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Microglia neuron cx3cr1

Neta Rimmerman, Nofar Schottlender, Ronen Reshef, Nadav Dan-Goor, Raz Yirmiya
Clinical studies suggest that key genetic factors involved in stress resilience are related to the innate immune system. In the brain, this system includes microglia cells, which play a major role in stress responsiveness. Consistently, mice with deletion of the CX3CR1 gene (CX3CR1(-/-) mice), which in the brain is expressed exclusively by microglia, exhibit resilience to chronic stress. Here, we compared the emotional, cognitive, neurogenic and microglial responses to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) between CX3CR1(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice...
November 23, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sarah L Roche, Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Pedro Lax, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Ashleigh M Byrne, Nicolás Cuenca, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease leading to photoreceptor cell loss. Mouse models of RP, such as the rd10 mouse (B6.CXBl-Pde6brd10/J), have enhanced our understanding of the disease, allowing for development of potential therapeutics. In 2011, our group first demonstrated that the synthetic progesterone analogue 'Norgestrel' is neuroprotective in two mouse models of retinal degeneration, including the rd10 mouse. We have since elucidated several mechanisms by which Norgestrel protects stressed photoreceptors, such as upregulating growth factors...
2016: PloS One
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Andrea Guzmán, Suzanne van der Veldt, Giamal N Luheshi
Environmental challenges to the maternal immune system during pregnancy have been associated with an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) appearing in the offspring. Microglia, the brain's resident immune-cells, are now known to be critically involved in normal brain development, shaping connections between neurons by pruning superfluous synaptic spines. Our aim was to investigate whether maternal infection during critical stages of gestation compromises the role of microglia in sculpting neuronal circuits...
September 30, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
P B Tran, R E Miller, S Ishihara, R J Miller, A M Malfait
OBJECTIVE: Microgliosis, the activation of microglial cells, is thought to contribute to synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn and thereby promote chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to document the temporal profile of dorsal horn microgliosis after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in wild type (WT) and Adamts5 null mice. Since neuronal fractalkine (CX3CL1) contributes to microgliosis, we assessed its release from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures after DMM...
September 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Sarah Andry, Adam Brown, Sharon DeMorrow
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure is associated with numerous systemic consequences including neurological dysfunction, termed hepatic encephalopathy, which contributes to mortality and is a challenge to manage in the clinic. During hepatic encephalopathy, microglia activation and neuroinflammation occur due to dysregulated cell signaling and an increase of toxic metabolites in the brain. Fractalkine is a chemokine that is expressed primarily in neurons and through signaling with its receptor CX3CR1 on microglia, leads to microglia remaining in a quiescent state...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Fabrizio Gasparini, Anis K Mir, Kumlesh K Dev
BACKGROUND: The fractalkine (CX3CR1) ligand is expressed in astrocytes and reported to be neuroprotective. When cleaved from the membrane, soluble fractalkine (sCX3CL1) activates the receptor CX3CR1. Although somewhat controversial, CX3CR1 is reported to be expressed in neurons and microglia. The membrane-bound form of CX3CL1 additionally acts as an adhesion molecule for microglia and infiltrating white blood cells. Much research has been done on the role of fractalkine in neuronal cells; however, little is known about the regulation of the CX3CL1 ligand in astrocytes...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Peiqing Chen, Wenjuan Zhao, Yanjie Guo, Juan Xu, Ming Yin
CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) is an intriguing chemokine belonging to the CX3C family. CX3CL1 is secreted by neurons and plays an important role in modulating glial activation in the central nervous system after binding to its sole receptor CX3CR1 which mainly is expressed on microglia. Emerging data highlights the beneficial potential of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common progressive neurodegenerative disease, and in the progression of which neuroinflammation plays a vital role...
2016: BioMed Research International
Bo Ma, Leyan Xu, Xiaodong Pan, Lixin Sun, Jinhui Ding, Chengsong Xie, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Huaibin Cai
Multiple missense mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common degenerative movement disorder. LRRK2 is expressed by both neurons and microglia, the residential immune cells in the brain. Increasing evidence supports a role of LRRK2 in modulating microglial activity, of which Lrrk2-null rodent microglia display less inflammatory response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains elusive. Chemokine (C-X3-C) receptor 1 (CX3CR1), predominantly expressed by microglia, suppresses microglial inflammation while promotes migration...
July 4, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Luca Muzio, Valentina Brambilla, Lorenza Calcaterra, Patrizia D'Adamo, Gianvito Martino, Francesco Benedetti
The search for biomarkers of antidepressant effects focused on pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, and on activated inflammatory markers. Repeated Sleep Deprivation (SD) provides a model treatment to reverse-translate antidepressant effects from in vivo clinical psychiatry to model organisms. We studied the effects of repeated SD alone (ASD) or combined with exercise on a slow spinning wheel (SSW), in 116 C57BL/6J male mice divided in three groups (ASD, SSW, untreated). Forced Swimming Test (FST) was used to detect antidepressant-like effects...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Joanna Ślusarczyk, Ewa Trojan, Katarzyna Głombik, Katarzyna Chamera, Adam Roman, Bogusława Budziszewska, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Liang Wang, Shuai Kang, Dingquan Zou, Lei Zhan, Zhengxi Li, Wan Zhu, Hua Su
Ischemic stroke is a devastating complication of bone fracture. Bone fracture shortly after stroke enhances stroke injury by augmenting inflammation. We hypothesize that bone fracture shortly before ischemic stroke also exacerbates ischemic cerebral injury. Tibia fracture was performed 6 or 24 hours before permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) on C57BL/6J mice or Ccr2RFP/+Cx3cr1GFP/+ mice that have the RFP gene knocked into one allele of Ccr2 gene and GFP gene knocked into one allele of Cx3cr1 gene...
