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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921366/masked-trichothecene-and-zearalenone-mycotoxins-withstand-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-upper-gi-tract-but-are-efficiently-hydrolyzed-by-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#1
Silvia W Gratz, Reshma Dinesh, Tomoya Yoshinari, Grietje Holtrop, Anthony J Richardson, Gary Duncan, Susan MacDonald, Antony Lloyd, Jonathan Tarbin
SCOPE: Cereal grains are commonly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their plant-derived masked metabolites. The fate of masked mycotoxins in the human gut is poorly understood. Here we assess the metabolism and transport of glucoside metabolites of common trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin) and zearalenone compounds (zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol) in the human gut in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Masked mycotoxins were incubated with artificial digestive juices and absorption was assessed in differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921136/penicillium-roqueforti-pr-toxin-gene-cluster-characterization
#2
Pedro I Hidalgo, Elisabeth Poirier, Ricardo V Ullán, Justine Piqueras, Laurence Meslet-Cladière, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
PR toxin is a well-known isoprenoid mycotoxin almost solely produced by Penicillium roqueforti after growth on food or animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as the most toxic produced by this species. In this study, an in silico analysis allowed identifying for the first time a 22.4-kb biosynthetic gene cluster involved in PR toxin biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. The pathway contains 11 open reading frames encoding for ten putative proteins including the major fungal terpene cyclase, aristolochene synthase, involved in the first farnesyl-diphosphate cyclization step as well as an oxidoreductase, an oxidase, two P450 monooxygenases, a transferase, and two dehydrogenase enzymes...
December 5, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918432/recent-advances-and-future-challenges-in-modified-mycotoxin-analysis-why-hrms-has-become-a-key-instrument-in-food-contaminant-research
#3
REVIEW
Laura Righetti, Giuseppe Paglia, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#4
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916804/growth-phase-sterigmatocystin-formation-on-lactose-is-mediated-via-low-specific-growth-rates-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#5
Zoltán Németh, Ákos P Molnár, Balázs Fejes, Levente Novák, Levente Karaffa, Nancy P Keller, Erzsébet Fekete
Seed contamination with polyketide mycotoxins such as sterigmatocystin (ST) produced by Aspergilli is a worldwide issue. The ST biosynthetic pathway is well-characterized in A. nidulans, but regulatory aspects related to the carbon source are still enigmatic. This is particularly true for lactose, inasmuch as some ST production mutant strains still synthesize ST on lactose but not on other carbon substrates. Here, kinetic data revealed that on d-glucose, ST forms only after the sugar is depleted from the medium, while on lactose, ST appears when most of the carbon source is still available...
November 28, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915442/co-exposure-to-low-doses-of-the-food-contaminants-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-has-a-synergistic-inflammatory-effect-on-intestinal-explants
#6
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Olivier Puel, Philippe Pinton, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Ting-Chao Chou, Isabelle P Oswald
The global incidence of Fusarium head blight and attendant cereal grains multi-contamination by the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are increasing as a possible result of climate change and inadequate agricultural practices. At the molecular level, these mycotoxins bind to the ribosome, activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and induce a local and systemic inflammation. DON is of public health concern owing to the narrow margin between exposure and tolerable daily intake...
December 3, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914868/determination-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-urine-samples-indicates-frequent-dietary-exposure-to-aflatoxin-b1-in-the-bangladeshi-population
#7
Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Khaled Hossain, Gisela H Degen
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a hepatocarcinogen and highly toxic mycotoxin, is a contaminant of food commodities, especially in hot and humid climates that favour the growth of aflatoxin-producing fungi. As data on AFB1 contamination of food and feed in Bangladesh are scarce, we conducted an initial screening by ELISA on the occurrence of the metabolite and biomarker aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in urines from Bangladesh which indicated frequent exposure. This finding led us to conduct a follow-up study where we applied a more sensitive method (IAC clean-up and HPLC-FD analysis) to determine AFM1 concentrations in a larger set of urine samples...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913847/patulin-transformation-products-and-last-intermediates-in-its-biosynthetic-pathway-e-and-z-ascladiol-are-not-toxic-to-human-cells
#8
Joanna Tannous, Selma P Snini, Rhoda El Khoury, Cécile Canlet, Philippe Pinton, Yannick Lippi, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Thierry Gauthier, André El Khoury, Ali Atoui, Ting Zhou, Roger Lteif, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel
Patulin is the main mycotoxin contaminating apples. During the brewing of alcoholic beverages, this mycotoxin is degraded to ascladiol, which is also the last precursor of patulin. The present study aims (1) to characterize the last step of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and (2) to describe the toxicity of ascladiol. A patE deletion mutant was generated in Penicillium expansum. In contrast to the wild strain, this mutant does not produce patulin but accumulates high levels of E-ascladiol with few traces of Z-ascladiol...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#9
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899057/moulds-and-mycotoxins-detected-in-the-regional-speciality-fermented-sausage-slavonski-kulen-during-a-one-year-production-period
#10
Jelka Pleadin, Manuela Zadravec, Dragan Brnić, Irena Perković, Mario Škrivanko, Dragan Kovačević
