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Bacteremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538622/towards-precision-medicine-accurate-predictive-modeling-of-infectious-complications-in-combat-casualties
#1
Christopher J Dente, Matthew Bradley, Seth Schobel, Beverly Gaucher, Timothy Buchman, Allan D Kirk, Eric Elster
BACKGROUND: The biomarker profile of trauma patients may allow for the creation of models to assist bedside decision making & prediction of complications. We sought to determine the utility of modeling in the prediction of bacteremia & pneumonia in combat casualties. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational trial of patients with complex wounds treated at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (2007-2012). Tissue, serum and wound effluent samples were collected during operative interventions until wound closure...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#3
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534213/impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-rapid-microarray-testing-on-patients-with-gram-negative-bacteremia
#4
K R Rivard, V Athans, S W Lam, S M Gordon, G W Procop, S S Richter, E Neuner
A rapid microarray assay, Nanosphere Verigene® Gram-negative blood culture test (BC-GN), detects four Gram-negative species, four Gram-negative genera, and six resistance genes directly from positive blood culture samples, shortening the time from Gram stain to pathogen and resistance-gene identification. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the BC-GN paired with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on antimicrobial and clinical outcomes. Patients with Gram-negative bacteremia were compared before (n = 456) and after (n = 421) BC-GN implementation...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#5
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526224/neurocognitive-outcomes-at-10-years-of-age-in-extremely-preterm-newborns-with-late-onset-bacteremia
#6
H Reeve Bright, Kikelomo Babata, Elizabeth N Allred, Carmina Erdei, Karl C K Kuban, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Alan Leviton, Olaf Dammann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in 10-year neurocognitive outcomes between extremely low gestational age newborns without bacteremia and those with suspected or confirmed late-onset bacteremia. STUDY DESIGN: Neurocognitive function was evaluated at 10 years of age in 889 children born at <28 weeks of gestation and followed from birth. Definite (culture-positive) late-onset bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 was identified in 223 children, and 129 children had suspected bacteremia...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526094/patients-with-community-acquired-bacteremia-of-unknown-origin-clinical-characteristics-and-usefulness-of-microbiological-results-for-therapeutic-issues-a-single-center-cohort-study
#7
Johan Courjon, Elisa Demonchy, Nicolas Degand, Karine Risso, Raymond Ruimy, Pierre-Marie Roger
Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525671/infection-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients-on-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#8
Maria J Santiago, Jesús López-Herce, Eva Vierge, Ana Castillo, Amaya Bustinza, Jose M Bellón, Amelia Sánchez, Sarah Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are frequently used in critically ill children and may increase the risk of infection. However, the incidence, characteristics and prognosis of infection in critically ill children on CRRT have not been studied. METHODS: Data from a prospective, single-center register of critically ill children treated with CRRT was analyzed. RESULTS: 55 children (40% under 1 year of age) were treated with CRRT between June 2008 and January 2012; 43 patients (78...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525644/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-breakthrough-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-in-the-era-of-newer-antifungal-agents
#9
Si-Hyun Kim, Jae-Ki Choi, Sung-Yeon Cho, Hyo-Jin Lee, Sun Hee Park, Su-Mi Choi, Dong-Gun Lee, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Jong-Wook Lee
Although yeast bloodstream infections (BSIs) are increasingly being reported in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing antifungal therapy, clinical information regarding breakthrough infections is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for and clinical outcomes of breakthrough yeast BSIs in patients with hematological malignancies in the era of newer antifungal agents. Between 2011 and 2014, all consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who developed yeast BSIs were included in a case-control study wherein breakthrough infections (cases) and de novo infections (controls) were compared...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523249/risk-factors-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteremia
#10
Tala Ballouz, Jad Aridi, Claude Afif, Jihad Irani, Chantal Lakis, Rakan Nasreddine, Eid Azar
Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (AB), an increasingly prevalent nosocomial pathogen, have been associated with high morbidity and mortality. We conducted this study to analyze the clinical features, outcomes, and factors influencing the survival of patients with AB bacteremia. We retrospectively examined the medical records of all patients developing AB bacteremia during their hospital stay at a tertiary care hospital in Beirut between 2010 and 2015. Ninety episodes of AB bacteremia were documented in eighty-five patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523002/humanized-mouse-models-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Dane Parker
Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#12
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522850/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exolysin-promotes-bacterial-growth-in-lungs-alveolar-damage-and-bacterial-dissemination
#13
Stéphanie Bouillot, Patrick Munro, Benoit Gallet, Emeline Reboud, François Cretin, Guillaume Golovkine, Guy Schoehn, Ina Attrée, Emmanuel Lemichez, Philippe Huber
Exolysin (ExlA) is a recently-identified pore-forming toxin secreted by a subset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains identified worldwide and devoid of Type III secretion system (T3SS), a major virulence factor. Here, we characterized at the ultrastructural level the lesions caused by an ExlA-secreting strain, CLJ1, in mouse infected lungs. CLJ1 induced necrotic lesions in pneumocytes and endothelial cells, resulting in alveolo-vascular barrier breakdown. Ectopic expression of ExlA in an exlA-negative strain induced similar tissue injuries...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522363/a-bloodstream-infection-by-ruminococcus-gnavus-in-a-patient-with-a-gall-bladder-perforation
#14
Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Yujin Han, Mi Suk Lee, Hee Joo Lee
Ruminococcus gnavus is frequently found among human gut microbiome. However, human bloodstream infections by R. gnavus have been reported only three times. Clinical details were lacking for one case; the other two cases with concurrent bacteremia in patients with diverticulitis. We report a case of R. gnavus bloodstream infection in a patient with a gall bladder perforation suggesting its association with damage to the gastrointestinal tract. R. gnavus was misidentified using biochemical test but 16S rRNA sequencing and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were useful for correct identification...
