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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330126/recent-progress-in-the-discovery-of-myeloid-differentiation-2-md2-modulators-for-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Lingfeng Chen, Weitao Fu, Lulu Zheng, Yi Wang, Guang Liang
Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2), together with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with high affinity, inducing the formation of the activated homodimer LPS-MD2-TLR4. MD2 directly recognizes the Lipid A domain of LPS, leading to the activation of downstream signaling of cytokine and chemokine production, and initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, excessive activation and potent host responses generate severe inflammatory syndromes such as acute sepsis and septic shock...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330063/risk-of-ischemic-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#2
Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study METHODS: This is a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study using data from the Korean national health claims database from 2011 through 2015. Patients with NAION and randomly selected control subjects from the entire Korean population were enrolled. A log rank analysis was used to evaluate a risk of ATN in the group of patients with NAION (study group) compared to an age-, sex-, and comorbidities-matched control group...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329124/septic-arthritis-of-the-wrist
#3
John D Jennings, Asif M Ilyas
Septic arthritis of the wrist is an uncommon condition, but one that can result in substantial morbidity. Timely identification and treatment is critical to patient care. No serum laboratory values have been shown to consistently confirm wrist joint infection. Thus, diagnosis is made based mainly on a thorough patient history, physical examination, and joint aspiration. When infection is suspected, aspiration of the wrist should be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and joint aspiration or surgery are required to manage the infection and prevent sequelae...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329118/ce-managing-sepsis-and-septic-shock-current-guidelines-and-definitions
#4
Mary Beth Flynn Makic, Elizabeth Bridges
Recent updates emphasize early recognition and prompt intervention. ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a leading cause of critical illness and hospital mortality. Early recognition and intervention are essential for the survival of patients with this syndrome. In 2002, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) launched the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) to reduce overall patient morbidity and mortality from sepsis and septic shock by driving practice initiatives based on current best evidence...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329005/costs-and-benefits-of-biogas-recovery-from-communal-anaerobic-digesters-treating-domestic-wastewater-evidence-from-peri-urban-zambia
#5
Jeannette Laramee, Sebastien Tilmans, Jennifer Davis
Communal anaerobic digesters (ADs) have been promoted as a waste-to-energy strategy that can provide sanitation and clean energy co-benefits. However, little empirical evidence is available regarding the performance of such systems in field conditions. This study assesses the wastewater treatment efficiency, energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and financial costs and benefits of communal ADs used for domestic wastewater treatment in Zambia. Primary data on the technical performance of 15 ADs were collected over a 6-month period and in-person interviews were conducted with heads of 120 households...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328496/hypotension-risk-based-on-vasoactive-agent-discontinuation-order-in-patients-in-the-recovery-phase-of-septic-shock
#6
Gretchen L Sacha, Simon W Lam, Abhijit Duggal, Heather Torbic, Anita J Reddy, Seth R Bauer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with septic shock often require vasoactive agents for hemodynamic support; however, the optimal approach to discontinuing these agents once patients reach the recovery phase is currently unknown. The objective of this evaluation was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on the discontinuation order of norepinephrine (NE) and vasopressin (AVP) in patients in the recovery phase of septic shock. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
January 12, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327977/status-and-challenges-of-predicting-and-diagnosing-sepsis-in-burn-patients
#7
Mile Stanojcic, Roohi Vinaik, Marc G Jeschke
Burns are a common form of trauma that account for more than 300,000 deaths each year worldwide. Survival rates have improved over the past decades because of improvements in nutritional and fluid support, burn wound care, and infection control practices. Death, however, remains unacceptably high. The primary cause of death has changed over the last decades from anoxic causes to now predominantly infections and sepsis. Sepsis and septic complications are not only major contributors to poor outcomes, but they further result in longer hospital stay and higher healthcare costs...
January 12, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327515/myocardial-dysfunction-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#8
Dilip R Karnad, Sanjith Saseedharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326531/medial-pivot-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-literature-review-and-our-first-experience
#9
REVIEW
Luigi Sabatini, Salvatore Risitano, Gennaro Parisi, Ferdinando Tosto, Pier Francesco Indelli, Francesco Atzori, Alessandro Massè
Background: Traditional total knee implants designs, usually, are not able to reproduce the physiological kinematics of the knee, leaving almost 20% of the patients, those who underwent a total knee arthroplasty (TKA), not fully satisfied. Modern inserts are nowadays designed with a fully congruent medial compartment to reproduce the normal medial pivoting biomechanics of the knee. The aim of this article was to evaluate preliminary clinical improvement using the Medial Congruent (MC) insert as specific level of constraint...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326375/group-b-streptococcus-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-following-spontaneous-abortion
#10
Madeline Lyons, Elizabeth Zielinski, Jibanananda Satpathy
Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection of the hip in otherwise healthy adults is a rare entity that is previously only reported following peripartum gynaecological procedure and instrumentation. We report a case of infection of the hip with GBS following spontaneous abortion. Delay in identification of infection as the cause of pain ultimately leads to irreversible joint destruction. This case report will heighten the awareness of the first contact providers as well as orthopaedic surgeons to be more vigilant for possible septic complications associated with gynaecological procedures/complications and subsequent painful joints...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325875/fatal-thoracic-empyema-involving-campylobacter-rectus-a-case-report
#11
A Noël, A Verroken, L Belkhir, H Rodriguez-Villalobos
We report the case of a 69-year-old man admitted for septic shock secondary to necrotic pneumoniae complicated by thoracic empyema of fatal issue. Microbiological examination of pleural liquid revealed a mixed anaerobic flora involving Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces meyeri. Campylobacter rectus is an infrequent anaerobic pathogen of oral origin To our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal C. rectus - associated thoracic empyema, and only the second reported case in which identification was successfully performed by MALDI-TOF MS...
