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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677705/in-house-validation-and-small-scale-collaborative-study-to-evaluate-analytical-performances-of-multi-mycotoxin-screening-methods-based-on-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-case-study-fusarium-toxins-in-wheat
#1
Biancamaria Ciasca, Michelangelo Pascale, Valerio Guido Altieri, Francesco Longobardi, Michele Suman, Dante Catellani, Veronica M T Lattanzio
A strong trend toward using highly selective mass spectrometry technologies for screening of multiple mycotoxins has been observed in recent years. In the present study, the process of validation of a multi-mycotoxin screening method based on liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry method is presented. The method was intended for the simultaneous screening of the major Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, enniatins A, A1, B, B1, beauvericin) in wheat...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677138/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-alternative-respiration-and-sterigmatocystin-formation-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#2
Ákos P Molnár, Zoltán Németh, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Nancy P Keller, Levente Karaffa
Aspergillus nidulans has one gene for alternative oxidase (EC 1.10.3.11). To investigate the relationship between this mitochondrial terminal oxidase and the formation of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, the encoding aodA gene was both deleted and overexpressed. Relative to the wild-type, the cyanide-resistant fraction of respiration in the late stationary stage—when sterigmatocystin production occurs—doubled in the overexpressing mutant carrying three aodA gene copies, but decreased to 10% in the deletant...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677133/modified-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-cereals-and-their-products-metabolism-occurrence-and-toxicity-an-updated-review
#3
REVIEW
Marcin Bryła, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Under the influence of various factors, mycotoxins may undergo modifications of their chemical structure. One of the methods of mycotoxin modification is a transformation occurring in plant cells or under the influence of fungal enzymes. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the natural occurrence of the most important trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals/cereal products, their metabolism, and the potential toxicity of the metabolites...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676913/glutathione-gsh-reduces-cytotoxicity-evoked-by-patulin-pat-in-hek293-cells-by-preventing-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#4
Xiaorui Wang, Chengni Jin, Yujie Zhong, Xuan Li, Jiahui Han, Wei Xue, Peng Wu, Xiaodong Xia, Xiaoli Peng
Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin which frequently detected in moldy fruits and fruit products. This study investigated the protective role of glutathione (GSH), a antioxidant agent, against PAT induced cytotoxicity and its potential mechanisms in HEK293 cells. The obtained results showed that addition of GSH significantly reduced cell viability and apoptosis induced by PAT. Additionally, GSH decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS overproduction, suppressed the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, and maintained the cellular ATP content...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676098/-study-on-influence-of-different-storage-environments-and-packaging-materials-on-quality-of-citri-reticulatae-pericarpium
#5
Jiao-Yang Luo, Wen-Ju Zhou, Kun-Lun Li, Ming Zhao, Mei-Hua Yang
Traditional Chinese herbs are readily contaminated by mold that produced mycotoxins which are closly related to the herbs' external factors and external environments during the storage process. In this study, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was used as example, and the characteristics of traits, water content, active components (naringin, hesperidin, sinensetin, naringin, tangeretin) and the accumulation of aflatoxins (AFs) were selected as the evaluation indexes. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was stored under different environments and packaging materials for 12 months, and then the quality changes and mildew of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were examined...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674152/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-the-aspergillic-acid-gene-cluster-in-aspergillus-flavus
#6
Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Rajtilak Majumdar, Carol H Carter-Wientjes, Brian M Mack, Qijian Wei, Valdet Uka, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus can colonize important food staples and produce aflatoxins, a group of toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites. Previous in silico analysis of the A. flavus genome revealed 56 gene clusters predicted to be involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. A. flavus secondary metabolites produced during infection of maize seed are of particular interest, especially with respect to their roles in the biology of the fungus. A predicted nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (NRPS-like) gene, designated asaC (AFLA_023020), present in the uncharacterized A...
