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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109854/histone-methyltransferase-aflrmta-gene-is-involved-in-the-morphogenesis-mycotoxin-biosynthesis-and-pathogenicity-of-aspergillus-flavus
#1
Yu Li, Yizi He, Xing Li, Opemipo Esther Fasoyin, Yule Hu, Yaju Liu, Jun Yuan, Zhenhong Zhuang, Shihua Wang
Arginine methyltransferases catalyze the posttranslational methylation of arginine, which is involved in a range of important biological processes. aflrmtA gene, an arginine methyltransferase was deleted from Aspergillus flavus in this study by homologous recombination. In morphogenesis assay, aflrmtA was found to down-regulate conidiation by regulating the activity of brlA and abaA genes. It was also found to increase sclerotia formation by up-regulating the expression of nsdC and nsdD genes. In mycotoxin biosynthesis, aflrmtA gene was found to significantly up-regulate the biosynthesis of AFB1 in PDA and PDB media by improving the expression of aflR, aflC and aflK, but it was of no effect in YES medium...
January 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109190/qtl-mapping-and-candidate-genes-for-resistance-to-fusarium-ear-rot-and-fumonisin-contamination-in-maize
#2
Valentina Maschietto, Cinzia Colombi, Raul Pirona, Giorgio Pea, Francesco Strozzi, Adriano Marocco, Laura Rossini, Alessandra Lanubile
BACKGROUND: Fusarium verticillioides is a common maize pathogen causing ear rot (FER) and contamination of the grains with the fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxin. Resistance to FER and FB1 contamination are quantitative traits, affected by environmental conditions, and completely resistant maize genotypes to the pathogen are so far unknown. In order to uncover genomic regions associated to reduced FER and FB1 contamination and identify molecular markers for assisted selection, an F2:3 population of 188 progenies was developed crossing CO441 (resistant) and CO354 (susceptible) genotypes...
January 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107943/development-of-a-nanoarray-capable-of-the-rapid-and-simultaneous-detection-of-zearalenone-t2-toxin-and-fumonisin
#3
Sara E McNamee, Francesca Bravin, Giulia Rosar, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Fusarium mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins occur on a worldwide basis in cereal grains, animal feeds and forages. Practical solutions for multiple mycotoxin determination in samples are required by industry and regulators for cost effective screening purposes. The feasibility of developing a novel multiplex nanoarray for the simultaneous and semi-quantitative detection of three regulated mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZEA), T2-toxin (T2) and fumonisin B1 (FUM) was examined. Additionally, the assay was also able to detect HT2 toxin and fumonisin B2 and B3 due to the cross reactivity profiles of the antibodies used...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107910/nanobody-based-enzyme-immunoassay-for-ochratoxin-a-in-cereal-with-high-resistance-to-matrix-interference
#4
Xing Liu, Zongwen Tang, Zhenhua Duan, Zhenyun He, Mei Shu, Xianxian Wang, Shirley J Gee, Bruce D Hammock, Yang Xu
A sensitive indirect competitive nanobody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Nb-ELISA) for ochratoxin A (OTA) with high resistance to cereal matrix interference was developed. Nanobodies against OTA (Nb15, Nb28, Nb32, Nb36) were expressed in E. coli cells and their thermal stabilities were compared with that of an OTA-specific monoclonal antibody 6H8. All nanobodies could still retain their antigen-binding activity after exposure to temperature 95°C for 5min or to 90°C for 75min. Nb28 that exhibited the highest sensitivity in ELISA was selected for further research...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098779/unravelling-the-diversity-of-the-cyclopiazonic-acid-family-of-mycotoxins-in-aspergillus-flavus-by-uhplc-triple-tof-hrms
#5
Valdet Uka, Geromy G Moore, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Dashnor Nebija, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Cyclopiazonic acid (α-cyclopiazonic acid, α-CPA) is an indole-hydrindane-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by various fungal species, including the notorious food and feed contaminant Aspergillus flavus. Despite its discovery in A. flavus cultures approximately 40 years ago, its contribution to the A. flavus mycotoxin burden is consistently minimized by our focus on the more potent carcinogenic aflatoxins also produced by this fungus. Here, we report the screening and identification of several CPA-type alkaloids not previously found in A...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095185/seasonal-age-and-sex-fluctuations-in-aflatoxin-b1-content-in-the-liver-and-kidney-of-brown-hares-lepus-europaeus-pall
#6
Jaroslav Slamecka, Marcela Capcarova, Rastislav Jurcik, Tomas Sladecek, Maria-Jose Carrascosa Argente, Agnieszka Gren, Peter Massanyi
The goal of this study was to monitor the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 in the liver and kidney of brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pall) in the region of south-western Slovakia. A total of 65 samples were involved for analysis by RIA method. Brown hares were divided into the groups according to age, sex and season (month). The sex was determined visually after shooting, and the age was assigned from dried eye lens. The average concentration of AFB1 in the liver of hares was 0.54 ± 0.053 µg/kg, and lower values were measured in the kidney (0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093223/cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-induced-by-mixed-mycotoxins-t-2-and-ht-2-toxin-on-primary-hepatocytes-of-broilers-in-vitro
#7
Lingchen Yang, Di Tu, Zhiyong Zhao, Jun Cui
T-2 and HT-2 (T-2/HT-2) induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in hepatocytes from broilers. In this study, hepatocytes treated with T-2/HT-2 were analyzed for cytotoxic effects and apoptosis and for the associated mechanisms. To assay cytotoxicity, we used the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin staining and aspartase transaminase and alanine transaminase (ALT/AST) activities. We evaluated apoptosis by fluorescence microscopy using the Terminal transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay...
