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Mycotoxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636459/inhibition-of-fusarium-solani-infection-in-murine-keratocytes-by-lactobacillus-salivarius-ssp-salivarius-jcm1231-culture-filtrate-in-vitro
#1
Jianzhang Hu, Fang Chen, Tong Kan, Hua Zhuang, Jingjin Zhang, Xiaoli Han
PURPOSE: To explore the inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius JCM1231 (L. salivarius JCM1231) culture filtrate against Fusarium solani (F. solani) and its effects on murine keratocytes (MKs) infected with F. solani. METHODS: L. salivarius JCM1231 was cultured in an anaerobic incubator for 24 h, and the L. salivarius culture filtrate (LSCF) was prepared .The antifungal activity of L. salivarius JCM1231 against F. solani was determined with a plate overlay assay, agar diffusion assay, and conidial germination inhibition test...
June 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636450/impact-of-mycotoxins-on-the-intestine-are-mucus-and-microbiota-new-targets
#2
Hervé Robert, Delphine Payros, Philippe Pinton, Vassilia Théodorou, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Isabelle P Oswald
There is an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects attributed to mycotoxins during their fate within the gut, particularly for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and patulin (PAT). Evidence indicates that disruption of the epithelial barrier is well established. However, intestinal barrier function on its luminal side involves two other partners, mucus and microbiota, which have rarely been considered in the context of mycotoxin exposure...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635371/deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-in-unprocessed-cereals-and-soybean-from-different-cultivation-regions-in-croatia
#3
Jelka Pleadin, Jadranka Frece, Tina Lešić, Manuela Zadravec, Nada Vahčić, Mladenka Malenica Staver, Ksenija Markov
The aim of this study was to investigate into the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in unprocessed cereals and soybean sampled in 2014 and 2015 from different fields located in Croatian regions. A total of 306 samples were analyzed for DON and 415 samples for ZEN concentrations using quantitative ELISA methods. In 2014, DON and ZEN were determined in all samples in the mean concentrations of 1,461 ± 2,265 µg/kg and 656 ± 853 µg/kg, respectively, while in 2015 these means were 2,687 ± 2,731 µg/kg and 1,140 ± 1,630 µg/kg, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633506/role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1and-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-in-anorexia-induction-following-oral-exposure-to-the-trichothecene-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-vomitoxin
#4
Hui Jia, Wen-Da Wu, Xi Lu, Jie Zhang, Cheng-Hua He, Hai-Bin Zhang
Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a Type B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, frequently contaminates cereal staples, such as wheat, barley and corn. DON threatens animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. While anorexia induction in mice exposed to DON has been linked to the elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36(PYY3-36) in plasma, the effects of DON on the release of other satiety hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), have not been established...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626424/relationship-of-mycotoxins-accumulation-and-bioactive-components-variation-in-ginger-after-fungal-inoculation
#5
Zhixin Yang, Haiwei Wang, Guangyao Ying, Meihua Yang, Yujiao Nian, Jiajia Liu, Weijun Kong
Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623970/localization-of-the-placental-bcrp-abcg2-transporter-to-lipid-rafts-role-for-cholesterol-in-mediating-efflux-activity
#6
John T Szilagyi, Anna M Vetrano, Jeffrey D Laskin, Lauren M Aleksunes
INTRODUCTION: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an efflux transporter in the placental barrier. By transporting chemicals from the fetal to the maternal circulation, BCRP limits fetal exposure to a range of drugs, toxicants, and endobiotics such as bile acids and hormones. The purpose of the present studies was to 1) determine whether BCRP localizes to highly-ordered, cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in placenta microvillous membranes, and 2) determine the impact of cholesterol on BCRP-mediated placental transport in vitro...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623817/development-of-a-simple-and-convenient-cell-based-electrochemical-biosensor-for-evaluating-the-individual-and-combined-toxicity-of-don-zen-and-afb1
#7
Shuang Xia, Pei Zhu, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
A simple and convenient cell-based electrochemical biosensor was developed to assess the individual and combined toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Hep G2 cells. The sensor was modified in succession with AuNPs (gold nanoparticles), cysteamine, and laminin. The cells interacting with laminin formed tight cell-to-electrode contacts, and collagen was used to maintain cell adhesion and viability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was developed to evaluate mycotoxin toxicity...