April 16, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673704/synergistic-action-of-the-nephrotoxic-mycotoxins-ochratoxin-a-and-citrinin-at-nanomolar-concentrations-in-human-proximal-tubule-derived-cells
#7
Marie-Christin Schulz, Luise Schumann, Ulrike Rottkord, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Michael Gekle, Gerald Schwerdt
Increased ochratoxin A (OTA) or citrinin (CIT) concentrations in food correlate with increased prevalence of tubule-interstitial nephropathy. We tested the hypothesis that co-exposure of human proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells (HK-2) to OTA and CIT promotes synergistic events indicative for inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) or fibrosis. We measured markers of inflammation, EMT and fibrosis and investigated the role of MAP-kinases. Only concurrent but not individual exposure to OTA and CIT at nanomolar concentrations led to (i) an increase of TNF protein and mRNA, (ii) a decrease of COX-2 protein and mRNA, (iii) a decrease of E-cadherin protein and (iv) an increase of vimentin and α-SMA protein...
April 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673318/genome-wide-analysis-of-family-1-udp-glycosyltransferases-ugt-and-identification-of-ugt-genes-for-fhb-resistance-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#8
Yi He, Dawood Ahmad, Xu Zhang, Yu Zhang, Lei Wu, Peng Jiang, Hongxiang Ma
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease in wheat worldwide, results in yield loses and mycotoxin, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulation in infected grains. DON also facilitates the pathogen colonization and spread of FHB symptoms during disease development. UDP-glycosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) are known to contribute to detoxification and enhance FHB resistance by glycosylating DON into DON-3-glucoside (D3G) in wheat. However, a comprehensive investigation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) UGT genes is still lacking...
April 19, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673315/inter-genome-comparison-of-the-quorn-fungus-fusarium-venenatum-and-the-closely-related-plant-infecting-pathogen-fusarium-graminearum
#9
Robert King, Neil Andrew Brown, Martin Urban, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
BACKGROUND: The soil dwelling saprotrophic non-pathogenic fungus Fusarium venenatum, routinely used in the commercial fermentation industry, is phylogenetically closely related to the globally important cereal and non-cereal infecting pathogen F. graminearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble and annotate the F. venenatum (strain A3/5) genome, and compare this genome with F. graminearum. RESULTS: Using shotgun sequencing, a 38,660,329 bp F. venenatum genome was assembled into four chromosomes, and a 78,618 bp mitochondrial genome...
April 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670875/gold-nanoparticle-aptamer-based-lspr-sensing-of-ochratoxin-a-at-a-widened-detection-range-by-double-calibration-curve-method
#10
Boshi Liu, Renliang Huang, Yanjun Yu, Rongxin Su, Wei Qi, Zhimin He
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a type of mycotoxin generated from the metabolism of Aspergillus and Penicillium , and is extremely toxic to humans, livestock, and poultry. However, traditional assays for the detection of OTA are expensive and complicated. Other than OTA aptamer, OTA itself at high concentration can also adsorb on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and further inhibit AuNPs salt aggregation. We herein report a new OTA assay by applying the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of AuNPs and their aggregates...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669061/zearalenone-delays-rat-leydig-cell-regeneration
#11
Songyi Zhou, Yiyan Wang, Leikai Ma, Xianwu Chen, Yao Lü, Fei Ge, Yong Chen, Xiaofang Chen, Qingquan Lian, Xiao-Dong Jin, Ren-Shan Ge
Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, is present in a wide range of human foods. By virtual screening, we have identified that ZEA is a potential endocrine disruptor of Leydig cells. The effect of ZEA on Leydig cell development is still unclear. The objective of the present study was to explore whether ZEA affected Leydig cell developmental process and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (60 days old) were randomly divided into three groups and these rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate all Leydig cells...
April 16, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663293/production-of-mycotoxins-by-filamentous-fungi-in-untreated-surface-water
#12
Beatriz R Oliveira, Ana T Mata, João P Ferreira, Maria T Barreto Crespo, Vanessa J Pereira, Maria R Bronze
Several research studies reported that mycotoxins and other metabolites can be produced by fungi in certain matrices such as food. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the wide occurrence and identification of fungi in drinking water sources. Due to the large demand of water for drinking, watering, or food production purposes, it is imperative that further research is conducted to investigate if mycotoxins may be produced in water matrices. This paper describes the results obtained when a validated analytical method was applied to detect and quantify the presence of mycotoxins as a result of fungi inoculation and growth in untreated surface water...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662036/electrochemical-aptamer-based-sensors-for-rapid-point-of-use-monitoring-of-the-mycotoxin-ochratoxin-a-directly-in-a-food-stream
#13
Jacob Somerson, Kevin W Plaxco
The ability to measure the concentration of specific small molecules continuously and in real-time in complex sample streams would impact many areas of agriculture, food safety, and food production. Monitoring for mycotoxin taint in real time during food processing, for example, could improve public health. Towards this end, we describe here an inexpensive electrochemical DNA-based sensor that supports real-time monitor of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in a flowing stream of foodstuffs.
