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Glucose regulated

Pham Thi Kim Lien, Keiichi Izumikawa, Kei Muroi, Kaoru Irie, Yasuyuki Suda, Kenji Irie
Scd6, a yeast homologue of human RAP55, is a component of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) that repress translation by binding to translation initiation factors, and also is a decapping activator along with the binding partners Edc3 and Dhh1. Herein, we report that Scd6 is a substrate of the intrinsic protein arginine methyltransferase, Hmt1, in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several arginine residues within the Scd6 RGG motif, which is important for mRNA binding, were methylated in Hmt1 dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
Y-F Huang, Y Zhang, C-X Liu, J Huang, G-H Ding
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia induces apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and contributes to tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known to protect against diabetic kidney injury. However, the mechanism for the dysregulation of ACE2 expression in diabetic nephropathy is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were done to identify ACE2-targeting microRNAs. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to determine the biological roles of the ACE2-targeting microRNAs in high glucose-induced damage to renal tubular epithelial cells...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
R-H Xu, B Liu, J-D Wu, Y-Y Yan, J-N Wang
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease leading to hardening of the vessel wall and narrowing of arteries. Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit highly active glycolysis, the dysfunction of which leads to accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall and formation of atherosclerotic plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to compare the deregulated miR-143 between atherosclerotic plaque and normal vessel tissues. The direct target of miR-143 was verified by Western blot and luciferase assay...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Soo Im Chung, Su Noh Ryu, Mi Young Kang
The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Gertjan Vancoillie, Richard Hoogenboom
Boronic acid-containing (co)polymers have fascinated researchers for decades, garnering attention for their unique responsiveness toward 1,2- and 1,3-diols, including saccharides and nucleotides. The applications of materials that exert this property are manifold including sensing, but also self-regulated drug delivery systems through responsive membranes or micelles. In this review, some of the main applications of boronic acid containing (co)polymers are discussed focusing on the role of the boronic acid group in the response mechanism...
October 19, 2016: Sensors
Danilo T Perez-Rivera, Veronica L Torres-Torres, Abraham E Torres-Colon, Maytee Cruz-Aponte
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by a range of metabolic complications involving an individual's blood glucose levels, and its main regulator, insulin. These complications can vary largely from person to person depending on their current biophysical state. Biomedical research day-by-day makes strides to impact the lives of patients of a variety of diseases, including diabetes. One large stride that is being made is the generation of techniques to assist physicians to ``personalize medicine''. From available physiological data, biological understanding of the system, and dimensional analysis, a differential equation-based mathematical model was built in a sequential matter, to be able to elucidate clearly how each parameter correlates to the patient's current physiological state...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Hayoung Jang, Minsung Kim, Soyoung Lee, Jungtae Kim, Dong-Cheol Woo, Kyung Won Kim, Kyuyoung Song, Inchul Lee
Adipose tissue hyperplasia with increased number of adipocytes is implicated in a protective rather than deleterious effect on obesity-associated metabolic disorder. It is poorly understood how the adipose tissue cellularity is regulated. Tc1 is a gene of vertebrates that regulates diverse downstream genes. Young Tc1-deleted mice fed on standard chow diet show expanded adipose tissue with smaller adipocytes in size compared to wild type controls, representing adipose tissue hyperplasia. Tc1(-/-) mice show enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced serum lipids...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
María-Victoria Hinckelmann, Amandine Virlogeux, Christian Niehage, Christel Poujol, Daniel Choquet, Bernard Hoflack, Diana Zala, Frédéric Saudou
The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Xiaocui Jiao, Ying Li, Tao Zhang, Maodong Liu, Yanqing Chi
The apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. High glucose-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is considered to be an important mediator for renal tubular cell apoptosis. Sirtuin3(Sirt3), a kind of mitochondria-localized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD(+))-dependent protein deacetylase, has been reported to regulate the generation of ROS in mitochondria through regulating acetylation level and activity of several key mitochondrial enzymes. In this study, we investigated the role of Sirt3 on high glucose-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hermann Koepsell
Orally applied SGLT2 (SLC5A2) inhibitors that enter the blood and decrease renal reabsorption of glucose have been approved as antidiabetic drugs. They decrease blood glucose levels, slightly reduce body weight and blood pressure, and decrease the risk for diabetic nephropathy. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin has been shown to reduce the risk of severe cardiac failure. This review summarizes knowledge about the functions of SGLT2 and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic follow-up diseases...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mathias Wenes, Min Shang, Mario Di Matteo, Jermaine Goveia, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Jens Serneels, Hans Prenen, Bart Ghesquière, Peter Carmeliet, Massimiliano Mazzone
Hypoxic tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) acquire angiogenic and immunosuppressive properties. Yet it remains unknown if metabolic changes influence these functions. Here, we argue that hypoxic TAMs strongly upregulate the expression of REDD1, a negative regulator of mTOR. REDD1-mediated mTOR inhibition hinders glycolysis in TAMs and curtails their excessive angiogenic response, with consequent formation of abnormal blood vessels. Accordingly, REDD1 deficiency in TAMs leads to the formation of smoothly aligned, pericyte-covered, functional vessels, which prevents vessel leakiness, hypoxia, and metastases...