January 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091279/aflatoxin-m1-in-human-breast-milk-in-shahrekord-iran-and-association-with-dietary-factors
#8
Tina Jafari, Aziz A Fallah, Soleiman Kheiri, Abdolmajid Fadaei, Sayed Asadollah Amini
This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 250 breast milk samples of lactating mothers, obtained from urban and rural regions of Shahrekord, Iran. Moreover, the association between AFM1 occurrence levels and dietary factors were assessed. AFM1 analysis was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for confirmatory purposes...
January 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089945/zearalenone-exposure-impairs-ovarian-primordial-follicle-formation-via-down-regulation-of-lhx8-expression-in-vitro
#9
Guo-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yan-Zhong Feng, Bo Li, Ya-Peng Li, Fan Yang, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Wei Shen, Shi-Duo Sun, Lan Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089712/effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-on-ochratoxin-a-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-mice
#10
Agnieszka Loboda, Anna Stachurska, Paulina Podkalicka, Mateusz Sobczak, Olga Mucha, Agnieszka Witalisz-Siepracka, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a heme-degrading enzyme, is suggested to play an important role in kidney pathophysiology, mostly due to its anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties. One of the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA) was previously shown to affect HO-1 expression, however, the mechanisms of OTA-induced nephrotoxicity during HO-1 deficiency are unknown. We have shown that OTA regulates the number of pro-fibrotic, pro-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pro-apoptotic factors in HO-1 dependent manner, as the lack of HO-1 accelerates whereas the induction of HO-1 expression by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) attenuates nephrotoxic effect of OTA...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088280/comparative-study-of-colloidal-gold-and-quantum-dots-as-labels-for-multiplex-screening-tests-for-multi-mycotoxin-detection
#11
Astrid Foubert, Natalia V Beloglazova, Sarah De Saeger
Quantum dots (QDs) and colloidal gold nanoparticles (CG) were evaluated as labels for multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for determination of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T2/HT2-toxin (T2/HT2) in cereal matrices. Both developed assays were based on the same immunoreagents (except for the labels), therefore their analytical characteristics could be objectively compared. For both LFIAs antigens (DON-ovalbumin (OVA), ZEN-OVA and T2-OVA) and rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin were immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane as three test lines and one control line, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080216/occurrence-of-mycotoxins-in-wheat-grains-exposed-to-fungicides-on-fusarium-head-blight-control-in-southern-brazil
#12
Leandro N Marques, Ionara R Pizzutti, Ricardo S Balardin, Ingrid D Dos Santos, Jonatan V Dias, Marlon T Stefanello, Pablo T Serafini
Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075412/the-antagonistic-effect-of-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-metabolic-profiling-in-serum-and-liver-of-mice
#13
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067781/gestational-zearalenone-exposure-causes-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-in-pregnant-rats-and-female-offspring
#14
Xin Gao, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Chong Li, Jiacai Zhang, Zhuohui Xiao, Desheng Qi
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067768/the-status-of-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-emerging-trends-and-post-harvest-mitigation-strategies-towards-food-control
#15
REVIEW
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064390/beap-profiles-as-rapid-test-system-for-status-analysis-and-early-detection-of-process-incidents-in-biogas-plants
#16
Sarah Refai, Stefanie Berger, Kati Wassmann, Melanie Hecht, Thomas Dickhaus, Uwe Deppenmeier
A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064121/characterization-of-fusarium-graminearum-isolates-recovered-from-wheat-samples-from-argentina-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-phenotypic-diversity-and-detection-of-specific-markers-of-aggressiveness
#17
Cecilia B Fígoli, Rodrigo Rojo, Laura A Gasoni, Gisele Kikot, Mariana Leguizamón, Raúl R Gamba, Alejandra Bosch, Teresa M Alconada
Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat in Argentina. This disease affects crop yields and grain quality also reducing the wheat end-use, and causing mycotoxin contamination. The aim of this work was to analyze the phenotypic characteristics associated with phenotypic diversity and aggressiveness of 34 F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates recovered from Argentinean fields in the 2008 growing season using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) dried film technology. We applied this technique also to search for spectral specific markers associated with aggressiveness...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054977/forthcoming-challenges-in-mycotoxins-toxicology-research-for-safer-food-a-need-for-multi-omics-approach
#18
REVIEW
Luca Dellafiora, Chiara Dall'Asta
The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins...
January 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054118/-red-yeast-rice-an-unsafe-food-supplement
#19
Christian Steffen
Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products...
January 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053655/an-investigation-of-fungal-contamination-on-the-surface-of-medicinal-herbs-in-china
#20
Run-Sheng Zheng, Wen-Li Wang, Jing Tan, Hui Xu, Ruo-Ting Zhan, Wei-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The dried parts of medicinal herbs are susceptible to the infection of fungi during pre- or post-harvest procedure. This study aimed to investigate the presence of fungi and their metabolites mycotoxins on the surface of medicinal herbs collected from China. METHODS: Forty-five retail samples of 15 different medicinal herbs were collected from 3 different regions in China. Then the potential fungi were immediately washed off from the surface of each sample with 0...
2017: Chinese Medicine
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