April 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657389/hepato-nephropathology-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-complicated-with-citrinin-mycotoxicosis-in-a-broiler-farm
#14
Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munusamy, Shyma K Latheef, Shambu Dayal Singh, Kuldeep Dhama
Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality. Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies. Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656368/fluorometric-aptamer-based-assay-for-ochratoxin-a-based-on-the-use-of-exonuclease-iii
#15
Renjie Liu, Hua Wu, Lei Lv, Xiaojiao Kang, Chengbi Cui, Jin Feng, Zhijun Guo
This study describes an aptamer based assay for the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). The method is based on the use of an OTA-specific aptamer, exonuclease (Exo) III, SYBR Gold as a fluorescent probe, and a complementary strand that specifically combines with the aptamer. In the presence of OTA, the aptamer and OTA hybridize, thereby resulting in the formation of ssDNA, which is not digested by Exo III. Intense fluorescence is observed after addition of SYBR Gold (best measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 495/540 nm)...
April 14, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652439/evaluation-of-gaseous-allyl-isothiocyanate-against-the-growth-of-mycotoxigenic-fungi-and-mycotoxin-production-in-corn-stored-for-6-months
#16
Tiago M Nazareth, Jessica A F Corrêa, Anne C S M Pinto, Juliano B Palma, Giuseppe Meca, Keliani Bordin, Fernando B Luciano
BACKGROUND: Brazil produce approximately 63 million tons of corn kernels annually, which is commonly contaminated with fungi and mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gaseous allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides, and mycotoxin production (aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 , fumonisins B1 and B2 ) in corn during 180 d of storage. RESULTS: AITC at 50 μL L-1 resulted in a significant reduction of the fungal population (p <0...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649280/evolution-of-structural-diversity-of-trichothecenes-a-family-of-toxins-produced-by-plant-pathogenic-and-entomopathogenic-fungi
#17
Robert H Proctor, Susan P McCormick, Hye-Seon Kim, Rosa E Cardoza, April M Stanley, Laura Lindo, Amy Kelly, Daren W Brown, Theresa Lee, Martha M Vaughan, Nancy J Alexander, Mark Busman, Santiago Gutiérrez
Trichothecenes are a family of terpenoid toxins produced by multiple genera of fungi, including plant and insect pathogens. Some trichothecenes produced by the fungus Fusarium are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety because of their toxicity and frequent occurrence in cereal crops, and trichothecene production contributes to pathogenesis of some Fusarium species on plants. Collectively, fungi produce over 150 trichothecene analogs: i.e., molecules that share the same core structure but differ in patterns of substituents attached to the core structure...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644962/effects-of-curcumin-on-performance-antioxidation-intestinal-barrier-and-mitochondrial-function-in-ducks-fed-corn-contaminated-with-ochratoxin-a
#18
D Ruan, W C Wang, C X Lin, A M Fouad, W Chen, W G Xia, S Wang, X Luo, W H Zhang, S J Yan, C T Zheng, L Yang
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43...
April 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642627/a-review-of-the-interactions-between-wheat-and-wheat-pathogens-zymoseptoria-tritici-fusarium-spp-and-parastagonospora-nodorum
#19
REVIEW
Adrian Duba, Klaudia Goriewa-Duba, Urszula Wachowska
Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium ...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625988/microbial-dynamics-during-industrial-rearing-processing-and-storage-of-the-tropical-house-cricket-gryllodes-sigillatus-for-human-consumption
#20
Dries Vandeweyer, Enya Wynants, Sam Crauwels, Christel Verreth, Nikolaas Viaene, Johan Claes, Bart Lievens, Leen Van Campenhout
In this study, the microbiota during industrial rearing, processing, and storage of the edible tropical house cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus , was investigated. To this end, samples were analyzed of the cricket feed, before feeding as well as taken from the cages, and the crickets during rearing, after harvest, and after processing into frozen, oven-dried, and smoked and subsequently oven-dried end products. Although the feed contained lower microbial numbers than the crickets, both were dominated by the same species-level operational taxonomic units as determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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