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Fumiko Sekiguchi, Tomoyo Fujita, Takahiro Deguchi, Sakura Yamaoka, Ken Tomochika, Maho Tsubota, Sumire Ono, Yamato Horaguchi, Maki Ichii, Mio Ichikawa, Yumiko Ueno, Nene Koike, Tadatoshi Tanino, Huy Du Nguyen, Takuya Okada, Hiroyuki Nishikawa, Shigeru Yoshida, Tsuyako Ohkubo, Naoki Toyooka, Kazuya Murata, Hideaki Matsuda, Atsufumi Kawabata
Since Cav 3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) expressed in the primary afferents and CNS contribute to intractable pain, we explored T-channel-blocking components in distinct herbal extracts using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in HEK293 cells stably expressing Cav 3.2 or Cav 3.1, and purified and identified sophoraflavanone G (SG) as an active compound from SOPHORAE RADIX (SR). Interestingly, hop-derived SG analogues, (2S)-6-prenylnaringenin (6-PNG) and (2S)-8-PNG, but not naringenin, also blocked T-channels; IC50 (μM) of SG, (2S)-6-PNG and (2S)-8-PNG was 0...
June 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Eun Ju Lee, Joo Hyun Nam, Inho Choi
Fibromodulin (FMOD) is a proteoglycan present in extracellular matrix (ECM). Based on our previous findings that FMOD controls myoblast differentiation by regulating the gene expressions of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1α1) and integral membrane protein 2 A (Itm2a), we undertook this study to investigate relationships between FMOD and calcium channels and to understand further the mechanism by which they control myoblast differentiation. Gene expression studies and luciferase reporter assays showed FMOD affected calcium channel gene expressions by regulating calcium channel gene promoter, and patch-clamp experiments showed both L- and T-type calcium channel currents were almost undetectable in FMOD knocked down cells...
June 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tulaci Bhakti, Fernando Goulart, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Yasmine Antonini
Consequences of habitat fragmentation for species occurrence are amongst the most important issues in landscape and conservation ecology. Empirical and theoretical studies have demonstrated that the total amount of habitat, patch size and connectivity have nonlinear effects on species survival on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, population models need to incorporate multiple scales, which can be extremely valuable to prioritizing conservation efforts in these changing landscapes. We tested how the amount and configuration of habitat affect understory bird species occurrence using fine to broad-scale habitat features...
2018: PloS One
Randi Melissa Schuster, Gladys N Pachas, Luke Stoeckel, Corinne Cather, Mireya Nadal, David Mischoulon, David A Schoenfeld, Haiyue Zhang, Christine Ulysse, Elisabeth B Dodds, Sara Sobolewski, Vicenta Hudziak, Ailish Hanly, Maurizio Fava, A Eden Evins
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]). METHODS: Adult daily smokers, n = 160, who were motivated to quit smoking completed cognitive testing at satiated baseline and after overnight abstinence and then were randomized to receive a 12-week trial of encenicline 1 mg twice daily or identical placebo the day of the overnight abstinent cognitive testing...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Dagmar Westerling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Hanna Norrlid, Peter Dahm, Gunnel Ragnarson Tennvall
Background and aims Chronic pain is a life altering condition and common among elderly persons. The 7-day buprenorphine patch could be a suitable treatment for managing chronic pain of moderate severity in elderly patients in Sweden. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the 7-day buprenorphine patch, versus no treatment, in patients >50 years old who suffer from moderate pain in a health economic perspective. An additional aim was to evaluate how the cost-effectiveness is affected by the choice of EQ-5D weights...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gitesh U Sawatkar, Muthu Sendhil Kumaran, Tarun Narang, Davinder Parsad
A 22-year-old student presented with a 3-year history of hyperpigmented, minimally pruritic skin lesions over his trunk. They had begun as small discrete macules over the left side of the trunk, with some coalescing to form patches. He had had right-sided segmental vitiligo (SV) for the previous 7 to 8 years (Figure 1A), and this had started to cross the midline, covering a margin over the left side of the chest and back. This coincided with the onset and spread of the hyperpigmented patches. He denied any history of drug intake, or history of inflammatory dermatoses at either the vitiliginous or the hyperpigmented sites...
2018: Skinmed
Farhan Rasool, Virendra N Sehgal, Govind Srivastava, Ashok Aggarwal, Iffat Hassan
Footwear contact dermatitis is a common problem with multifactorial exogenous, as well as endogenous, etiologies. Patch testing is the gold standard for detection of the possible contactants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 108 outpatients over a period of 18 months. Demographic data comprising age, sex, and occupation were collected. Details of clinical and laboratory investigations were used to define the incriminating ingredient(s), subsequently confirmed by patch test using Indian standard and footwear series approved by the Contact and Occupational Dermatitis Forum of India...
2018: Skinmed
Zhi-Xuan Xia, Zu-Cheng Shen, Shao-Qi Zhang, Ji Wang, Tai-Lei Nie, Qiao Deng, Jian-Guo Chen, Fang Wang, Peng-Fei Wu
AIMS: Palmitoylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) subunits or their "scaffold" proteins produce opposite effects on AMPAR surface delivery. Considering AMPARs have long been identified as suitable drug targets for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, targeting palmitoylation signaling to regulate AMPAR function emerges as a novel therapeutic strategy. However, until now, much less is known about the effect of palmitoylation-deficient state on AMPAR function...
