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Mei Lan, Jun Han, Meng-Hao Pan, Xiang Wan, Zhen-Nan Pan, Shao-Chen Sun
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuff and food. DON causes detrimental effects on human and animal reproductive systems by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. While melatonin is a multifunctional endogenous hormone which plays crucial roles in the development of animal germ cells and embryos as a robust deoxidizer. In present study, we explored the effects of melatonin on the DON-exposure mouse oocytes. Our in vitro and in vivo results showed that DON adversely affected mouse oocyte maturation and early embryo cleavage, while melatonin administration ameliorated the toxic effects of DON...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Sheila Okoth, Sarah De Saeger, Patrick Njobeh
Beer, a beverage consumed throughout the world, is mainly derived from cereals. In this study, fungal and mycotoxin contamination, as well as the physicochemical properties of maize-based opaque beer (umqombothi) obtained from the Gauteng province of South Africa, was investigated. The mean water activity, pH and total titratable acidity of the analysed beer samples were 0.91, 3.76 and 1.20% lactic acid, respectively. The investigation revealed Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Saccharomyces as the predominant fungal genera with a mean fungal load of 3...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Sanil D Singh, Naeem Sheik-Abdul, Alisa Phulukdaree, Charlette Tiloke, Savani Nagiah, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Raw ingredients of pet food are often contaminated with mycotoxins. This is a serious health problem to pets and causes emotional and economical stress to the pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the immunotoxicity of the most common mycotoxins (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) by examining 20 samples of extruded dry dog food found on the South African market [10 samples from standard grocery store lines (SB), 10 from premium veterinarian lines (PB)]. Pelleted dog food was subjected to extraction protocols optimized for the above mentioned mycotoxins...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Haiyan Ma, Congcong Ran, Mengjiao Li, Jinglin Gao, Xinyu Wang, Lina Zhang, Jing Bian, Junmei Li, Ye Jiang
Mycotoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. Among them, aflatoxins (AFs) are the most toxic. Therefore, AFs were selected as models, and a sensitive, simple and green graphene oxide (GO)-based stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method was developed for extraction and determination of AFs with high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detector (HPLC-LIF). This method improved the sensitivity of AFs detection and solved the deposition difficulty of the direct use of GO as adsorbent...
February 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Elisa Pellegrino, Stefano Bedini, Marco Nuti, Laura Ercoli
Despite the extensive cultivation of genetically engineered (GE) maize and considerable number of scientific reports on its agro-environmental impact, the risks and benefits of GE maize are still being debated and concerns about safety remain. This meta-analysis aimed at increasing knowledge on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits of GE maize by analyzing the peer-reviewed literature (from 1996 to 2016) on yield, grain quality, non-target organisms (NTOs), target organisms (TOs) and soil biomass decomposition...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
María Soledad Nogueira, Julieta Decundo, Mauro Martinez, Susana Nelly Dieguez, Federico Moreyra, Maria Virginia Moreno, Sebastian Alberto Stenglein
Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae ; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012-2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51...
February 11, 2018: Toxins
Saima Majeed, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger, Waqar Rauf, Abdul Tawab, Moazur Rahman, Mazhar Iqbal
Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this study, the measurement of 23 mycotoxins in rice samples ( n = 180) was performed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. A food frequency questionnaire was used to get rice consumption data for the assessment of mycotoxin dietary exposure, before calculating the health risk in adults and children of north and south regions of the Pakistani Punjab province. The prevalence of aflatoxin B₁ (56%), aflatoxin B₂ (48%), nivalenol (28%), diacetoxyscirpenol (23%), fumonisin B₁ (42%), zearalenone (15%), HT-2 toxin (10%), deoxynivalenol (8%), and ochratoxin A (6%) was estimated in samples with a mean concentration range between 0...
February 10, 2018: Toxins
Marcin Bryła, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of "masked" mycotoxins has been intensively investigated in recent years. In this study, the occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and deoxynivalenol in 92 samples of winter wheat from Polish cultivars was determined. The frequency of the occurrence of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the samples was 83% and 70%, respectively. The average content of the analytes was: for deoxynivalenol 140.2 µg/kg (10...
February 13, 2018: Toxins
Chiara Biselli, Paolo Bagnaresi, Primetta Faccioli, Xinkun Hu, Margaret Balcerzak, Maria G Mattera, Zehong Yan, Therese Ouellet, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum , represents one of the major wheat diseases worldwide, determining severe yield losses and reduction of grain quality due to the accumulation of mycotoxins. The molecular response associated with the wheat 2DL FHB resistance QTL was mined through a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the early response to F. graminearum infection, at 3 days post-inoculation, in spikelets and rachis. The analyses were conducted on two near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of the 2DL QTL (2-2618, resistant 2DL+ and 2-2890, susceptible null)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Arnau Vidal, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sofie Landschoot, Martina Kyallo, Joyce Njuguna, Jagger Harvey, Sarah De Saeger
Aspergillus flavus is the main producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities such as maize. This fungus occurs naturally on crops, and produces aflatoxins when environmental conditions are favorable. The aim of this study is to analyse the genetic variability among 109 A. flavus isolates previously recovered from maize sampled from a known aflatoxin-hotspot (Eastern region, Kenya) and the major maize-growing area in the Rift Valley (Kenya), and to determine their toxigenic potential. DNA analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA, partial β-tubulin gene (benA) and calmodulin gene (CaM) sequences were used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Yueju Zhao, Jintae Lee
Yeast-mold mycobiota inhabit several natural ecosystems, in which symbiotic relationships drive strategic pathoadaptation. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by diverse mycotoxigenic fungi as a defense against yeasts, though at times yeasts secrete enzymes that degrade, detoxify, or bio-transform mycotoxins. The present study is focused on the in vitro inhibitory effects of zearalenone (ZEN), a F2 mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium and Gibberella species, on different microbial strains. ZEN exhibited no effect on the planktonic growth or biofilms of several Gram positive and negative bacteria at the tested concentrations...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Wenda Wu, Kun Sheng, Xinglian Xu, Haibin Zhang, Guanghong Zhou
Anorexia is a hallmark of animal and human exposed to T-2 toxin, a most poisonous trichothecene mycotoxins contaminating various cereal grains including wheat, corn and barley. Although this adverse effect has been well characterized in several animal species, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The goal for this study was to elucidate the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucagon-like peptide-17-36amide (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in T-2 toxin-evoked anorectic response using a mouse anorexia bioassay...
