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Glucose regulated

Vittoria Massafra, Roberto Pellicciari, Antimo Gioiello, Saskia W C van Mil
Bile acids are amphipathic molecules that were previously known to serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine in postprandial conditions. In the last two decades, bile acids have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating energy metabolism pathways via, amongst others, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Upon bile acid activation, FXR controls expression of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, FXR activation has been shown to limit the inflammatory response...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Dan-Dan Zhu, Yun-Zhi Wang, Chen Zou, Xin-Ping She, Zhi Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Uric acid has been proposed as an independent risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. Although Notch signaling was reported to be affected in the presence of high concentrations of uric acid or glucose, the underlying mechanisms of hyperuricemia through the Notch signaling pathway to promote the development of diabetic retinopathy remain unknown. METHODS: We incubated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) with high glucose, high uric acid and high glucose plus high glucose respectively and evaluated the apoptosis rate in different treated cells by Tunel staining...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jian Wu, Jibo Liu, Yaqin Ding, Mingying Zhu, Kan Lu, Jing Zhou, Xin Xie, Yi Xu, Xiaoyu Shen, Yiyue Chen, Xiaohong Shao, Chunling Zhu
Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a mediatory role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the function of the involved miRNAs is still incomplete. Here, we found that miR-455-3p was down-regulated in the human mesangial cells (HMC) and human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2) stimulated with high glucose (HG) or transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) was identified as a directed target of miR-455-3p...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lin Hou, Yazhen Zheng, Yongchao Wang, Yurong Hu, Jinjin Shi, Qi Liu, Huijuan Zhang, Zhenzhong Zhang
Glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems, which can maintain a stable level of blood glucose, have been proposed as a promising method to treat diabetes. Such systems can reduce potential toxicity and enhance patient compliance compared to traditional therapies. Accordingly, we designed a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based glucose-sensitive and self-regulated drug release system to achieve the goal of long circulation and "touch switch" in vivo. In this system, carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA) was first modified on the surface of MSN using amidation reaction...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Belinda Elisabeth Rotta, Brenna Kirkpatrick, Jean Guibourdenche, Marie Cohen
The glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone that is responsible for protein folding, which belongs to the heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSPA/HSP70). Because of the conjunction of GRP78 transcription with endoplasmic reticulum stress, the chaperone plays an important role in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced after the accumulation of misfolded proteins. In the last years, a significant body of research concentrated on interplay between GRP78 and sexual steroid hormones...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Imelda Martínez-Ramírez, Adela Carrillo-García, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez, Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio, Marcela Lizano
The alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the first biochemical characteristics associated with cancer cells since most of these cells increase glucose consumption and glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen, which has been called “aerobic glycolysis” or the Warburg effect. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide, principally to cervical cancer. E6 and E7 are the main viral oncoproteins which are required to preserve the malignant phenotype...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M S Brown, P L Jones, J J Tromp, C A van Rijn, R A Collins, L O B Afonso
The present study investigated the effects of transferring freshwater (FW) acclimated S.salar (678 g) that had been maintained under a constant photoperiod and thermal regime, into FW (salinity 0) and salt water (SW; salinity 35) on growth and physiological responses over a 28 day period. There were no mortalities observed throughout the study and no significant differences in mass or fork length between FW and SW groups after 28 days. Compared with fish transferred to FW, plasma osmolality and plasma chloride levels increased significantly in fish in SW by day 1...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Christian Göbl, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Tura
AIMS: Minimal model analysis of intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data represents the reference method to assess insulin sensitivity (SI ) and glucose effectiveness (SG ) that quantify the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent processes of glucose disappearance, respectively. However, test duration (3 h) and need for modeling expertise limit the applicability of this method. Aim of this study was providing a simple predictor of SG applicable to short test (1 h), as previously done with SI ...
June 21, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Hiroyuki Takagi, Tatsuya Ikehara, Yuto Kashiwagi, Kumi Hashimoto, Isamu Nanchi, Atsuyuki Shimazaki, Hirohide Nambu, Hideo Yukioka
Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle greatly contributes to lipid-induced insulin resistance. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) negatively modulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle, ACC2 inhibition is expected to reduce IMCL via elevation of FAO and to attenuate insulin resistance. However, the concept of substrate competition suggests that enhanced FAO results in reduced glucose utilization because of an excessive acetyl-CoA pool in mitochondria. To identify how ACC2-regulated FAO affects IMCL accumulation and glucose metabolism, we generated ACC2 knockout (ACC2-/-) mice and investigated skeletal muscle metabolites associated with fatty acid and glucose metabolism, as well as whole-body glucose metabolism...
