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N N Qiu, B Lyu, S Zhou, Y F Zhao, Y N Wu
Objective: To investigate the contamination levels and dietary intakes of seven mycotoxins in Chinese diets. Methods: In Chinese Total Diet Study, food aggregation was based on the food consumption of local residents, thus generating the sampling scheme. According to the sampling scheme, the food items were sampled at three survey points in each province and then mixed in the same proportion. The mixed dietary samples were prepared after being cooked and processed. The samples comprised of 13 categories of food: cereals, beans, potatoes, meat, eggs, aquatic products, milk, vegetables, fruits, saccharides, beverages and drinking water, alcohol, and condiments...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Yan Man, Gang Liang, An Li, Ligang Pan
Mycotoxins are one of the main factors impacting food safety. Mycotoxin contamination has threatened the health of humans and animals. Conventional methods for the detection of mycotoxins are gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, all these methods are time-consuming, require large-scale instruments and skilled technicians, and consume large amounts of hazardous regents and solvents. Interestingly, a microchip requires less sample consumption and short analysis time, and can realize the integration, miniaturization, and high-throughput detection of the samples...
October 14, 2017: Toxins
Aldo Laganà
Various filamentous fungi can produce secondary metabolites, whose biochemical significance in fungal growth and development has not always been fully clarified; however, some of these metabolites can cause deleterious effects on other organisms and are classified as mycotoxins [...].
October 16, 2017: Toxins
L De Gelder, K Audenaert, B Willems, K Schelfhout, S De Saeger, M De Boevre
Food and feed stocks heavily contaminated with mycotoxins are rendered unfit for consumption and therefore discarded as waste. Due to the lack of guidelines and in accordance with the prudent avoidance principle, these waste streams are often incinerated. For better valorization, these streams could be used as input for anaerobic digestion. However, the degradation of multiple mycotoxins during anaerobic digestion and their effect on the methane production is currently unknown. In batch tests spiked with mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were degraded for more than 90%...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
Yuan Wang, Kewei Feng, Bin Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Jianping Wei, Yahong Yuan, Tianli Yue
BACKGROUND: Fungal development in agricultural products may cause mycotoxin contamination that are a significant threat to food safety. Patulin (PAT) and PAT-producers contamination has been established as a worldwide problem. The present study was conducted to investigate the mycoflora and PAT-producers present in kiwifruits and environmental samples collected from orchards and processing plants in Shaanxi Province, China. RESULTS: Variations in mycoflora were observed in different samples, with penicillia and aspergilli as the predominant genera...
October 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tomohiro Furukawa, Tomoya Yoshinari, Shohei Sakuda
The intracellular superoxide level is a clue to clarification of the regulatory mechanism for mycotoxin production in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we focused on two manganese superoxide dismutases (SODs) of the fungus, FgSOD2 and FgSOD3, to investigate the relationship of the superoxide level to trichothecene production. Recombinant FgSOD2 and FgSOD3 showed SOD activity, and they were localized mainly in the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. Trichothecene production and mRNA levels of Tri5 and Tri6, which encode a trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme and a key regulator of trichothecene production, respectively, were greatly reduced in gene-deletion mutants of FgSod2 and FgSod3 (ΔFgSod2 and ΔFgSod3)...
