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Microglia neuron cx3cr1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017970/absence-of-microglial-cx3cr1-impairs-the-synaptic-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#1
M Bolós, J R Perea, J Terreros-Roncal, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Microglia are immune cells that play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis. Among the mechanisms of communication between microglia and neurons, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis exerts a central modulatory role. Animals lacking CX3CR1 microglial receptor (CX3CR1-/- mice) exhibit marked alterations not only in microglia but also in neurons located in various regions of the brain. Here we show that microglial depletion of CX3CR1 leads to the deficient synaptic integration of adult-born granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), both at the afferent and efferent level...
October 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973941/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-g-csf-signaling-in-spinal-microglia-drives-visceral-sensitization-following-colitis
#2
Lilian Basso, Tamia K Lapointe, Mircea Iftinca, Candace Marsters, Morley D Hollenberg, Deborah M Kurrasch, Christophe Altier
Pain is a main symptom of inflammatory diseases and often persists beyond clinical remission. Although we have a good understanding of the mechanisms of sensitization at the periphery during inflammation, little is known about the mediators that drive central sensitization. Recent reports have identified hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors as important regulators of tumor- and nerve injury-associated pain. Using a mouse model of colitis, we identify the proinflammatory cytokine granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or Csf-3) as a key mediator of visceral sensitization...
October 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959183/foreign-body-response-to-intracortical-microelectrodes-is-not-altered-with-dip-coating-of-polyethylene-glycol-peg
#3
Heui C Lee, Janak Gaire, Seth W Currlin, Matthew D McDermott, Kinam Park, Kevin J Otto
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a frequently used polymer for neural implants due to its biocompatible property. As a follow-up to our recent study that used PEG for stiffening flexible neural probes, we have evaluated the biological implications of using devices dip-coated with PEG for chronic neural implants. Mice (wild-type and CX3CR1-GFP) received bilateral implants within the sensorimotor cortex, one hemisphere with a PEG-coated probe and the other with a non-coated probe for 4 weeks. Quantitative analyses were performed using biomarkers for activated microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, blood-brain barrier leakage, and neuronal nuclei to determine the degree of foreign body response (FBR) resulting from the implanted microelectrodes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951447/experience-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-v1-occurs-without-microglial-cx3cr1
#4
Rachel W Schecter, Erin E Maher, Christina A Welsh, Beth Stevens, Alev Erisir, Mark F Bear
Brief monocular deprivation (MD) shifts ocular dominance (OD) and reduces the density of thalamic synapses in layer 4 of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We found that microglial lysosome content is also increased as a result of MD. Previous studies have shown that the microglial fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 is involved in synaptic development and hippocampal plasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that neuron-to-microglial communication via CX3CR1 is an essential component of visual cortical development and plasticity in male mice...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943292/enhanced-fear-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-forebrain-limbic-regions-of-cx3cr1-deficient-mice
#5
Inga Schubert, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Andrew Winter, Lauren Vollmer, Ian Lewkowich, Renu Sah
Mounting evidence supports immune dysfunction in psychiatric conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The association of immunomodulatory mechanisms with PTSD-relevant behavior and physiology is not well understood. Communication between neurons and microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, is crucial for optimal regulation of behavior and physiology. In this regard, the fractalkine CX3CL1, secreted from neurons and its target, the microglial CX3CR1 receptor represent a primary neuron-microglia inter-regulatory system important for synaptic plasticity and function...
