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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340354/mechanism-of-substrate-translocation-in-an-alternating-access-transporter
#1
Naomi R Latorraca, Nathan M Fastman, A J Venkatakrishnan, Wolf B Frommer, Ron O Dror, Liang Feng
Transporters shuttle molecules across cell membranes by alternating among distinct conformational states. Fundamental questions remain about how transporters transition between states and how such structural rearrangements regulate substrate translocation. Here, we capture the translocation process by crystallography and unguided molecular dynamics simulations, providing an atomic-level description of alternating access transport. Simulations of a SWEET-family transporter initiated from an outward-open, glucose-bound structure reported here spontaneously adopt occluded and inward-open conformations...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339807/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-arabidopsis-pollen-germination
#2
Jörg Hirsche, José M García Fernández, Edith Stabentheiner, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch
Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination...
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#3
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338881/mdhb1-down-regulation-activates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-white-fleshed-apple-cultivar-granny-smith
#4
Yonghua Jiang, Cuihua Liu, Dan Yan, Xiaohong Wen, Yanli Liu, Haojie Wang, Jieyu Dai, Yujie Zhang, Yanfei Liu, Bin Zhou, Xiaolin Ren
Coloration in apple (Malus×domestica) flesh is mainly caused by the accumulation of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is biosynthesized through the flavonoid pathway and regulated by MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Here, we report that the HD-Zip I TF MdHB1 was also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. MdHB1 silencing caused the accumulation of anthocyanin in 'Granny Smith' flesh, whereas its overexpression reduced the flesh content of anthocyanin in 'Ballerina' (red-fleshed apple)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#5
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338662/diabetes-pancreatic-glp1-is-involved-in-glucose-regulation
#6
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338216/the-diversified-function-and-potential-therapy-of-ectopic-olfactory-receptors-in-non-olfactory-tissues
#7
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Hong Zhao, Nian Fu, Linxi Chen
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337873/cyclosporine%C3%A2-a-augments-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-markers-and-expression-of-matrix-protein-mrna
#8
S R Rao, R Subbarayan, D M Girija
Cyclosporine-A induces gingival overgrowth with disturbance in the homeostasis of cells and connective tissue proteins. Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured with cyclosporine A, and the expression of two vital endoplasmic stress markers and two prime matrix proteins (connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and periostin) were assessed by RT-PCR. We found that expression of Glucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78/BIP) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were significantly increased, along with CTGF and periostin, suggesting a role for these factors in gingival overgrowth...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337802/the-snf1-activating-kinase-sak1-is-a-key-regulator-of-metabolic-adaptation-and-in-vivo-fitness-of-candida-albicans
#9
Bernardo Ramírez-Zavala, Austin Mottola, Julia Haubenreißer, Sabrina Schneider, Stefanie Allert, Sascha Brunke, Knut Ohlsen, Bernhard Hube, Joachim Morschhäuser
The metabolic flexibility of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is important for colonisation and infection of different host niches. Complex regulatory networks, in which protein kinases play central roles, link metabolism and other virulence-associated traits, such as filamentous growth and stress resistance, and thereby control commensalism and pathogenicity. By screening a protein kinase deletion mutant library that was generated in the present work using an improved SAT1 flipper cassette, we found that the previously uncharacterised kinase Sak1 is a key upstream activator of the protein kinase Snf1, a highly conserved regulator of nutrient stress responses that is essential for viability in C...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337298/xbp1-lox-axis-is-critical-in-er-stress-induced-growth-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-in-3d-culture
#10
Yi Yang, Bai-Jun Cheng, Hong Jian, Zhi-Wei Chen, Yi Zhao, Yong-Feng Yu, Zi-Ming Li, Mei-Lin Liao, Shun Lu
Rapid growth of tumor cells needs to consume large amounts of oxygen and glucose, due to lack of blood supply within the tumor, cells live in an environment that lack of oxygen and nutrients. This environment results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activates the UPR (unfolded protein response). More and more evidence suggests UPR provides a growth signal pathway required for tumor growth. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between XBP1, one transcription factor in UPR, and the expression of LOX...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337199/nutrient-and-metabolic-sensing-in-t-cell-responses
#11
REVIEW
Jun Wei, Jana Raynor, Thanh-Long M Nguyen, Hongbo Chi
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336389/metformin-ameliorates-uterine-defects-in-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Yuehui Zhang, Min Hu, Fanci Meng, Xiaoyan Sun, Hongfei Xu, Jiao Zhang, Peng Cui, Njomeza Morina, Xin Li, Wei Li, Xiao-Ke Wu, Mats Brännström, Ruijin Shao, Håkan Billig
Adult rats treated concomitantly with insulin and human chorionic gonadotropin exhibit endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities that are very similar to those observed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. In this study, we used this rat model to assess the effects of metformin on PCOS-related uterine dysfunction. In addition to reducing androgen levels, improving insulin sensitivity, and correcting the reproductive cycle, metformin treatment induced morphological changes in the PCOS-like uterus...