October 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
R B Khan, A Phulukdaree, A A Chuturgoon
The geographical distribution of oesophageal cancer is linked to the exposure of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by fungi that contaminates staple food worldwide. Non-genotoxic carcinogens like FB1 disturb homeostasis through increased cell proliferation or suppression of apoptosis. This study investigated the involvement of FB1 (0-20 μM) in spindle-shaped N-cadherin (+) CD45 (-) osteoblastic (SNO) cell death. Cell viability and death were assessed using the MTS and Annexin V-Fluos assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Theresa Lee, Dami Park, Kihyun Kim, Seong Mi Lim, Nan Hee Yu, Sosoo Kim, Hwang-Yong Kim, Kyu Seok Jung, Ja Yeong Jang, Jong-Chul Park, Hyeonheui Ham, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jin-Cheol Kim
In an attempt to develop a biological control agent against mycotoxigenic Fusarium species, we isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DA12 from soil and explored its antimicrobial activities. DA12 was active against the growth of mycotoxigenic F. asiaticum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides both in vitro and in planta (maize). Further screening using dual culture extended the activity range of strain DA12 against other fungal pathogens including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Endothia parasitica, Fusarium oxysporum, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Rhizoctonia solani...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Gisela Romina García, Delphine Payros, Philippe Pinton, Cecilia Ana Dogi, Joëlle Laffitte, Manon Neves, María Laura González Pereyra, Lilia Renée Cavaglieri, Isabelle P Oswald
Probiotics have been explored to stimulate gut health in weaned pigs, when they started to consume solid diet where mycotoxins could be present. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON) in an ex vivo model. Jejunal explants, obtained from 5-week-old crossbred castrated male piglets, were kept as control, exposed for 3 h to 10 μM DON, incubated for 4 h with 10(9) CFU/mL L. rhamnosus, or pre-incubated 1 h with 10(9) L...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
José Williams G de Oliveria Filho, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunus S Ali, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Jose Victor de Oliveira Santos, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Maria Dos Remédios Mendes de Brito, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Subrata Shaw, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura Dantas, Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Magdalena D Pieczynska, Niranjan Das, Vijai K Gupta, Andrei Mocan, Teresinha de Jesus Aguiar Dos Santos Andrade, Brahma Nand Singh, Siddhartha K Mishra, Atanas G Atanasov, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin which causes contamination in the food and is associated with different toxic effects. A web search on CIT has been conducted covering the timespan since 1946. The accumulated data indicate that CIT is produced by several fungal strains belonging to Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus genera, and is usually found together with another nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A. Although, it is evident that CIT exposure can exert toxic effects on the heart, liver, kidney, as well as reproductive system, the mechanism of CIT-induced toxicity remains largely elusive...
October 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Wentao Fan, Yanan Lv, Shuai Ren, Manyu Shao, Tongtong Shen, Kehe Huang, Jiyong Zhou, Liping Yan, Suquan Song
To ascertain whether zearalenone (ZEA) could induce intestinal inflammation and investigate its possible mechanism, we investigated inflammatory cytokine release and the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome after ZEA treatment both in vitro or in vivo. First, intestinal porcine enterocyte cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages were treated with ZEA to detect NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ZEA-induced inflammation was investigated. Then, Balb/c mice were fed a gavage of ZEA, and the disease activity indices (DAIs) and histological analysis were used to assess intestinal inflammation...
September 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Ivona Lhotská, Anežka Holznerová, Petr Solich, Dalibor Šatínský
Reaching trace amounts of mycotoxin contamination requires sensitive and selective analytical tools for their determination. Improving the selectivity of sample pre-treatment steps covering new and modern extraction techniques is one way to achieve it. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective sorbent for extraction undoubtedly meet these criteria. The presented work is focused on the hyphenation of on-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction with a chromatography system using a column-switching approach...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Xiangwei Du, Dwayne E Schrunk, Dahai Shao, Paula M Imerman, Chong Wang, Steve M Ensley, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Mycotoxins negatively impact animal health. Aflatoxins (AFs) are the most common mycotoxins affecting both large and small animals and are a common cause of toxin-related pet food recalls. Definitive diagnosis of aflatoxicosis is constrained by a lack of validated ante-mortem analytical methods for detection and quantitation of AFs and their metabolites in biological specimens. Herein, we developed and evaluated a urine-based quantitative method for measurement of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its metabolites aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1) in animal urine...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Xuming Luo, Jidong Cao, Junkai Huang, Zongyi Wang, Zhengyan Guo, Yihua Chen, Shumei Ma, Jun Liu
Frogeye leaf spot, caused by Cercospora sojina Hara, is a common disease of soybean in most soybean-growing countries of the world. In this study, we report a high-quality genome sequence of C. sojina by Single Molecule Real-Time sequencing method. The 40.8-Mb genome encodes 11,655 predicated genes, and 8,474 genes are revealed by RNA sequencing. Cercospora sojina genome contains large numbers of gene clusters that are involved in synthesis of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins and pigments. However, much less carbohydrate-binding module protein encoding genes are identified in C...