2016: PloS One
Manuela Meireles, Cláudia Marques, Sónia Norberto, Paulo Santos, Iva Fernandes, Nuno Mateus, Ana Faria, Conceição Calhau
Microglia mediate multiple aspects of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype or microglia-neuron crosstalk can be an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy. Anthocyanins are a class of flavonoids found e.g., in berries that has been attracting interest due to its neuroprotective potential. However, there are no data clarifying the impact of anthocyanins on microglial phenotype or on microglia-neuron crosstalk (CX3CR1/CX3CL1)...
May 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
James F Striebel, Brent Race, James A Carroll, Katie Phillips, Bruce Chesebro
Microglial activation is a hallmark of the neuroimmunological response to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion disease. The CX3C chemokine axis consists of fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1); these are expressed by neurons and microglia respectively, and are known to modulate microglial activation. In prion-infected mice, both Cx3cr1 and Cx3cl1 are altered, suggesting a role in disease. To investigate the influence of CX3C axis signalling on prion disease, we infected Cx3cr1 knockout (Cx3cr1-KO) and control mice with scrapie strains 22L and RML...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
Rachel S Chong, Andrew Osborne, Raquel Conceição, Keith R Martin
PURPOSE: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes neuronal survival in experimental glaucoma and recruits glial cells that regulate synapses. We investigated the effects of intravitreal PDGF on the inflammatory milieu and retinal synapses in the presence of raised IOP. METHODS: Animals with laser-induced IOP elevation received intravitreal injections of either saline or 1.5 μg PDGF. At 7 days, a further intravitreal injection was administered so groups received "PDGF-saline" (n = 15), "PDGF-PDGF" (n = 13), or "saline-saline" (n = 20)...
March 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Łukasz A Poniatowski, Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Maciej Krawczyk, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Robert Gasik, Łukasz Kubaszewski, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is the only member of the CX3C (delta) subfamily of chemokines which is unique and combines the properties of both chemoattractant and adhesion molecules. The two-form ligand can exist either in a soluble form, like all other chemokines, and as a membrane-anchored molecule. CX3CL1 discloses its biological properties through interaction with one dedicated CX3CR1 receptor which belongs to a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis acts in many physiological phenomena including those occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), by regulating the interactions between neurons, microglia, and immune cells...
March 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Makoto Horiuchi, Lucas Smith, Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2, an epigenetic modulator that binds the methyl CpG dinucleotide in target genes to regulate transcription. Previously we and others reported a role of microglia in the pathophysiology of RTT. Because microglia in the Mecp2 knockout (Mecp2KO) mouse model of RTT over-produce neurotoxic mediators glutamate and reactive oxygen species, we hypothesize that blocking neuron-microglia interaction by ablation of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia/myeloid cells mediating such interaction by pairing with its neuronal ligand CX3CL1, would ameliorate the RTT-like phenotype in Mecp2KO mice...
February 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Iris Kim, Lauren M Mlsna, Stella Yoon, Brandy Le, Songtao Yu, Dan Xu, Sookyong Koh
BACKGROUND: Explosive synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning occur in the hippocampus during the first two weeks of postnatal life, coincident with a heightened susceptibility to seizures in rodents. To determine the temporal correlation between microglial development and age-dependent susceptibility and response to seizures, we quantified developmental changes in basal microglia levels and seizure-induced microglial activation in the hippocampus of Cx3Cr1(GFP /+) transgenic mice. METHODS: Basal levels of microglia were quantified in the hippocampi of Cx3Cr1(GFP /+) mice at P0, P5, P10, P15, P20, P25, P30, P40, and P60...
December 2015: Brain and Behavior
Min-Xuan Xu, Rong Yu, Li-Fei Shao, Yan-Xiu Zhang, Chen-Xu Ge, Xin-Meng Liu, Wen-Yuan Wu, Jian-Mei Li, Ling-Dong Kong
Recent studies suggest that diet-induced fractalkine (FKN) stimulates neuroinflammation in animal models of obesity, yet how it occurs is unclear. This study investigated the role of FKN and it receptor, CX3CR1, in fructose-induced neuroinflammation, and examined curcumin's beneficial effect. Fructose feeding was found to induce hippocampal microglia activation with neuroinflammation through the activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, resulting in the reduction of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of mice...
January 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sabine Hellwig, Simone Brioschi, Sandra Dieni, Lars Frings, Annette Masuch, Thomas Blank, Knut Biber
Microglia are suggested to be involved in several neuropsychiatric diseases. Indeed changes in microglia morphology have been reported in different mouse models of depression. A crucial regulatory system for microglia function is the well-defined CX3C axis. Thus, we aimed to clarify the role of microglia and CX3CR1 in depressive behavior by subjecting CX3CR1-deficient mice to a particular chronic despair model (CDM) paradigm known to exhibit face validity to major depressive disorder. In wild-type mice we observed the development of chronic depressive-like behavior after 5days of repetitive swim stress...
July 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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