February 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xiya Zhang, Ying Wang, Tony Velkov, Shusheng Tang, Chongshan Dai
The molecular mechanisms of T-2 mycotoxin induced neurotoxicity remains enigmatic. In the present study we show that T-2 toxin induced neurotoxicity in mouse neuroblastoma2a (N2a) cells is both dose- and time-dependent and is associated with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. T-2 toxin treatment of N2a cells at 10, 20, 40 and 80 ng/mL for 24 h significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of p53, Bax, and caspase-8 and down-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Liming Yang, Jake C Fountain, Pingsheng Ji, Xinzhi Ni, Sixue Chen, Robert D Lee, Robert C Kemerait, Baozhu Guo
Drought stress conditions decrease maize growth and yield, and aggravate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. While several studies have been performed on mature kernels responding to drought stress, the metabolic profiles of developing kernels are not as well characterized, particularly in germplasm with contrasting resistance to both drought and mycotoxin contamination. Here, following screening for drought tolerance, a drought-sensitive line, B73, and a drought-tolerant line, Lo964, were selected and stressed beginning at 14 days after pollination...
February 12, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Vessela Atanasova-Penichon, Laurie Legoahec, Stéphane Bernillon, Catherine Deborde, Mickaël Maucourt, Marie-Noelle Verdal-Bonnin, Laetitia Pinson-Gadais, Nadia Ponts, Annick Moing, Florence Richard-Forget
Fusarium graminearum is a major plant pathogen that causes devastating diseases of cereals and produces type B trichothecene mycotoxins (TCTB) in infected grains. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of TCTB biosynthesis is required for improving strategies to control the TCTB contamination of crops and ensuring that these strategies do not favor the production of other toxic metabolites by F. graminearum Elucidation of the association of TCTB biosynthesis with other central and specialized processes was the focus of this study...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Aida Z Kebede, Anne Johnston, Danielle Schneiderman, Whynn Bosnich, Linda J Harris
BACKGROUND: Gibberella ear rot (GER) is one of the most economically important fungal diseases of maize in the temperate zone due to moldy grain contaminated with health threatening mycotoxins. To develop resistant genotypes and control the disease, understanding the host-pathogen interaction is essential. RESULTS: RNA-Seq-derived transcriptome profiles of fungal- and mock-inoculated developing kernel tissues of two maize inbred lines were used to identify differentially expressed transcripts and propose candidate genes mapping within GER resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Kaizhao Zhang, Xiaotong Tan, Ying Li, Guan Liang, Zhangyong Ning, Yongjiang Ma, Yugu Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) was a mycotoxin biosynthesized by a variety of Fusarium fungi via a polypeptide pathway. ZEA has significant toxic reaction on immune cells. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) as a crucial constituent of thymic stroma can provide unique microenvironment for thymocyte maturation, but the mechanism of ZEA affecting the TECs is poorly understood. The basic data about gene expression differences for the ZEA on thymic epithelial cell line 1 (MTEC1) will help us to elucidate this mechanism. Here, cell viability and proliferation assay and transcriptome sequencing on MTEC1 treated with ZEA were performed...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jiarong Cai, Changlong Hao, Maozhong Sun, Wei Ma, Chuanlai Xu, Hua Kuang
Herein, the design of a DNA-based chiral biosensor is described utilizing the self-assembly of shell core-gold (Au) satellite nanostructures for the detection of mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). The assembly of core-satellite nanostructures based on OTA-aptamer binding exhibits a strong chiral signal with an intense circular dichroism (CD) peak. The integrity of the assembly of core-satellite nanostructures is limited to some extent in the presence of different levels of OTA. Correspondingly, the chiral intensity of assembly is weakened with increasing OTA concentrations, allowing quantitative determination of the target...
February 9, 2018: Small
Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade, Isabel Yamanaka, Laís S Schlichta, Sabrina Karim Silva, Guilherme F Picheth, Luiz Felipe Caron, Juliana de Moura, Rilton Alves de Freitas, Larissa Magalhães Alvarenga
To propose a novel modeling of aflatoxin immunization and surrogate toxin conjugate from AFB1 vaccines, an immunogen based on the mimotope, (i.e. a peptide-displayed phage that mimics aflatoxins epitope without toxin hazards) was designed. The recombinant phage 3P30 was identified by phage display technology and exhibited the ability to bind, dose dependent, specifically to its cognate target - anti-AFB1 antibody. In immunization assay, the phage-displayed mimotope and its peptide chemically synthesized were able to induce specific anti-AFB1 antibodies, indicating the proof of concept for aflatoxin mimicry...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jia Wang, Hina Mukhtar, Lan Ma, Qian Pang, Xiaohong Wang
Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and they are a worldwide public health concern. A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the smallest antigen binding entity and is produced by heavy chain only antibodies. Compared with conventional antibodies, VHH antibodies overcome many pitfalls typically encountered in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics. Likewise, VHH antibodies are particularly useful for monitoring mycotoxins in food and feedstuffs, as they are easily genetic engineered and have superior stability...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
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