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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453983/aldolase-a-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer
#1
Feng Ye, Yixing Chen, Lu Xia, Jiabian Lian, Shuyu Yang
There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453918/high-dose-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-affects-insulin-secretory-mechanism-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#2
Eiji Yamato
OBJECTIVE: Histone deacytylase inhibitors (HDACis) inhibit the deacetylation of the lysine residue of proteins, including histones, and regulate the transcription of a variety of genes. Recently, HDACis have been used clinically as anti-cancer drugs and possible anti-diabetic drugs. Even though HDACis have been proven to protect the cytokine-induced damage of pancreatic beta cells, evidence also shows that high doses of HDACis are cytotoxic. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the eff ect of HDACis on insulin secretion in a pancreatic beta cell line...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452577/polymerase-delta-interacting-protein-2-deficiency-protects-against-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-the-ischemic-brain
#3
Marina S Hernandes, Bernard Lassègue, Lula L Hilenski, Jonathan Adams, Ning Gao, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yu-Yo Sun, Lihong Cheng, Daniel S Kikuchi, Manuel Yepes, Kathy K Griendling
BACKGROUND: Polymerase δ-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) is a multifunctional protein that regulates vascular extracellular matrix composition and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic system assembled by endothelial cells, basal lamina, and perivascular astrocytes, raising the possibility that Poldip2 may be involved in maintaining its structure. We investigated the role of Poldip2 in the late BBB permeability induced by cerebral ischemia...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452547/potential-value-of-circulating-microrna-126-and-microrna-210-as-biomarkers-for-type-2-diabetes-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
K S Amr, H Abdelmawgoud, Z Y Ali, S Shehata, H M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Macrovascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNAs, play vital roles in the regulation of blood glucose level and the concurrent cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that plasma miR-126 and miR-210 are linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) in these diabetes patients. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers and 100 patients with diabetes (54 patients without CAD and 46 patients with CAD)...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452132/effect-of-the-gstm1-gene-deletion-on-glycemic-variability-sympatho-vagal-balance-and-arterial-stiffness-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-but-without-diabetes
#5
Andrea Iorio, Dorina Ylli, Renato Polimanti, Fabiana Picconi, Paola Maggio, Davide Francomano, Antonio Aversa, Dario Manfellotto, Maria Fuciarelli, Simona Frontoni
AIMS: An increased rate of cerebrovascular complications in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported. Previous studies demonstrated an association between glycemic variability (GV) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CRV) in MetS, thus suggesting a putative role of GV on cerebrovascular events. Although the pathophysiological mechanism linking GV to damage is still to be elucidated, evidence suggests oxidative stress plays a crucial role. Since functional variants in glutathione S-transferases (GST) genes modulate the cellular detoxification processes, the aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of GSTs in MetS and investigating the correlation with GV, arterial stiffness, and sympatho-vagal (SV) balance...
February 13, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452073/the-role-of-adiponectin-and-adipolin-as-anti-inflammatory-adipokines-in-the-formation-of-macrophage-foam-cells-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Javad Sargolzaei, Elham Chamani, Tooba Kazemi, Soudabeh Fallah, Hosna Soori
Obesity is one of the major public health concerns that is closely associated with obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by excess cholesterol deposition in the arterial intima and the formation of foam cells. Adipocytokines or adipokines are secreted by the adipose tissue as endocrine glands; adiponectin and adipolin are among these adipokines that are associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451987/association-of-adiponectin-leptin-ratio-with-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Catalin Tiliscan, Victoria Arama, Raluca Mihailescu, Daniela Munteanu, Diana Gabriela Iacob, Cristina Popescu, Remulus Catana, Anca Negru, Alina Lobodan, Stefan Sorin Arama
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and leptin are adipose tissue hormones that regulate important lipid and glucose metabolic pathways. Our objective was to evaluate the interplay of these hormones described by the adiponectin/leptin ratio (ALR) in correlation to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism parameters in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled consecutive nondiabetic patients with confirmed HIV infection, undergoing stable ART regimens for at least six months...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451141/associations-between-body-composition-indices-and-metabolic-disorders-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#8
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449830/screening-for-ppar-non-agonist-ligands-followed-by-characterization-of-a-hit-am-879-with-additional-no-adipogenic-and-cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-inhibition-properties
#9
Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Natália Bernardi Videira, Aline Villanova Bridi, Thais Helena Tittanegro, Fernanda Aparecida Helena Batista, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Albane Le Maire, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, playing key roles in maintenance of adipose tissue and in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. This receptor is the target of thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic drugs, which improve insulin sensitization and regulate glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Despite the beneficial effects of drugs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, their use is associated with several side effects, including weight gain, heart failure, and liver disease, since these drugs induce full activation of the receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449802/sparc-and-glua1-containing-ampa-receptors-promote-neuronal-health-following-cns-injury
#10
Emma V Jones, Yann Bernardinelli, Juan G Zarruk, Sabrina Chierzi, Keith K Murai
The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449563/cinacalcet-mediated-activation-of-the-camkk%C3%AE-lkb1-ampk-pathway-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-db-db-mice-by-modulation-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy
#11
Ji Hee Lim, Hyung Wook Kim, Min Young Kim, Tae Woo Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Yaeni Kim, Sungjin Chung, Young Soo Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Yong-Soo Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Won Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Apoptosis and autophagy are harmoniously regulated biological processes for maintaining tissue homeostasis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a metabolic sensor to coordinate cellular survival and function in various organs, including the kidney. We investigated the renoprotective effects of cinacalcet in high-glucose treated human glomerular endothelial cells (HGECs), murine podocytes and C57BLKS/J-db/db mice. In cultured HGECs and podocytes, cinacalcet decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis and increased autophagy that were attributed to the increment of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinaseβ (CaMKKβ)-Liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMPK and their downstream signals including the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases in superoxide dismutases and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2/BCL-2-associated X protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449542/long-non-coding-rnas-in-ischemic-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Mei-Hua Bao, Vivian Szeto, Burton B Yang, Shu-Zhen Zhu, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability worldwide. Uncovering the cellular and molecular pathophysiological processes in stroke have been a top priority. Long non-coding (lnc) RNAs play critical roles in different kinds of diseases. In recent years, a bulk of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs have been screened out in ischemic stroke patients or ischemia insulted animals using new technologies such as RNA-seq, deep sequencing, and microarrays. Nine specific lncRNAs, antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), metastasis-associate lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), N1LR, maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), H19, CaMK2D-associated transcript 1 (C2dat1), Fos downstream transcript (FosDT), small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14), and taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), were found increased in cerebral ischemic animals and/or oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449530/the-type-2-diabetes-associated-hmg20a-gene-is-mandatory-for-islet-beta-cell-functional-maturity
#13
Jose M Mellado-Gil, Esther Fuente-Martín, Petra I Lorenzo, Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Livia López-Noriega, Alejandro Martín-Montalvo, Irene de Gracia Herrera Gómez, Maria Ceballos-Chávez, Laura Gómez-Jaramillo, Antonio Campos-Caro, Silvana Y Romero-Zerbo, Júlia Rodríguez-Comas, Joan-Marc Servitja, Gemma Rojo-Martinez, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Bernat Soria, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francisco J Bérmudez-Silva, Jose C Reyes, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Benoit R Gauthier
HMG20A (also known as iBRAF) is a chromatin factor involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. Recently small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HMG20A gene have been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) yet neither expression nor function of this T2DM candidate gene in islets is known. Herein we demonstrate that HMG20A is expressed in both human and mouse islets and that levels are decreased in islets of T2DM donors as compared to islets from non-diabetic donors. In vitro studies in mouse and human islets demonstrated that glucose transiently increased HMG20A transcript levels, a result also observed in islets of gestating mice...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448811/production-of-a-new-mucilage-compound-in-lepidium-sativum-callus-by-optimizing-in-vitro-growth-conditions
#14
Pooran Golkar, Fatemeh Hadian, Mehrana Koohi Dehkordi
The mucilage in Lepidium sativum L. is considered a biologically active compound with diverse medicinal properties. Different explants (hypocotyls and leaf) were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with twelve different plant growth regulator combinations under two different incubations (light and dark). The best mucilage production from callus (36.76% g g -1 dry weight) was obtained in the MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 of 2, 4-D and 2 mg L -1 of BAP under the light condition...