September 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923083/prevention-of-c5ar1-signaling-delays-microglial-inflammatory-polarization-favors-clearance-pathways-and-suppresses-cognitive-loss
#6
Michael X Hernandez, Shan Jiang, Tracy A Cole, Shu-Hui Chu, Maria I Fonseca, Melody J Fang, Lindsay A Hohsfield, Maria D Torres, Kim N Green, Rick A Wetsel, Ali Mortazavi, Andrea J Tenner
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic inhibition of C5aR1, a receptor for the complement activation proinflammatory fragment, C5a, suppressed pathology and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. To validate that the effect of the antagonist was specifically via C5aR1 inhibition, mice lacking C5aR1 were generated and compared in behavior and pathology. In addition, since C5aR1 is primarily expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, and only to a lesser extent on endothelial cells and neurons in brain, gene expression in microglia isolated from adult brain at multiple ages was compared across all genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810892/absence-of-cx3cr1-impairs-the-internalization-of-tau-by-microglia
#7
Marta Bolós, María Llorens-Martín, Juan Ramón Perea, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Alberto Rábano, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
BACKGROUND: Extracellular Tau is toxic for neighboring cells, and it contributes to the progression of AD. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is an important neuron/microglia communication mechanism. METHODS: We studied Tau clearance by microglia both in vitro (microglia primary cultures treated with Cy5-Tau, affinity chromatography to study the binding of Tau to CX3CR1, and Tau-CX3CL1 competition assays) and in vivo (stereotaxic injection of Cy5-Tau into WT and CX3CR1(-/-) mice)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793053/cerebrospinal-fluid-contacting-nucleus-mediates-nociception-via-release-of-fractalkine
#8
Q Q Zhou, S S Chen, Q Q Zhang, P F Liu, H Z Fang, Y Yang, L C Zhang
Increasing evidence suggests that the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) mediates the transduction and regulation of pain signals. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Studies show that release of fractalkine (FKN) from neurons plays a critical role in nerve injury-related pain. We tested the hypothesis that release of FKN from the CSF-contacting nucleus regulates neuropathic pain, in a chronic constriction injury rat model. The results show that FKN is expressed by neurons, via expression of its only receptor CX3CR1 in the microglia...
August 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776289/spinal-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-may-not-directly-participate-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-rats
#9
Yawen Peng, Genhua Guo, Bin Shu, Daiqiang Liu, Peng Su, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
CX3CL1 (fractalkine), the sole member of chemokine CX3C family, is implicated in inflammatory and neuropathic pain via activating its receptor CX3CR1 on neural cells in spinal cord. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether CX3CL1 or CX3CR1 contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. In this study, we found that chronic morphine exposure did not alter the expressions of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. And neither exogenous CX3CL1 nor CX3CR1 inhibitor could affect the development of morphine tolerance...
August 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#10
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716963/chemokine-ccl2-ccr2-signaling-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-stat3-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production-after-status-epilepticus
#11
Dai-Shi Tian, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Li-Jie Feng, Jun-Li Liu, Ukpong B Eyo, Li-Jun Zhou, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Wei Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2-CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1 d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1(GFP/+):CCR2(RFP/+) double-transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2-CCR2 signaling has a role in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687201/corrigendum-to-a-selective-cb2r-agonist-jwh133-restores-neuronal-circuit-after-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-via-cx3cr1-microglia-neuropharm-119-2017-157-169
#12
Jun Tang, Hongping Miao, Bing Jiang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Zhi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612258/downregulated-glia-interplay-and-increased-mirna-155-as-promising-markers-to-track-als-at-an%C3%A2-early-stage
#13
Carolina Cunha, Catarina Santos, Cátia Gomes, Adelaide Fernandes, Alexandra Marçal Correia, Ana Maria Sebastião, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause. Absence of specific targets and biomarkers compromise the development of new therapeutic strategies and of innovative tools to stratify patients and assess their responses to treatment. Here, we investigate changes in neuroprotective-neuroinflammatory actions in the spinal cord of SOD1 (G93A) mice, at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages to identify stage-specific biomarkers and potential targets. Results showed that in the presymptomatic stage, there are alterations in both astrocytes and microglia, which comprise decreased expression of GFAP and S100B and upregulation of GLT-1, as well as reduced expression of CD11b, M2-phenotype markers, and a set of inflammatory mediators...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552674/enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-independent-of-blood-monocyte-derived-microglia-presence-following-high-dose-total-body-irradiation
#14
Marc J Ruitenberg, Julia Wells, Perry F Bartlett, Alan R Harvey, Jana Vukovic
Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459434/mice-deficient-in-nrros-show-abnormal-microglial-development-and-neurological-disorders
#15
Kit Wong, Rajkumar Noubade, Paolo Manzanillo, Naruhisa Ota, Oded Foreman, Jason A Hackney, Brad A Friedman, Rajita Pappu, Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Wenjun Ouyang
Microglia and other tissue-resident macrophages within the central nervous system (CNS) have essential roles in neural development, inflammation and homeostasis. However, the molecular pathways underlying their development and function remain poorly understood. Here we report that mice deficient in NRROS, a myeloid-expressed transmembrane protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, develop spontaneous neurological disorders. NRROS-deficient (Nrros(-/-)) mice show defects in motor functions and die before 6 months of age...
