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"Digital x-ray"

Judith E Adams
Maximizing peak bone mass in childhood is relevant to optimizing bone health in later life, so the study of the skeleton in children in health and disease is important. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used clinical tool for the assessment of bone status in children. Technological developments in DXA enable vertebral fracture assessment at much lower ionizing radiation doses than spinal radiographs. Quantitative computed tomography remains predominantly a research tool but has some advantages over DXA in not being size dependent...
July 2016: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Anita Conradie, Charles Petrus Herbst
INTRODUCTION: As hospitalized neonates are radiosensitive and often require numerous X-rays, institutions should investigate the optimal beam parameter combinations to deliver diagnostically acceptable quality images at the lowest possible entrance surface dose (ESD). Using a subjective approach, this study evaluated the effect of different beam parameter combinations on image quality. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five rabbits simulated the neonatal chest. The ESD was reduced using a variation of voltage, tube current and filtration...
August 16, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
David A P Dunkerley, Tobias Funk, Michael A Speidel
Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced 3D tracking using dynamic electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. Positions in the 2D focal spot array are selectively activated to create a region-of-interest (ROI) x-ray field around the tracked catheter. The ROI position is updated for each frame based on a motion vector calculated from the two most recent 3D tracking results...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Jordan M Slagowski, David A P Dunkerley, Charles R Hatt, Michael A Speidel
Accurate and artifact free reconstruction of tomographic images requires precise knowledge of the imaging system geometry. This work proposes a novel projection matrix (P-matrix) based calibration method to enable C-arm inverse geometry CT (IGCT). The method is evaluated for scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX), a C-arm mounted inverse geometry fluoroscopic technology. A helical configuration of fiducials is imaged at each gantry angle in a rotational acquisition. For each gantry angle, digital tomosynthesis is performed at multiple planes and a composite image analogous to a cone-beam projection is generated from the plane stack...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
K Khalid, S Yousif, A Satti
Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan...
2016: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Christina Heilmaier, Niklaus Zuber, Dominik Weishaupt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. METHODS: A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection...
June 23, 2016: European Radiology
Pawan Agarwal, K L Gupta, P Yadav, Dhananjaya Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Gastrocnemius muscle is a workhorse flap to cover upper third tibial defects but has a limitation in covering middle one-third tibial defects. The inferiorly based hemi gastrocnemius muscle flap can be useful for reconstruction of the middle third of the leg. The arterial communication between the gastrocnemius muscle heads has been demonstrated, the consistent location, however, was not studied in large specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on sixty specimens of gastrocnemius muscles harvested from thirty fresh cadavers to determine arterial communication between two heads of gastrocnemius muscle using radio-opaque contrast with future application of taking one head of muscle distally based for coverage of middle third defect of tibia...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Anita Mehay, Thara Raj, Lynn Altass, Autilia Newton, Eamonn O'Moore, Cathie Railton, Hong Tan, Al Story, Alison Frater
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Rates of active TB in places of prescribed detention (PPD), which include Prisons, Young Offender Institutions and Immigration Removal Centres, are high compared with the general population. PPD therefore present an opportunity to develop targeted health programmes for TB control. This audit aims to assess current service provisions and identify barriers to achieving best practice standards in PPD across London...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Dharamvirsinh Jadeja, Vipul Solanki, Bhavesh Chavada, Chandrabhanu Tripathi
A 28 year old male patient, known case of pemphigus vulgaris was on dexamethasone pulse therapy. Total 7 pulses were given after that he developed avascular necrosis of head of femur on both sides, which was confirmed by digital X- ray and MRI. Avascular necrosis is a disabling and progressive condition in young patients gradually leads to femoral head collapse and eventual total hip arthroplasty. As per WHO-UMC causality assessment criteria, the association between reaction and drug was possible, Naranjo's score was 7...
2016: Current Drug Safety
Hans Henrik Thodberg, Joachim Böttcher, Jens Lomholt, Sven Kreiborg, Gunter Wolf, Alexander Pfeil
UNLABELLED: Digital X-ray radiogrammetry performs measurements on a hand radiograph in digital form. We present an improved implementation of the method and provide reference curves for four indices for the amount of bone. We collected 1662 hand radiographs of healthy subjects of age 9-100 years. PURPOSE: The digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) method has been shown to be efficient for diagnosis of osteoporosis and for assessment of progression of rheumatoid arthritis...
2016: Archives of Osteoporosis
Sorin Teich, Wisam Al-Rawi, Masahiro Heima, Fady F Faddoul, Gil Goldzweig, Zvi Gutmacher, Dror Aizenbud
PURPOSE: To evaluate the image quality generated by eight commercially available intraoral sensors. METHODS: Eighteen clinicians ranked the quality of a bitewing acquired from one subject using eight different intraoral sensors. Analytical methods used to evaluate clinical image quality included the Visual Grading Characteristics method, which helps to quantify subjective opinions to make them suitable for analysis. RESULTS: The Dexis sensor was ranked significantly better than Sirona and Carestream-Kodak sensors; and the image captured using the Carestream-Kodak sensor was ranked significantly worse than those captured using Dexis, Schick and Cyber Medical Imaging sensors...
