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Julia I Bauer, Madeleine Gross, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Gerd Hamscher, Ewald Usleber
Limited availability of toxin standards for lolitrem B and ergovaline impedes routine control of grasses for endophyte toxins. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the indole-diterpene mycotoxin paxilline, in combination with a generic EIA for ergot alkaloids, as alternative parameters for screening purposes. Analysis of grass seeds and model pastures of four different grass species showed that both EIAs yielded highly positive results for paxilline and ergot alkaloids in perennial ryegrass seeds...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
C J Botha, M Truter, M Sulyok
Aspergillus clavatus poisoning is a neuromycotoxicosis of ruminants that occurs sporadically across the world after ingestion of infected feedstuffs. Although various toxic metabolites are synthesized by the fungus, it is not clear which specific or group of mycotoxins induces the syndrome. A. clavatus isolates were deposited in the culture collection of the Biosystematics Division, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council during incidences of livestock poisoning (1988-2016). Six isolates were still viable and these plus three other South African isolates that were also previously deposited in the collection were positively identified as A...
December 13, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Miao-Xuan Fan, Jiao-Jiao Dong, Jing-Hui Wang, Hong-Zhu Guo, You-Gen Chen, Xin-Tong Fu
A method for the simultaneous determination of sixteen mycotoxins in cogon rootstalk was developed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadropole mass spectrometry(UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile contained 1% acetic acid and purified by QuEChERS method. The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C₁₈column by gradient elution using methanol and 0.01% aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. The targeted compounds were detected in MRM mode by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization(ESI)source operated in positive ionization mode...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Florian Walder, Klaus Schlaeppi, Raphaël Wittwer, Alain Y Held, Susanne Vogelgsang, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Simona Adesso, Giuseppina Autore, Andrea Quaroni, Ada Popolo, Lorella Severino, Stefania Marzocco
Fusarium mycotoxins are fungal metabolites whose ability to affect cereal grains as multi-contaminants is progressively increasing. The trichothecene mycotoxins nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are often found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide. They are able to affect animal and human health, including at the intestinal level. In this study, NIV, both alone and in combination with DON, induced inflammation and increased the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus Interferon-γ (IFN) in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6)...
December 11, 2017: Nutrients
Pasquale Russo, Clara Fares, Angela Longo, Giuseppe Spano, Vittorio Capozzi
Bread is a staple food consumed worldwide on a daily basis. Fungal contamination of bread is a critical concern for producers since it is related to important economic losses and safety hazards due to the negative impact of sensorial quality and to the potential occurrence of mycotoxins. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum UFG 121, a strain with characterized broad antifungal activity, was analyzed as a potential protective culture for bread production. Six different molds belonging to Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp...
December 11, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Kihyun Kim, Yoonji Lee, Areum Ha, Ji-In Kim, Ae Ran Park, Nan Hee Yu, Hokyoung Son, Gyung Ja Choi, Hae Woong Park, Chul Won Lee, Theresa Lee, Yin-Won Lee, Jin-Cheol Kim
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed strong antifungal activity and was considered a potential source for control strategies to reduce FHB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sanil D Singh, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Contamination with mycotoxins is of concern to pet owners and veterinary practitioners owing to their ability to cause disease and exacerbate the pathological changes associated with other diseases. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the mycotoxin content of common premium brand (PB) and grocery brand (GB) cat feeds. Therefore, we undertook to determine the mycobiota content of feed samples, from both categories (n = 6 each), and measured the levels of aflatoxin (AF), fumonisin (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Thanh-Huong Le, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Isabelle P Oswald, Philippe Pinton
Cadmium (Cd), a common and widespread toxic heavy metal, and mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent contaminants of the food supply. Most of the data on their toxicity concern their effects when present alone. However, consumers can be exposed to a cocktail of DON and Cd. To improve the understanding of their combined toxicity, the effects of DON and Cd alone or in combination were investigated in different human cell lines from the kidney (HEK-293), intestine (Caco-2), blood (HL-60) and liver (HepG2)...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Marie-Caroline Smith, Alexiane Gheux, Monika Coton, Stéphanie Madec, Nolwenn Hymery, Emmanuel Coton
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins primarily produced by Fusarium species and commonly co-occur in European grains. Some in vitro studies reported synergistic combined effects on cell viability reduction for these two natural food contaminants. However, most of these studies were carried out on conventional cell culture systems involving only one cell type and thus, did not accurately reflect in vivo conditions, including cell-cell communication. In this context, we developed easy bi- and tri-culture systems using the Caco-2 (intestinal epithelial cells), THP-1 (monocytes) and HepaRG (hepatocytes) human cell lines...