June 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Qinying Yan, Zhigang Cheng, Houming Liu, Wanshui Shan, Zhide Cheng, Xuyong Dai, Yun Xue, Fan Chen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem. New immunization methods against TB are urgently needed. Plasmid DNA with a microneedle patch is a potentially attractive strategy to improve the immune effect. A DNA vaccine encoding the secreted protein Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was immunized in the skin using microneedles, which can improve protective immunity compared to conventional intramuscular (IM) injection. There is no significant difference between microneedle patch (MNP) and IM immunization when the immunizing dose is low (4...
June 14, 2018: Vaccine
Takashi Ogawa, Genko Oyama, Nobutaka Hattori
A 42-year-old Japanese man with a history of small intestine resection and familial Mediterranean fever was referred to our hospital for a second opinion on parkinsonism. At the age of 35, the patient attended a hospital due to impaired left-hand movement and resting tremor. He was previously diagnosed with multiple system atrophy based on the lack of effectiveness of levodopa treatment. With suspicion of malabsorption due to his history of ileostomy, a levodopa challenge test with levodopa intravenous infusion was conducted, and revealed a 65% improvement in Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Alessandro Tozzi, Valentina Durante, Guendalina Bastioli, Petra Mazzocchetti, Salvatore Novello, Alessandro Mechelli, Michele Morari, Cinzia Costa, Andrea Mancini, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Paolo Calabresi
Among genetic abnormalities identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations of the leucine-rich repeat kinase2 (LRRK2) gene, such as the G2019S missense mutation linked to enhanced kinase activity, are the most common. While the complex role of LRRK2 has not been fully elucidated, evidence that mutated kinase activity affects synaptic transmission has been reported. Thus, our aim was to explore possible early alterations of neurotransmission produced by the G2019S LRRK2 mutation in PD. We performed electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in the G2019S-Lrrk2 knock-in (KI) mouse model of PD, in D1994S kinase-dead (KD), Lrrk2 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Jeremy M Thompson, Vadim Yakhnitsa, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain is an important healthcare issue with significant emotional components. The amygdala is a brain region involved in pain and emotional-affective states and disorders. The central amygdala output nucleus (CeA) contains small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that can control neuronal activity. A clinically available therapeutic, riluzole can activate SK channels and may have antinociceptive effects through a supraspinal action...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Adham Elmously, Arash Salemi, T Sloane Guy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
D Cheng, L Bonato, C Leinkram
PURPOSE: Ventral hernias are a common surgical issue and a myriad of surgical mesh designs has been developed for their treatment. Many of these new mesh designs have not been extensively tested and their complications rates are largely unknown. The C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ combines a unique knit construction polypropylene mesh with an omega-3 fatty acid coating. There has only previously been one reported study investigating this mesh. METHODS: A multicentre cohort study, with a single surgeon, of 168 consecutive patients with ventral hernias underwent repair using a standardized open pre-peritoneal approach with the novel C-QUR V-Patch Mesh™ between January 2013 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Hans Bowles, Juan Ambrosioni, Gaspar Mestres, Marta Hernández-Meneses, Nuria Sánchez, Jaime Llopis, Xavier Yugueros, Manel Almela, Asunción Moreno, Vicenç Riambau, David Fuster, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) is a severe complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. Clinical diagnosis is complex, requiring image testing such as CT angiography or leukocyte scintigraphy, which has considerable limitations. The aim of this study was to know the diagnostic yield of PET/CT with 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) in patients with suspected PVGI. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 49 patients with suspected PVGI, median age of 62 ± 14 years...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Hiroyuki Kawai, Nozomi Asaoka, Takahito Miyake, Kazuki Nagayasu, Takayuki Nakagawa, Hisashi Shirakawa, Shuji Kaneko
Neurotropin (NTP) is a Japanese analgesic agent for treating neuropathic pain; however, its method of action remains unclear. This study examined the effects of NTP on the activity of small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. After 3 days of treatment, NTP decreased current injection-induced firing activity of cultured DRG neurons by raising the current threshold for action potential generation. Additionally, NTP increased the sustained component of voltage-gated potassium (Kv ) channel currents without affecting other K+ currents...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Sebastian Schöttl, Dominik Horinek
The weakly associated micellar aggregates found in the so-called "pre-ouzo region" of the surfactant-free microemulsion water/ethanol/1-octanol are sensitive to changes in the system composition and also to the presence of additives like salt. In this work, we study the influence of two salts, sodium iodide and lithium chloride, on aggregates in water/ethanol/1-octanol by molecular dynamics simulations. In both cases, ethanol concentration in the nonpolar phase and at the interface is increased due to a salting out effect on ethanol in the aqueous pseudo-phase...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
J A Santiago
Ordering configurations of a director field on a curved membrane induces stress. In this work, we present a theoretical framework to calculate the stress tensor and the torque as a consequence of the nematic ordering; we use the variational principle and invariance of the energy under Euclidean motions. Euler-Lagrange equations of the membrane as well as the corresponding boundary conditions also appear as natural results. The stress tensor found includes attraction-repulsion forces between defects; likewise, defects are attracted to patches with the same sign in Gaussian curvature...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Yi Shi, Xinju Liu, Yuanyuan Fang, Qing Tian, Hanyu Jiang, Huiling Ma
Brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a serious disease in Agrostis stolonifera. 2, 3-butanediol (2, 3-BD) is the major component of volatile organic compounds and was found to initiate induced systemic resistance (ISR). To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of 2, 3-BD, we examined the effects of resistance by area affected, along with changes in the content of phytohormones (Zeatin (ZT), Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA)), the activities of three phenylpropanoid metabolic enzymes (Phenylalaninammo-Nialyase (PAL), Chalcone Isomerase (CHI) and 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL)) and the level of secondary metabolites (total phenols, flavonoid and lignin)...
June 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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