May 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516066/the-alpha-tocopherol-form-of-vitamin-e-boosts-elastase-activity-of-human-pmns-and-their-ability-to-kill-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, James N Lee, Basma H Joma, Simin N Meydani, John M Leong, Alexander Panda
Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515075/pigr-and-pecam-1-bind-to-pneumococcal-adhesins-rrga-and-pspc-mediating-bacterial-brain-invasion
#16
Federico Iovino, Joo-Yeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek, Arie van der Ende, Merche Valls Seron, Peter Mellroth, Sandra Muschiol, Jan Bergstrand, Jerker Widengren, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514306/unusual-case-of-rapid-growing-intraabdominal-abscess-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-after-laparoscopic-appendectomy-due-to-perforated-appendicitis-a-case-report
#17
Dae Ro Lim, Jung Cheol Kuk, Taehyung Kim, Eung Jin Shin
INTRODUCTION: An intraabdominal abscess due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S maltophilia) infection is a very rare clinical manifestation. S maltophilia is a glucose nonfermentative, aerobic, gram-negative, mobile, and biofilm-forming bacterium. It is an opportunistic pathogen and uncommon cause of infection. Respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) and bloodstream infections (bacteremia) are the most common clinical manifestations of S maltophilia infection. CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes an unusual case of a rapidly growing, extremely large intraabdominal abscess (within 1 week during antibiotic therapy), which was detected 2 weeks after a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed for perforated appendicitis and was caused by multidrug-resistant S maltophilia infection...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512755/evaluation-of-safety-of-concomitant-splenectomy-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#18
Amr Badawy, Yuhei Hamaguchi, Satoru Seo, Tochimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
In Asian countries, concomitant splenectomy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is indicated to modulate the portal vein pressure in the small sized graft to protect against small for size syndrome. While concomitant splenectomy in deceased donor liver transplantation is almost contraindicated based on western reports of increased mortality and morbidity rate due to septic complications, there are few studies about that in LDLT. So, we retrospectively investigated the clinical outcome of adult LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016...
May 17, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508721/acute-renal-failure-with-need-for-renal-replacement-therapy-as-a-complication-of-zoonotic-s-zooepidemicus-infection-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Laurens Veldeman, Katrien De Wilde, Dirk Vogelaers, Evelyne Lerut, An Vonck, Dien Mertens, Annelies Koch, Jan Beckers
Streptococcus zooepidemicus is an animal commensal with the potential of zoonotic transmission through ingestion of contaminated dairy products, leading to outbreaks of Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis (PSGN). We report for the first time acute renal failure with need for renal replacement therapy, as a complication of S. zooepidemicus bacteremia resulting from direct horse to human transmission in a young adult. Both clinical disease course and immunohistochemical staining patterns on renal biopsy had some atypical features of PSGN suggesting persistent activation of the alternative complement pathway but no known complement factor dysregulations could be identified...
May 16, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507105/reduced-vancomycin-susceptibility-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-no-significant-impact-on-mortality-but-increase-in-complicated-infection
#20
Sean B Sullivan, Eloise D Austin, Stephania Stump, Barun Mathema, Susan Whittier, Franklin D Lowy, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) often lead to severe complications despite the availability of effective antibiotics. It remains unclear whether elevated vancomycin MICs are associated with worse outcomes.We conducted a 2-year retrospective cohort study (n=252) of patients with MSSA BSIs at a tertiary care hospital. We defined reduced vancomycin susceptibility (RVS) as a Microscan MIC of 2 mg/L. All strains were genotyped (spa) and assessed for agr functionality...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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