The aim of this study was to investigate the surface-to-interior mycotoxin contamination of the regional speciality meat product "Slavonski Kulen", occurring during a 12- month period, and to identify moulds present on its surface in the final production stage. In total, 15 pieces of "Slavonski Kulen" were produced and sampled at production months 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 (three samples per piece). Concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were determined using the ELISA method, while the identification of moulds made use of both traditional and molecular methods...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898755/examining-the-transcriptional-response-in-wheat-near-isogenic-lines-to-infection-and-deoxynivalenol-treatment
#11
Anna N Hofstad, Thomas Nussbaumer, Eduard Akhunov, Sanghyun Shin, Karl G Kugler, H Corby Kistler, Klaus F X Mayer, Gary J Muehlbauer
head blight (FHB) is a disease caused predominantly by the fungal pathogen that affects wheat and other small-grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulate during infection and increase pathogen virulence and decrease grain quality. The locus on wheat chromosome 3BS confers Type II resistance to FHB and resistance to the spread of infection on the spike and has been associated with resistance to DON accumulation...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893282/plant-food-supplements-with-antioxidant-properties-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-benefits-or-risks
#12
Luca Piemontese
Wine by-products, in particular grape pomace, can be an important source of polyphenols and dietary fibers and are increasingly being used as a starting material in the industrial production of plant food supplements, such as other matrices containing biomolecules, with antioxidant properties. The risk associated with the consumption of these products was recently analyzed through a study of potential genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds that can be found in the marketed products. In particular, occurrence data about contamination with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A were also reported...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892868/risk-assessment-for-changes-in-the-metabolic-profile-and-body-weights-of-pre-pubertal-gilts-during-long-term-monotonic-exposure-to-low-doses-of-zearalenone-zen
#13
Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Tarasiuk, Łukasz Zielonka, Michał Dąbrowski, Maciej Gajęcki
The aim of the study was to examine whether the process of exposure to low doses of ZEN generates changes in the hematological and biochemical image of blood serum. During the experiment, pre-pubertal gilts (up to 25kg) were administered per os ZEN at a dose of 40μg/kg BW (Group E, n=18) or placebo (Group C, n=21) on a daily basis for 42days. Blood samples for investigation were collected seven times at intervals of one week. In the experimental groups, slight but statistically significant changes in the values of selected biochemical blood indices such as glucose, ALT, Pin, total protein and Fe, or in hematological indices such as RBC, MCV, PLT, WBC, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes were observed...
August 15, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892850/determination-of-16-mycotoxins-in-vegetable-oils-using-a-quechers-method-combined-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Hongxia Zhao, Xiuying Chen, Chen Shen, Baocheng Qu
A simple and efficient method for determining multiple mycotoxins was developed using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) based extraction procedure in vegetable oils. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MSMS) was used for the quantification and confirmation of 16 chemically diversified mycotoxins. Different extraction procedures were studied and optimized by spiking 16 analytes into blank matrix, and the extraction with 85% MeCN solution and C18 as cleaning sorbent allowed an efficient recovery of 72...
November 28, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892709/gut-borne-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-a-promising-candidate-for-the-formulation-of-feed-additives-modulates-immune-system-and-gut-microbiota
#15
G García, C Dogi, A de Moreno de LeBlanc, C Greco, L Cavaglieri
The aim was to evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC016 on immune parameters and gut microbiota in healthy mice. Animals received S. cerevisiae RC016 for 10 days. Microbial translocation to liver and changes in some bacterial populations in caecum were determined. Immune stimulation was assessed at gut level (measure ofimmunoglobulin A (IgA)(+) cells and luminal cytokine profile) and by evaluating the activity of peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of S. cerevisiae RC016 did not induce microbial translocation to liver...
November 30, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#16
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
November 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889155/genetic-basis-for-mycophenolic-acid-production-and-strain-dependent-production-variability-in-penicillium-roqueforti
#17
Guillaume Gillot, Jean-Luc Jany, Rebeca Dominguez-Santos, Elisabeth Poirier, Stella Debaets, Pedro I Hidalgo, Ricardo V Ullán, Emmanuel Coton, Monika Coton
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a secondary metabolite produced by various Penicillium species including Penicillium roqueforti. The MPA biosynthetic pathway was recently described in Penicillium brevicompactum. In this study, an in silico analysis of the P. roqueforti FM164 genome sequence localized a 23.5-kb putative MPA gene cluster. The cluster contains seven genes putatively coding seven proteins (MpaA, MpaB, MpaC, MpaDE, MpaF, MpaG, MpaH) and is highly similar (i.e. gene synteny, sequence homology) to the P...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888487/mycotoxins-as-human-carcinogens-the-iarc-monographs-classification
#18
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
November 25, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888464/mycobiota-of-ground-red-pepper-and-their-aflatoxigenic-potential
#19
Hyeonheui Ham, Sosoo Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Soohyung Lee, Sung Kee Hong, Jae-Gee Ryu, Theresa Lee
To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886128/worldwide-mycotoxins-exposure-in-pig-and-poultry-feed-formulations
#20
REVIEW
Philippe Guerre
The purpose of this review is to present information about raw materials that can be used in pig and poultry diets and the factors responsible for variations in their mycotoxin contents. The levels of mycotoxins in pig and poultry feeds are calculated based on mycotoxin contamination levels of the raw materials with different diet formulations, to highlight the important role the stage of production and the raw materials used can have on mycotoxins levels in diets. Our analysis focuses on mycotoxins for which maximum tolerated levels or regulatory guidelines exist, and for which sufficient contamination data are available...
November 24, 2016: Toxins
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