January 8, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325753/induced-hypothermia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-and-respiratory-failure-cass-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#12
Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Maria Egede Johansen, Morten Bestle, Katrin Thormar, Lars Hein, Louise Gyldensted, Anne Lindhardt, Henrik Christensen, Stine Estrup, Henrik Planck Pedersen, Matthew Harmon, Uday Kant Soni, Silvia Perez-Protto, Nicolai Wesche, Ulrik Skram, John Asger Petersen, Thomas Mohr, Tina Waldau, Lone Musaeus Poulsen, Ditte Strange, Nicole P Juffermans, Daniel I Sessler, Else Tønnesen, Kirsten Møller, Dennis Karsten Kristensen, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Jens D Lundgren, Jens-Ulrik Jensen
BACKGROUND: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325169/severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-associated-with-chikungunya-fever-in-an-adolescent
#13
Pradeep Kumar Sharma, Maneesh Kumar, Neha Bhandari, Anand Kushwaha
Chikungunya is usually a benign disease, and little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe a 12-year-old boy with rapid onset septic shock and multi-organ failure associated with chikungunya fever. Severe sepsis and septic shock can be associated with chikungunya.
January 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324628/ulinastatin-protects-against-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-attenuating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-and-reducing-inflammatory-mediators
#14
Chao Cao, Chengfen Yin, Songtao Shou, Jun Wang, Lechang Yu, Xuening Li, Yanfen Chai
Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis; thus, it is now widely used in the treatment of pancreatitis, sepsis, and septic shock. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an essential LPS signaling receptor, plays a critical role in the activation of innate immunity...
January 10, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324627/effects-of-the-humanized-anti-adrenomedullin-antibody-adrecizumab-ham8101-on-vascular-barrier-function-and-survival-in-rodent-models-of-systemic-inflammation-and-sepsis
#15
Christopher Geven, Esther Peters, Mathias Schroedter, Joachim Struck, Andreas Bergmann, Oscar McCook, Peter Radermacher, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers
PURPOSE: Adrenomedullin (ADM) is an important regulator of endothelial barrier function during sepsis. Administration of a murine antibody targeted against the N-terminus of ADM (HAM1101) resulted in improved outcome in models of murine sepsis. We studied the effects of a humanized form of this antibody (HAM8101, also known as Adrecizumab) on vascular barrier dysfunction and survival in rodent models of systemic inflammation and sepsis. METHODS: Rats (n=48) received different dosages of HAM8101 or placebo (n = 8 per group), directly followed by administration of lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg)...
January 10, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324497/complications-associated-with-mortality-in-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-database
#16
Robert E Freundlich, Michael D Maile, Joseph J Sferra, Elizabeth S Jewell, Sachin Kheterpal, Milo Engoren
BACKGROUND: Attributing causes of postoperative mortality is challenging, as death may be multifactorial. A better understanding of complications that occur in patients who die is important, as it allows clinicians to focus on the most impactful complications. We sought to determine the postoperative complications with the strongest independent association with 30-day mortality. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2012-2013 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data Files...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#17
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323823/atrioesophageal-fistula-a-rare-complication-of-radiofrequency-ablation
#18
Inbar Saporta, Adithya Chennamadhavuni, Michael J Dolan
75-year-old woman was admitted with fever, chills, altered mentation, and right-sided weakness. A month earlier, she had undergone catheter radiofrequency ablation for treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of her brain revealed septic emboli with multiple bilateral cerebral and cerebellar infarcts, as well as extensive bilateral leptomeningeal enhancement. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus mitis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Candida albicans, which suggested a connection between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems...
June 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322903/difficult-to-treat-osteoarticulars-infections%C3%A2-focus-on-mycobacterial-and-fungal-infection
#19
J C Yombi, L Seyler, O Cornu, O Barbier, X Libouton, H Rodriguez-Villalobos, E Thienpont
Bone and joint infections are rare but often devastating. While bacteria are most commonly encountered organisms, mycobacteria and fungi are less frequent. Management of the latter is often more complex, especially in the presence of foreign material. We will increasingly be faced with mycobacterial and fungal bone infections, as medical conditions and newer therapeutics lead to more immunosuppression. In this article, we will review osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and peri-prosthetic joint infections related to mycobacteria and fungi...
March 2017: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322386/independent-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-candidemia-on-italian-internal-medicine-wards
#20
Francesco Sbrana, Emanuela Sozio, Matteo Bassetti, Andrea Ripoli, Filippo Pieralli, Anna Maria Azzini, Alessandro Morettini, Carlo Nozzoli, Maria Merelli, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Giacomo Bertolino, Davide Carrara, Claudio Scarparo, Ercole Concia, Francesco Menichetti, Carlo Tascini
Candida is an increasing cause of bloodstream infection and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study is to analyze risk factors for short-term mortality in patients with bloodstream Candida spp. infections admitted to Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs). This was a retrospective case-control study between January 2012 and December 2014 from four University Hospitals in Italy, where patients with candidemia dying within 30 days from diagnosis were matched to control cases with candidemia who survived in the same period of time...
January 10, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
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