February 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448154/a-serine-carboxypeptidase-like-acyltransferase-catalyzes-synthesis-of-indole-3-acetic-iaa-ester-conjugate-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#15
Anna Ciarkowska, Maciej Ostrowski, Anna Jakubowska
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conjugation is one of mechanisms responsible for regulation of free auxin levels in plants. A new member of the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) acyltransferases family from Oryza sativa has been cloned and characterized. 1-O-indole-3-acetyl-β-D-glucose (1-O-IAGlc): myo-inositol acyltransferase (IAInos synthase) is an enzyme of IAA ester conjugates biosynthesis pathway that catalyzes transfer of IAA moiety from 1-O-IAGlc to myo-inositol forming IA-myo-inositol (IAInos). The OsIAA-At cDNA has been cloned and expressed using yeast and bacterial expression systems...
February 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447934/mismatch-between-gluts-and-glucose-levels-causes-neuronal-damage-during-glucose-fluctuations
#16
Zhichao Xie, Jun Guo, Yan Kang, Xiaofeng Ou
Abnormal glucose levels damage the central nervous system, especially in case of rapid fluctuations. Even a single episode of glucose reperfusion can result in overt impairment of neurons. Oxidative stress plays an important role in this process, sharing properties with the pathophysiologic changes of glucose neurotoxicity. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) located in the brain are involved in direct glucose uptake by neurons. Instead of being insulin-sensitive, these transporters are regulated by glucose levels in the extracellular fluid, increasing their expression while glucose levels fall, to absorb more glucose...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447836/sensory-denervation-of-inguinal-white-fat-modifies-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-in-siberian-hamsters
#17
REVIEW
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and sensory innervations. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed central neuroanatomical evidence of WAT sensory and BAT SNS crosstalk with double labeling of inguinal WAT (IWAT) sensory and interscapular BAT (IBAT) SNS neurons. We previously demonstrated that WAT lipolysis increases IBAT temperature, but this effect is absent when IWAT afferents are surgically denervated, which severs both sensory and SNS nerves...
February 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447210/functional-imaging-of-the-interaction-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-human-host-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-study-evaluating-novel-use-for-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#18
Ben Boursi, Thomas J Werner, Saeid Gholami, Sina Houshmand, Ronac Mamtani, James D Lewis, Gary D Wu, Abass Alavi, Yu-Xiao Yang
Recent data comparing germ-free to conventionally-raised mice demonstrated that energy homeostasis of colonocytes is dependent on gut microbiota through regulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and glucose utilization. We sought to evaluate 18F-FDG PET-CT as a novel technique for functional imaging of alterations in glucose metabolism as a result of the interaction between the gut microbiota and the human host. We conducted a prospective study in healthy humans that underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and sampling of the gut microbiota before and after orally administered broad-spectrum antibiotics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446615/leveraging-engineering-of-cells-for-drug-delivery
#19
Zhaowei Chen, Quanyin Hu, Zhen Gu
Cell therapy has become a momentum-gathering treatment strategy for a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, hemophilia, and cardiomyopathy. However, clinical applications of conventional cell therapies have often been compromised by rapid decline in viability and function of the transplanted cells due to host recognition and subsequent foreign body rejection. Along this line, cell engineering technologies such as cell encapsulation within microcapsules and immobilization in porous scaffolds have been implemented to address the immunosuppression concerns...
February 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446477/atp-sensitive-k-channel-subunits-kir6-1-kir6-2-are-the-candidate-mediators-regulating-ameliorating-effects-of-pulsed-magnetic-field-on-aortic-contractility-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Isil Ocal, Mehmet B Yilmaz, Sabriye Kocaturk-Sel, Turan Tufan, Mehmet A Erkoc, Gamze Comertpay, Hale Oksuz, Esma D Barc
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes increased morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. With recent advancements in technology, alternative treatment methods have begun to be investigated in the world. This study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on vascular complications and contractile activities of aortic rings along with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunit expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K ATP ) in aortas of controlled-diabetic and non-controlled diabetic rats...
February 15, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
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