March 18, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336108/vitamin-d-increases-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-promotes-beneficial-effects-of-physical-activity-in-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Rastegar Hoseini, Arsalan Damirchi, Parvin Babaei
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and vitamin D signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes involved in different physiological functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation and aerobic training on metabolic syndrome and PPARγ expression. METHODS: Forty female ovariectomized rats were divided into five groups of aerobic training with high (OVX + Exe + HD), moderate (OVX + Exe + MD), and low dose of vitamin D (OVX + Exe + LD), aerobic training receving vehicle (sesame oil; OVX + Exe + oil), and sham-operated control (sham) groups...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336086/incretin-hormones-regulate-microglia-oxidative-stress-survival-and-expression-of-trophic-factors
#14
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are primarily known for their metabolic function in the periphery. GLP-1 and GIP are secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to ingested nutrients. Both GLP-1 and GIP stimulate the production and release of insulin from pancreatic β cells as well as exhibit several growth-regulating effects on peripheral tissues. GLP-1 and GIP are also present in the brain, where they provide modulatory and anti-apoptotic signals to neurons...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335761/the-effects-of-jiao-tai-wan-on-sleep-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-obesity-resistant-rats-with-chronic-partial-sleep-deprivation
#15
Xin Zou, Wenya Huang, Fuer Lu, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Shuyong Zhao, Jiming Jia, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Nan Wang, Hui Dong
BACKGROUND: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), composed of Rhizome Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, is a classical traditional Chinese prescription for treating insomnia. Several in vivo studies have concluded that JTW could exert its therapeutical effect in insomnia rats. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the effect of JTW on sleep in obesity-resistant (OR) rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD) and to clarify its possible mechanism. METHODS: JTW was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by 3D-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (3D-HPLC) assay...
March 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#16
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334935/genome-wide-association-study-of-iron-traits-and-relation-to-diabetes-in-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol-potential-genomic-intersection-of-iron-and-glucose-regulation
#17
Laura M Raffield, Tin Louie, Tamar Sofer, Deepti Jain, Eli Ipp, Kent D Taylor, George J Papanicolaou, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Leslie A Lange, Cathy C Laurie, Matthew P Conomos, Timothy A Thornton, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Qibin Qi, Scott Cotler, Bharat Thyagarajan, Neil Schneiderman, Jerome I Rotter, Alex P Reiner, Henry J Lin
Genetic variants contribute to normal variation of iron-related traits and may also cause clinical syndromes of iron deficiency or excess. Iron overload and deficiency can adversely affect human health. For example, elevated iron storage is associated with increased diabetes risk, although mechanisms are still being investigated. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin in a Hispanic/Latino cohort, the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; >12,000 participants) and also assessed the generalization of previously known loci to this population...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334808/downregulation-of-pathways-implicated-in-liver-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-of-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-mice-receiving-gene-therapy
#18
Goo-Young Kim, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jun-Ho Cho, Lisa Zhang, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term risks of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and carcinoma (HCC). We have shown that the non-tumor-bearing (NT), recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-treated GSD-Ia mice (AAV-NT mice) expressing a wide range (0.9-63%) of normal hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α activity maintain glucose homeostasis and display physiologic features mimicking animals living under calorie restriction (CR). We now show that in AAV-NT mice, the signaling pathways of the CR mediators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin-1 are activated...
March 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#19
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333388/central-regulation-of-glucose-homeostasis
#20
Alexander Tups, Jonas Benzler, Domenico Sergi, Sharon R Ladyman, Lynda M Williams
The ability of the brain to directly control glucose levels in the blood independently of its effects on food intake and body weight has been known ever since 1854 when Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, discovered that lesioning the floor of the fourth ventricle in rabbits led to a rise of sugar in the blood. Despite this outstanding discovery at that time, it took more than 140 years before progress started to be made in identifying the underlying mechanisms of brain-mediated control of glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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