October 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Xue Xia, Ozan S Kumru, Sachiko I Blaber, C Russell Middaugh, Ling Li, David M Ornitz, Jae Myoung Suh, Annette R Atkins, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Connie A Tenorio, Ewa Bienkiewicz, Michael Blaber
Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1), a potent human mitogen and insulin sensitizer, signals through both tyrosine kinase receptor-mediated autocrine/paracrine pathways as well as a nuclear intracrine pathway. Phosphorylation of FGF-1 at serine 116 (S116) has been proposed to regulate intracrine signaling. Position S116 is located within a ∼17 amino acid C-terminal loop that contains a rich set of functional determinants including heparin∖heparan sulfate affinity, thiol reactivity, nuclear localization, pharmacokinetics, functional half-life, nuclear ligand affinity, stability, and structural dynamics...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Qian Zhang, Zhen-Wei Chen, Yong-Hua Zhao, Bo-Wen Liu, Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Hong-Mei Tan
Being a potential candidate for stroke treatment, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to enhance angiogenesis and proliferation of reactive astrocytes which subsequently lead to the amelioration of neurological injury. Increasing evidences further indicate combined BMSCs with certain agent such as simvastatin may have improved therapeutic effect. Sodium Ferulate (SF) and n-butylidenephthalide (BP), two main components of Radix Angelica Sinensis, are proved to be the important regulators of stem cells in cell migration, differentiation and pluripotency maintenance...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Akos A Gerencser, Shona A Mookerjee, Martin Jastroch, Martin D Brand
Analysis of the cellular mechanisms of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, is complicated by the large number of reactions and interactions in metabolic networks. Metabolic control analysis with appropriate modularization is a powerful method for simplifying and analyzing these networks. To analyze control of cellular energy metabolism in adherent cell cultures of the INS-1832/13 pancreatic β-cell model we adapted our microscopy assay of absolute mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) to a fluorescence microplate reader format, and applied it in conjunction with cell respirometry...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Luis Gamella-Pozuelo, María T Grande, Milagros Clemente-Lorenzo, Cayetana Murillo-Gómez, Flora De Pablo, José M López-Novoa, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez
Catecholamines are essential for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis under basal and stress conditions. We aim to determine the impact of deletion of a single allele of the tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene might have on aging arterial pressure and life-span. We found that Th haploinsufficiency prevents age associated increase of arterial pressure (AP) in mature adult mice, and it results in the extension of the half-life of TH-heterozygous (HET) mice respect to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Heart performance was similar in both genotypes...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Katherine E Tierney, Lingyun Ji, Shannon S Dralla, Eunjeong Yoo, Annie Yessaian, Huyen Q Pham, Lynda Roman, Richard Sposto, Paulette Mhawech-Fauceglia, Yvonne G Lin
: Glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, the key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is associated with endometrial cancer (EC) development and progression. However, its role in the continuum from complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) to EC is unknown and the focus of this study. METHODS: 252 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded endometrial biopsies from patients with CAH diagnosed between 2003 and 2011 were evaluated for GRP78 expression by immunohistochemistry...
October 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Michelangela Barbieri, Raffaele Marfella, Antonietta Esposito, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Edith Angellotti, Ciro Mauro, Mario Siniscalchi, Fabio Chirico, Pasquale Caiazzo, Fulvio Furbatto, Alessandro Bellis, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Milena Vitiello, Franca Ferraraccio, Giuseppe Paolisso, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
AIMS: Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors reduce atherosclerosis progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and are associated with morphological and compositional characteristics of stable plaque phenotype. GLP-1 promotes the secretion of adiponectin which exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the adaptor protein PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1). The potential role of APPL1 expression in the evolution of atherosclerotic plaque in TDM2 patients has not previously evaluated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Nando Dulal Das, Guo Nan Yin, Min Ji Choi, Kang-Moon Song, Jin-Mi Park, Anita Limanjaya, Kalyan Ghatak, Nguyen Nhat Minh, Jiyeon Ock, Soo-Hwan Park, Ho Min Kim, Ji-Kan Ryu, Jun-Kyu Suh
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic erectile dysfunction is a disease mostly of vascular origin and men with diabetic erectile dysfunction respond poorly to oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. AIM: To determine the effectiveness of recombinant human (rh)-HGF in restoring erectile function in diabetic mice. METHODS: Four groups of mice were used: control non-diabetic mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice receiving two successive intracavernous injections of phosphate buffered saline (days -3 and 0), a single intracavernous injection of rh-HGF (day 0), or two successive intracavernous injections of rh-HGF (days -3 and 0)...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Wei Wang, Gen-Jin Yang, Ju Zhang, Chen Chen, Zhen-Yu Jia, Jia Li, Wei-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune rheumatic disease mostly affecting the axial skeleton. Currently, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF-α) represents an effective treatment for AS that may delay the progression of the disease and alleviate the symptoms if the diagnosis can be made early. Unfortunately, effective diagnostic biomarkers for AS are still lacking; therefore, most patients with AS do not receive timely and effective treatment. The intent of this study was to determine several key metabolites as potential biomarkers of AS using metabolomic methods to facilitate the early diagnosis of AS...
October 22, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Yan Xu, Yawei Xing, Yanjie Xu, Chahua Huang, Huihui Bao, Kui Hong, Xiaoshu Cheng
We know that silencing Bim, a pro-apoptosis protein, significantly attenuates glucose and oxygen-deprived induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the Bim activation in the heart have remained unknown. Pim-2 is one of three Pim serine/threonine kinase family members thought to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition in vitro, mimicking ischemic/reperfusion injury in vivo. H/R augmented the expression of Bim, Cyt C, and Pim-2 and induced H9c2 cell apoptosis...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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