic stroke. As a vital component of the innate immune system, NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to ischemic brain injury; however, a detailed understanding of their molecular mechanisms is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) on NLRP3 inflammasome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BV2 microglial cells were pretreated with tert-butylhydroquinone or Nrf2 CRISPR plasmid before oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR) exposure...
September 27, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#11
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930569/the-biology-of-the-platelet-with-special-reference-to-inflammation-wound-healing-and-immunity
#12
Alan T Nurden
While platelets have long been known to be essential for maintaining hemostasis in the vasculature, their role in tissue repair, inflammation and innate and adaptive immunity is a more recent science. The ability of platelets to attach to the vessel wall, form aggregates and promote fibrin formation, key elements of blood clotting, has been said to both favor and dampen inflammation, to fight infection and to assure an adequate immune response. To fulfill their different roles platelets often synchronize with leukocytes and cells of the immune system...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#13
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905873/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#14
REVIEW
Pal Pacher, Sabine Steffens, György Haskó, Thomas H Schindler, George Kunos
Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB1R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB2R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB1R and CB2R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB1R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855861/regulation-of-microglia-and-macrophage-polarization-via-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-silencing-after-ischemic-hypoxic-injury
#15
So Yeong Cheon, Eun Jung Kim, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Byung Woong Ko, Bon-Nyeo Koo
Inflammation is implicated in ischemic stroke and is involved in abnormal homeostasis. Activation of the immune system leads to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and, thereby, infiltration of immune cells into the brain. Upon cerebral ischemia, infiltrated macrophages and microglia (resident CNS immune cell) are activated, change their phenotype to M1 or M2 based on the microenvironment, migrate toward damaged tissue, and are involved in repair or damage. Those of M1 phenotype release pro-inflammatory mediators, which are associated with tissue damage, while those of M2 phenotype release anti-inflammatory mediators, which are related to tissue recovery...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851597/intraspinal-tlr4-activation-promotes-iron-storage-but-does-not-protect-neurons-or-oligodendrocytes-from-progressive-iron-mediated-damage
#16
Evan Z Goldstein, Jamie S Church, Nicole Pukos, Manoj K Gottipati, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Iron is essential for basic cellular functions but in excess is highly toxic. For this reason, free iron and iron storage are controlled in the periphery by elaborate regulatory mechanisms. In contrast, iron regulation in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well defined. Given that excess iron is present after trauma, hemorrhagic stroke and neurodegeneration, understanding normal iron regulation and promoting iron uptake in CNS pathology is crucial. Peripherally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation promotes iron sequestration by macrophages...
August 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843452/the-microbiome-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-behaviour-and-immunity-commentary-on-the-2017-named-series
#17
Michael T Bailey, John F Cryan
The focus on the microbiome for the 2017 Named Series in Brain, Behavior, and Immunity reflects the rapidly growing interest in commensal microbes and the effects that they can have on physiological processes often studied in PsychoNeuroImmunology Research. The studies included in this Named Series show that commensal microbes can impact immune system activity, as well as brain and behavioural processes across the lifespan, and are involved in behavioural and immunological responses to social stresses. The studies also show that dietary effects on brain, behaviour, and immunity often involve alterations of the gut microbiota...
August 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840553/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-from-neurological-disease-to-cancer
#18
Ahmed Maher, Mohamed F Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Z Gad
Until the beginning of the 1980s, nitric oxide (NO) was just a toxic molecule of a lengthy list of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke and smog. In fact, NO had a very bad reputation of being destroyer of ozone, suspected carcinogen and precursor of acid rain. However, by the early 1990s it was well recognized by the medical research community. Over the last two decades, the picture has been totally changed. Diverse lines of evidence have converged to show that this sometime poison is a fundamental player in the everyday business of the human body...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832367/cardiovascular-disease-risk-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-north-america-and-europe
#19
Lauren Stone, Sara E Looby, Markella V Zanni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the epidemiology and mechanistic underpinnings of heightened cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in North America and Europe. RECENT FINDINGS: WLHIV in North America and Europe exhibit high CVD incidence rates, which are at par with those of compatriot men living with HIV. Compared with uninfected women, WLHIV in these regions face a 2-4-fold increased relative risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827150/the-role-of-the-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-in-neuroprotective-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Stephanie M Davis, Keith R Pennypacker
Several neurotropic cytokines relay their signaling through the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. This 190kDa subunit couples with the 130kDa gp130 subunit to transduce intracellular signaling in neurons and oligodendrocytes that leads to expression of genes associated with neurosurvival. Moreover, activation of this receptor alters the phenotype of immune cells to an anti-inflammatory one. Although cytokines that activate the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor have been studied in the context of neurodegenerative disease, therapeutic targeting of the specific receptor subunit has been understudied in by comparison...
August 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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