December 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Georg Aichinger, Hannes Puntscher, Julia Beisl, Mary-Liis Kütt, Benedikt Warth, Doris Marko
Alternaria spp. are ubiquitous molds that are able to produce toxic secondary metabolites which may contaminate food globally. One of those is the mycotoxin altertoxin II (ATX-II), a genotoxic and mutagenic compound. In recent years, different flavonoids that may co-occur with mycotoxins in food were demonstrated to temper toxic effects of molds, mostly through their anti-oxidant properties. Thus, in this study, we assessed the influence of the berry anthocyanidin delphinidin on the toxicity of ATX-II in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells...
December 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Carine F Souza, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Lucieli K F Müller, Matheus D Baldissera, Nathieli B Bottari, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Janio M Santurio, Eduardo M Gloria, Gustavo Machado, Régis A Zanette, Diovani Paiano
The effects of diets co-contaminated with 300 μg/kg of aflatoxins and 8000 μg/kg of fumonisins on adenosinergic system of the pigs weaned at 15 days of age were studied. Piglets were inspected daily, and body weight measurement and blood collections were performed at every five days. Piglets intoxicated by mycotoxins presented lower weight gain (p < 0.001) in comparison to control. Intoxicated piglets also showed a reduction in the serum levels of zinc and adenosine and in adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity (p < 0...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Francisco Pizzolato Montanha, Amanda Anater, Javier Felipe Burchard, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano, Giuseppe Meca, Lara Manyes, Cláudia Turra Pimpão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
B V Deepthi, Rakesh Somashekaraiah, K Poornachandra Rao, N Deepa, N K Dharanesha, K S Girish, M Y Sreenivasa
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species is a predominant Group 2B carcinogen occurring in maize and maize-based poultry feeds. It is shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, and immunosuppressing in animals. In this study, we report the ameliorating effects of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum MYS6 on FB1-induced toxicity and oxidative damage in broilers. A 6-week dietary experiment consisting of 48 broilers was performed in six treatment groups. Probiotic treatment (109 cells/mL) involved pre-colonization of broilers with L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aisha Khatoon, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zain Ul Abidin, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti
A presence of mycotoxins in feed is one of the most alarming issue in the poultry feed industry. Ochratoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species, are important mycotoxin regarding the health status of poultry birds. Ochratoxins are further classified into to several sub-types depending upon their chemical structures i.e. ochratoxin A, B, C etc but ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered to be most important and toxic one. Bentonite clay, belonging to phyllosilicates and formed from weathering of volcanic ashes, has the adsorbing ability for several mycotoxins...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Milena Veronezi Silva, Giseli Cristina Pante, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto Romoli, Alexandra Perdigão Maia de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da Rocha, Flavio Dias Ferreira, Adriane Lettnin Roll Feijó, Salesia Maria Prodócimo Moscardi, Karina Ruaro de Paula, Erika Bando, Samuel Botião Nerilo, Miguel Machinski
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was show to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection...
December 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Eun-Jung Jo, Ju-Young Byun, Hyoyoung Mun, Doyeon Bang, Jun Ho Son, Jae Young Lee, Luke P Lee, Min-Gon Kim
Contamination of foods by mycotoxins is a common yet serious problem. Owing to the increase in consumption of fresh produce, consumers have become aware of food safety issues caused by mycotoxins. Therefore, rapid and sensitive mycotoxin detection is in great demand in fields such as food safety and public health. Here, we report a single-step luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) aptasensor for mycotoxin detection. In order to accomplish the single-step sensor, our sensor was constructed by linking a quencher labeled aptamer through a linker to the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
December 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Raymond Gillibert, Mohamed N Triba, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle
The trace detection of toxic compounds in complex matrices is a major concern, in particular when it comes to mycotoxins in food. We developed a highly sensitive and specific SERS sensor for the detection of ochratoxin A using a simple rough gold film as a substrate. When adding the analyte, we observed spectral variations related to the interaction of the analyte with the specific aptamer used as a bioreceptor. Using a partial least squares regression method, our sensor is able to detect concentrations down to the picomolar range, which is much lower than the minimum legal concentration allowed in food products...
December 6, 2017: Analyst
Anna Gorczyca, Andrzej Oleksy, Dorota Gala-Czekaj, Monika Urbaniak, Magdalena Laskowska, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Stępień
Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland...
December 5, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Guangshan Yao, Feng Zhang, Xinyi Nie, Xiuna Wang, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Aflatoxins are a potent carcinogenic mycotoxin and has become a research model of fungal secondary metabolism (SM). Via systematically investigating the APSES transcription factors (TFs), two APSES proteins were identified: AfRafA and AfStuA. These play central roles in the synthesis of mycotoxins including aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid, and fungal development and are consequently central to the pathogenicity of the aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Loss of AfRafA not only dramatically suppressed aflatoxin cluster expression, subsequently reducing toxin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo, but also impaired conidia and sclerotia development...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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