October 2016: International Dental Journal
Andreas Braun, Lisa Marie Julie Charlotte Guiraud, Roland Frankenberger
The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was introduced for a detailed evaluation of dental caries. The aim of the present study was to compare the ICDAS scores and radiologically evaluated caries depths to the histologically evaluated carious lesions in permanent teeth. 84 freshly extracted human teeth were included. Visual examination and scoring of the occlusal aspect were performed according to the ICDAS II criteria after completing a respective e-learning programme to support training in the use of ICDAS...
April 18, 2016: Odontology
G Sorin, G Pasquier, E Drumez, A Arnould, H Migaud, S Putman
INTRODUCTION: Five angles (HKA, HKS, alpha, beta, tibial slope) are used for goniometry in total knee arthroplasty. The reproducibility of the measurement of these angles has been assessed on plain and digitized x-rays, but to our knowledge, this has not been confirmed on x-rays taken on the PACS system and they have not been compared to computed tomography (CT) measurements, the reference for angle measurement. This prospective study aimed to: (1) evaluate the inter- and intrarater reliability of the measurement of these angles on digital x-rays taken on a PACS; (2) determine the agreement of these measurements with those obtained using a CT protocol...
June 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Q Ren, Y Wang, Q Zheng, L Ye, X D Zhou, L L Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Digital simulation technologies have become widespread in healthcare education, especially in dentistry; these technologies include digital X-ray images, digital microscopes, virtual pathology slides and other types of simulation. This study aimed to assess students' attitudes towards digital simulation technologies at a large, top-ranked dental school in China, as well as find out how students compare the digital technologies with traditional training methods. METHODS: In April 2015, a custom-designed questionnaire was distributed to a total of 389 students who had received digital technology and simulation-based training in West China Dental School during 2012-2014...
April 4, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Michael M Schündeln, Laura Marschke, Jens J Bauer, Pia K Hauffa, Bernd Schweiger, Dagmar Führer-Sakel, Harald Lahner, Thorsten D Poeppel, Cordula Kiewert, Berthold P Hauffa, Corinna Grasemann
INTRODUCTION: Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones...
2016: PloS One
Alexander Pfeil, Glenn Haugeberg, Diane M Renz, Lisa Reinhardt, Christian Jung, Marcus Franz, Gunter Wolf, Joachim Böttcher
Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) is a computer-assisted diagnosis technique for quantifying cortical hand bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the metacarpal index (MCI) in the metacarpal bones from radiographs. The objective was to compare DXR-BMD and DXR-MCI between healthy individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and verify the sensitivity and specificity of this technique for the identification of cortical hand bone loss as an additional diagnostic approach in RA. 618 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: those with RA (n = 309) and a healthy control group (n = 309) as a reference database...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, M D Mallapur
Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to identify an unknown person. Various methods used for facial reconstruction are drawings, sculpture and computer aided image building which is mainly based on facial soft tissue thickness measurement. Several methods have been established for measuring facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) with each one having certain limitations. There is limited data available on FSTT among South Indian population. Hence the present study was ventured to determine the FSTT among South Indian adults and also to find FSTT difference between male and female...
April 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Johan Kälvesten, Li-Yung Lui, Torkel Brismar, Steven Cummings
Osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Screening of post-menopausal women for clinical risk factors and/or low bone mineral density (BMD) has been proposed to overcome this. Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) estimates hand BMD from standard hand X-ray images and have shown to predict fractures and osteoporosis. Recently, digital radiology and the internet have opened up the possibility of conducting automated opportunistic screening with DXR in post-fracture care or in combination with mammography...
May 2016: Bone
Andreas Steiner, Jerry Hella, Servan Grüninger, Grace Mhalu, Francis Mhimbira, Colin I Cercamondi, Basra Doulla, Nicolas Maire, Lukas Fenner
OBJECTIVE: A software tool is developed to facilitate data entry and to monitor research projects in under-resourced countries in real-time. METHODS: The eManagement tool "odk_planner" is written in the scripting languages PHP and Python. The odk_planner is lightweight and uses minimal internet resources. It was designed to be used with the open source software Open Data Kit (ODK). The users can easily configure odk_planner to meet their needs, and the online interface displays data collected from ODK forms in a graphically informative way...
September 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Alvilde Dhainaut, Mari Hoff, Unni Syversen, Glenn Haugeberg
Reduced bone mineral density is a strong risk factor for fracture. The WHO's definition of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density measurements assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Several on other techniques than dual x-ray absorptiometry have been developed for quantitative assessment of bone, for example, quantitative ultrasound and digital x-ray radiogrammetry. Some of these techniques may also capture other bone properties than bone mass that contribute to bone strength, for example, bone porosity and microarchitecture...
2016: Women's Health
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