June 14, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623104/zearalenone-adsorption-capacity-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-pigs
#8
María F Vega, Susana N Dieguez, Belén Riccio, Sandra Aranguren, Antonio Giordano, Laura Denzoin, Alejandro L Soraci, María O Tapia, Romina Ross, Ana Apás, Silvia N González
The ability to adsorb zearalenone by five strain of lactic acid bacteria was evaluated: four strains of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from pig rectal swabs and one commercial strain (Lactobacillus rhamnosus). Several factors affecting the adsorption capacity were evaluated in order to improve the adsorption of the mycotoxin by bacteria. The stability of the zearalenone-bacteria complex was analyzed. In every case, bacterial adsorption capacity was higher than 40.0%. The strain showing the highest adsorption (68...
May 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618849/mycotoxins-trace-elements-and-phthalates-in-marketed-rice-of-different-origin-and-exposure-assessment
#9
Biljana D Škrbić, Yaqin Ji, Jelena R Živančev, Grigorije G Jovanović, Zhao Jie
The aim of this study was to determine levels of 11 mycotoxins, 10 trace elements and 6 phthalates in rice samples from Serbian and Chinese market. Mycotoxins were not detected in any of the analysed rice samples. Results revealed similar median levels for following elements: Mn, 17.5 and 15.7 mg kg(-1); Fe, 2.47 and 2.12 mg kg(-1); Cu, 1.95 and 1.59 mg kg(-1) in marketed samples from Serbia and China, respectively. Median concentration of Ni in Serbian marketed samples was 1.9 times higher than in Chinese ones...
June 15, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618218/citrate-coated-silver-nanoparticles-growth-independently-inhibit-aflatoxin-synthesis-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#10
Chandrani Mitra, Phani M Gummadidala, Kamelia Afshinnia, Ruth Corrin Merrifield, Mohammed A Baalousha, Jamie R Lead, Anindya Chanda
Manufactured silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have long been used as antimicrobials. However, little is known about how these NPs affect fungal cell functions. While multiple previous studies reveal that Ag NPs inhibit secondary metabolite syntheses in several mycotoxin producing filamentous fungi, these effects are associated with growth repression and hence need sub-lethal to lethal NP doses, which besides stopping fungal growth, can potentially accumulate in the environment. Here we demonstrate that citrate coated Ag NPs of size 20 nm, when applied at a selected nonlethal dose, can result in a > 2 fold inhibition of biosynthesis of the carcinogenic mycotoxin and secondary metabolite, aflatoxin B1 in the filamentous fungus and an important plant pathogen, Aspergillus parasiticus, without inhibiting fungal growth...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617318/occurrence-of-penicillium-brocae-and-penicillium-citreonigrum-which-produce-a-mutagenic-metabolite-and-a-mycotoxin-citreoviridin-respectively-in-selected-commercially-available-rice-grains-in-thailand
#11
Nozomi Shiratori, Naoki Kobayashi, Phitsanu Tulayakul, Yoshitsugu Sugiura, Masahiko Takino, Osamu Endo, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Commercially available rice grains in Thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate Penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. Penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. Among them, one Penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six Penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. The P. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. Mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was not detected in any samples, but one out of 10 rice samples tested was positive for aflatoxin B₁ at a level of 5...