June 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388927/exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-induces-neuroinflammation-derangement-of-hippocampal-neurons-and-cognitive-changes-in-rat-offspring
#17
Billy Vuong, Gary Odero, Stephanie Rozbacher, Mackenzie Stevenson, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Troy J Pereira, Vernon W Dolinsky, Tiina M Kauppinen
BACKGROUND: Birth cohort studies link gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with impaired cognitive performance in the offspring. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated GDM induces chronic neuroinflammation and disturbs the development of neuronal circuitry resulting in impaired cognitive abilities in the offspring. METHODS: In rats, GDM was induced by feeding dams a diet high in sucrose and fatty acids. Brains of neonatal (E20) and young adult (15-week-old) offspring of GDM and lean dams were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, cytokine assay, and western blotting...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343297/association-of-the-cx3cr1-v249i-variant-with-neurofibrillary-pathology-progression-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Alan López-López, Ellen Gelpi, Diana Maria Lopategui, Jose M Vidal-Taboada
Neuroinflammation and microglial dysfunction have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). CX3CR1 is a microglia-specific gene involved in microglia-neuron crosstalk and neuroinflammation. Numerous evidence show the involvement of CX3CR1 in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate if some functional genetic variants of this gene could influence on LOAD's outcome, in a neuropathologically confirmed Spanish cohort. We designed an open, pragmatic, case-control retrospective study including a total of 475 subjects (205 pathologically confirmed AD cases and 270 controls)...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342179/common-polymorphisms-of-cx3cr1-gene-modify-als-outcome-a-population-based-study
#19
Andrea Calvo, Cristina Moglia, Antonio Canosa, Stefania Cammarosano, Antonio Ilardi, Davide Bertuzzo, Bryan J Traynor, Maura Brunetti, Marco Barberis, Gabriele Mora, Federico Casale, Adriano Chiò
INTRODUCTION: In the brain the CX3CR1 gene is only expressed by microglia where it acts as a key mediator of the neuron-microglia interactions. We assessed whether the two common polymorphisms of the CX3CR1 gene (V249I and T280M) modify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotype. METHODS: The study included 755 ALS patients diagnosed in Piemonte between 2007 and 2012 and 369 age- and gender-matched controls, all genotyped using the same chips. RESULTS: Neither of the variants were associated with an increased risk of ALS...
March 25, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320442/analysis-of-monocyte-infiltration-in-mptp-mice-reveals-that-microglial-cx3cr1-protects-against-neurotoxic-over-induction-of-monocyte-attracting-ccl2-by-astrocytes
#20
Vincent R Parillaud, Guillaume Lornet, Yann Monnet, Anne-Laure Privat, Andrei T Haddad, Vanessa Brochard, Amaury Bekaert, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Etienne C Hirsch, Christophe Combadière, Stéphane Hunot, Christian S Lobsiger
BACKGROUND: Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson's disease mice. However, this remains controversial for monocytes, due to artifact-prone techniques used to distinguish them from microglia. Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 can differentiate between inflammatory monocytes and microglia, enabling to test whether CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate the brain during dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration and whether they contribute to neuronal death...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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