September 18, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Tommy Van Limbergen, Mathias Devreese, Siska Croubels, Nathan Broekaert, Annelies Michiels, Sarah De Saeger, Dominiek Maes
This study aimed to investigate a possible involvement of mycotoxins in neonatal tail necrosis in piglets. Ten affected and 10 non-affected farms were selected. Sow feed samples were analysed for the presence of 23 mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Blood plasma samples of sows and their piglets were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), de-epoxydeoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, zearalenone, alfa-zearalenol, and beta-zearalenol, using LC-MS/MS. Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was performed to detect DON-glucuronide (DON-Glca)...
October 5, 2017: Veterinary Record
Jin Ye, Yu Wu, Qilei Guo, Meiling Lu, Songshan Wang, Yuanyuan Xin, Gang Xie, Yan Zhang, Meena Mariappan, Songxue Wang
An efficient, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method based on stable isotope dilution and LC tandem MS wasdeveloped for the determination of multimycotoxins in cereals. The samples were extracted using acetonitrile–water–acetic acid (70 + 29 + 1, v/v/v), followed by dilution and centrifugation without any further cleanup. The mycotoxins were separated on a C18 column. Interference due to matrix effects was efficiently compensated for with [(13)C]-labeled stable isotope internal standards...
October 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Jeroen Peters, Ruud van Dam, Ronald van Doorn, David Katerere, Franz Berthiller, Willem Haasnoot, Michel W F Nielen
Currently beer is booming, mainly due to the steady rise of craft breweries worldwide. Previous surveys for occurrence of mycotoxins in beer, were mainly focussed on industrial produced beer. The present survey reports the presence of mycotoxins in craft beer and how this compares to industrial produced beer. More than 1000 beers were collected from 47 countries, of which 60% were craft beers. A selection of 1000 samples were screened for the presence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FBs), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) using a mycotoxin 6-plex immunoassay...
2017: PloS One
Amy C Brown
A current listing of potentially life-threatening, cancer-related dietary supplements (DSs; includes herbs) based on PubMed case reports was summarized in online tables that can now be updated continually to forewarn United States consumers, clinicians, and DS companies. Documented PubMed case reports were used to create a "Toxic Table" related to cancer (1966 to April 2016, and cross-referencing). Keywords included "herb" or "dietary supplement" combined with "cancer" as well as the specific herb "name" combined with "cancer" and sometimes "toxicity...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Prassan Choudhary, Prem Lal Kashyap, Sanjay Kumar Goswami, Hillol Chakdar, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Anil Kumar Saxena
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been the most widely applied class of molecular markers used in genetic studies, having applications in genetic conservation, population studies, as well as diagnostics of fungi. Mining and analysis of SSRs of the whole genome sequence have been carried out in this study for the fungus Alternaria arborescens causing early blight of tomato and well known for producing mycotoxins like alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), etc. A total of 4097 microsatellites were identified in A...
October 3, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Gaofeng Wang, Yushan Miao, Zhiming Sun, Shuilin Zheng
Organo-montmorillonites (OMts) modified with mono- and di-alkyl cationic surfactants were prepared to remove polar mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and weak polar, hydrophobic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZER) simultaneously. The structural and surface properties of the prepared OMts were investigated. In vitro adsorption experiments were carried out to simulate the in vivo conditions of gastrointestinal tract of animals by a batch mode. The adsorption of AFB1 and ZER in both single and binary-contaminate systems were investigated systematically...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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