June 20, 2018: Endocrinology
Virve Vidgren, Brian Gibson
In the interspecies lager yeast hybrid there are MAL loci involved in maltose and maltotriose utilization derived from each parent (S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus). We show that trans-regulation across hybrid subgenomes occurs for MAL genes. However, gene expression is less efficient with non-native activators (trans-activation) compared to native activators (cis-activation). MAL genes were induced by maltose and repressed by glucose irrespective of host. Despite the strong expression of S. cerevisiae-type genes in the S...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Ozlenen Simsek Papur, Aomin Sun, Jan F C Glatz, Joost J F P Luiken, Miranda Nabben
Protein kinase-D (PKD) is increasingly recognized as a key regulatory signaling hub in cardiac glucose uptake and also a major player in the development of hypertrophy. Glucose is one of the predominant energy substrates for the heart to support contraction. However, a cardiac substrate switch toward glucose over-usage is associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Hence, regulation of PKD activity must be strictly coordinated. This review provides mechanistic insights into the acute and chronic regulatory functions of PKD signaling in the healthy and hypertrophied heart...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jennifer L Knopp Nee Dickson, Adrienne M Lynn, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies examine clinical outcomes of insulin therapy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), without first developing safe and effective control protocols. This research quantifies the safety and performance of a computerised model-based control algorithmSTAR-GRYPHON (Stochastic TARgeted Glucose Regulation sYstem to Prevent Hyper- and hypO-glycaemia in Neonates). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of glycaemic control in very/extremely low birthweight infants treated with insulin from Christchurch Women's Hospital NICU between January 2013 and June 2017...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Young Kyuen Im, Ouafa Najyb, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Shawn McGuirk, Ryuhjin Ahn, Daina Avizonis, Valérie Chénard, Valerie Sabourin, Jesse Hudson, Tony Pawson, Ivan Topisirovic, Michael N Pollak, Julie St-Pierre, Josie Ursini-Siegel
The ShcA adaptor protein transduces oncogenic signals downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We show here that breast tumors engage the ShcA pathway to increase their metabolism. ShcA signaling enhanced glucose catabolism through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, rendering breast cancer cells critically dependent on glucose. ShcA signaling simultaneously increased the metabolic rate and flexibility of breast cancer cells by inducing the PGC-1α transcription factor, a central regulator of mitochondrial metabolism...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Sadhan Das, Marpadga A Reddy, Parijat Senapati, Kenneth Stapleton, Linda Lanting, Mei Wang, Vishnu Amaram, Rituparna Ganguly, Lingxiao Zhang, Sridevi Devaraj, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages play key roles in inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. Emerging evidence implicates long noncoding RNAs in inflammation, but their role in macrophage dysfunction associated with inflammatory diabetic complications is unclear and was therefore investigated in this study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: RNA-sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that a long noncoding RNA Dnm3os (dynamin 3 opposite strand) is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages from type 2 diabetic db/db mice, diet-induced insulin-resistant mice, and diabetic ApoE-/ - mice, as well as in monocytes from type 2 diabetic patients relative to controls...
June 21, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Liang-Yu Chen, Martin Lotz, Robert A Terkeltaub, Ru Liu-Bryan
Certain dysregulated chondrocyte metabolic adaptive responses such as decreased activity of the master regulator of energy metabolism AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), promote osteoarthritis (OA). Metabolism intersects with epigenetic and transcriptional responses. Hence, we studied chondrocyte ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which generates acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial-derived citrate, and modulates acetylation of histones and transcription factors.            We assessed ACLY in normal and OA human knee chondrocytes and cartilages by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and quantified acetyl-CoA fluorometrically...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Andrew A Gibb, Bradford G Hill
Metabolic pathways integrate to support tissue homeostasis and to prompt changes in cell phenotype. In particular, the heart consumes relatively large amounts of substrate not only to regenerate ATP for contraction but also to sustain biosynthetic reactions for replacement of cellular building blocks. Metabolic pathways also control intracellular redox state, and metabolic intermediates and end products provide signals that prompt changes in enzymatic activity and gene expression. Mounting evidence suggests that the changes in cardiac metabolism that occur during development, exercise, and pregnancy as well as with pathological stress (eg, myocardial infarction, pressure overload) are causative in cardiac remodeling...
June 22, 2018: Circulation Research
Viviana Vastolo, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Marco Ciccarelli, Luigi Albano, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Michele Longo, Francesco Beguinot, Paola Ungaro
BACKGROUND: The impact of nutrition on the evolution towards type 2 diabetes has recently received increasing attention because of the effect on chromatin structure and gene expression. PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of high-fat diet on chromatin remodelling and expression of Ped/Pea-15, a gene commonly overexpressed in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used mouse and cell models to investigate Ped/Pea-15 transcriptional regulation by high-fat diet and glucose, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ke Duan, Zhong-Jian Liu, Su-Qiong Hu, Hong-Yu Huo, Zhi-Ru Xu, Jian-Fei Ruan, Yang Sun, Li-Ping Dai, Chang-Bao Yan, Wei Xiong, Qing-Hua Cui, Hai-Jing Yu, Min Yu, Yang Qin
The Warburg effect is a dominant phenotype of most tumor cells. Recent reports have shown that the Warburg effect can be reprogrammed by the tumor microenvironment. Lactic acidosis and glucose deprivation are the common adverse microenvironments in solid tumor. The metabolic reprogramming induced by lactic acid and glucose deprivation remains to be elucidated in glioblastoma. Here, we show that, under glucose deprivation, lactic acid can preserve high ATP levels and resist cell death in U251 cells. At the same time, we find that MCT1 and MCT4 are significantly highly expressed...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ling Zhou, De-Yu Xu, Wen-Gang Sha, Lei Shen, Guo-Yuan Lu
BACKGROUND: Tubular injury is considered as a crucial pathological feature of diabetic nephropathy. LncRNA MALAT1 is involved in diabetic complications. Hence the role of MALAT1 in high glucose-induced renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) injury deserves investigation. METHODS: The diabetic mice model was established with streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The expression of NEAT1, SIRT1, and Foxo1 mRNA and protein was determined with qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dilmurodjon Eshmuminov, Filippo Leoni, Marcel André Schneider, Dustin Becker, Xavier Muller, Christopher Onder, Max Hefti, Martin Schuler, Philipp Dutkowski, Rolf Graf, Philipp Rudolf von Rohr, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Lucia Bautista Borrego
Liver machine perfusion at normothermic temperature (NMP) is a promising way to preserve and evaluate extended criteria donor livers. Currently, no consensus exists in methodology and perfusion protocols. Here, the authors performed a systematic literature search to identify human and porcine studies reporting on liver NMP with red blood cells. A qualitative synthesis was performed concerning technical aspects of machine perfusion, fluid composition, gas supply and liver positioning. 37 publications including 11 human and 26 porcine studies were considered for qualitative synthesis...
June 21, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
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