June 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613872/detection-of-a-toxic-methylated-derivative-of-phomopsin-a-produced-by-the-legume-infesting-fungus-diaporthe-toxica
#12
Svenja Schloß, Thomas Hackl, Corinna Herz, Evelyn Lamy, Matthias Koch, Sascha Rohn, Ronald Maul
Phomopsin A (PHO-A), produced by the fungus Diaporthe toxica, is a mycotoxin known to be responsible for fatal liver disease of lupin-fed sheep. The full spectrum of the toxic secondary metabolites produced by D. toxica is still unknown. PHO-A and the naturally occurring derivatives B-E have been subject to several studies to reveal their structures as well as chemical and toxicological properties. In this work, a methylated derivative (1) of PHO-A isolated from lupin seeds inoculated with D. toxica is described...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612469/functional-analyses-of-the-versicolorin-b-synthase-gene-in-aspergillus%C3%A2-flavus
#13
Silin Ren, Yuewei Yue, Yu Li, Xiaodong Guo, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxin is a toxic, carcinogenic mycotoxin primarily produced by Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have predicted the existence of more than 20 genes in the gene cluster involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Among these genes, aflK encodes versicolorin B synthase, which converts versiconal to versicolorin B. Past research has investigated aflK in A. parasiticus, but few studies have characterized aflK in the animal, plant, and human pathogen A. flavus. To understand the potential role of aflK in A...
June 13, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612272/geographic-distribution-of-phylogenetic-species-of-the-fusarium-graminearum-species-complex-and-their-8-ketotrichothecene-chemotypes-on-wheat-spikes-in-iran
#14
Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki, Doustmorad Zafari
Isolates of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC, n = 446) were collected from wheat spikes from northern and western regions of Iran with a history of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurrences. The trichothecene mycotoxin genotypes/chemotypes, the associated phylogenetic species, and geographical distribution of these isolates were analyzed. Two phylogenetic species, Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum, were identified and were found to belong to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) groups V and I...
June 14, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610724/corrigendum-to-histone-methyltransferase-aflrmta-gene-is-involved-in-the-morphogenesis-mycotoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-of-aspergillus-flavus-toxicon-127-2017-mar-1-112-121-doi-10-1016-j-toxicon-2017-01-013-epub-2017-jan-19
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609661/the-use-of-pesticides-in-belgian-illicit-indoor-cannabis-plantations
#16
Eva Cuypers, Wouter Vanhove, Joachim Gotink, Arne Bonneure, Patrick Van Damme, Jan Tytgat
Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption...
May 25, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608841/occurrence-toxicity-and-analysis-of-major-mycotoxins-in-food
#17
REVIEW
Ahmad Alshannaq, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi (molds). These low molecular weight compounds (usually less than 1000 Daltons) are naturally occurring and practically unavoidable. They can enter our food chain either directly from plant-based food components contaminated with mycotoxins or by indirect contamination from the growth of toxigenic fungi on food. Mycotoxins can accumulate in maturing corn, cereals, soybeans, sorghum, peanuts, and other food and feed crops in the field and in grain during transportation...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604626/presence-of-enniatins-and-beauvericin-in-romanian-wheat-samples-from-raw-material-to-products-for-direct-human-consumption
#18
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602893/daily-uptake-of-mycotoxins-tdi-might-not-be-protective-for-nursed-infants
#19
G H Degen, F Partosch, K Muñoz, U Gundert-Remy
Exclusive breast feeding is recommended by international bodies for the first six months of life. Because of the presence of contaminants, breast feeding might lead to toxicologically relevant exposure of the nursed child. Exposure towards mycotoxins is of specific interest because of their widespread occurrence in food and of their toxicological profile. We calculated the relationship between maternal intake at the level of the existing TDIs and the exposure in the nursed infants of several mycotoxins to evaluate whether maternal exposure at the TDI is also safe for the nursed infant...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596589/fusaric-acid-immunotoxicity-and-mapk-activation-in-normal-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-thp-1-cells
#20
Shanel Dhani, Savania Nagiah, Dhaneshree B Naidoo, Anil A Chuturgoon
Fusaric acid (FA), a food-borne mycotoxin, is a potent divalent metal chelator. The human immune system is complex and susceptible to environmental insult however, the immunotoxity of FA remains unknown. We investigated the immunotoxicity of FA on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and Thp-1 cells. FA was cytotoxic to PBMCs (IC50-240.8 μg/ml) and Thp-1 (IC50-107.7 μg/ml) cells at 24 h. FA induced early apoptosis but significantly decreased caspase activity in PBMCs, a characteristic of paraptosis...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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