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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050410/effect-of-feeding-soybean-meal-and-differently-processed-peas-on-intestinal-morphology-and-functional-glucose-transport-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#1
I Röhe, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, J Zentek
Peas are locally grown legumes being rich in protein and starch. However, the broad usage of peas as a feed component in poultry nutrition is limited to anti-nutritional factors, which might impair gut morphology and function. This study investigated the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas compared with feeding a soybean meal-based control diet (C) on intestinal morphology and nutrient transport in broilers. A total of 360 day-old broiler chicks were fed with one of the following diets: The C diet, and 3 diets containing raw peas (RP), fermented peas (FP) and enzymatically pre-digested peas (EP), each supplying 30% of dietary crude protein...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050333/characterization-of-cadd522-a-small-molecule-that-inhibits-runx2-dna-binding-and-exhibits-antitumor-activity
#2
Myoung Sook Kim, Ramkishore Gernapudi, Eun Yong Choi, Rena G Lapidus, Antonino Passaniti
The RUNX2 transcription factor promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis through interactions with a variety of cofactors that activate or repress target genes. Using a direct drug discovery approach we identified CADD522 as a small molecule that inhibits the DNA binding of the runt box domain protein, RUNX2. The current study defines the effect of CADD522 on breast cancer growth and metastasis, and addresses the mechanisms by which it exerts its anti-tumor activity. CADD522 treatment resulted in significant growth inhibition, clonogenic survival, tumorsphere formation, and invasion of breast cancer cells...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050207/caloric-restriction-extends-yeast-chronological-lifespan-via-a-mechanism-linking-cellular-aging-to-cell-cycle-regulation-maintenance-of-a-quiescent-state-entry-into-a-non-quiescent-state-and-survival-in-the-non-quiescent-state
#3
Anna Leonov, Rachel Feldman, Amanda Piano, Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Vicky Lutchman, Masoumeh Ahmadi, Sarah Elsaser, Hana Fakim, Mahdi Heshmati-Moghaddam, Asimah Hussain, Sandra Orfali, Harshvardhan Rajen, Negar Roofigari-Esfahani, Leana Rosanelli, Vladimir I Titorenko
A yeast culture grown in a nutrient-rich medium initially containing 2% glucose is not limited in calorie supply. When yeast cells cultured in this medium consume glucose, they undergo cell cycle arrest at a checkpoint in late G1 and differentiate into quiescent and non-quiescent cell populations. Studies of such differentiation have provided insights into mechanisms of yeast chronological aging under conditions of excessive calorie intake. Caloric restriction is an aging-delaying dietary intervention. Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences the differentiation of chronologically aging yeast cultures into quiescent and non-quiescent cells, and how it affects their properties...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049996/nogo-b-promotes-angiogenesis-in-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-via-vegf-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-an-autocrine-manner
#4
Yuelu Zhang, Liang Wang, Yuechan Zhang, Mo Wang, Qinglei Sun, Fangzhou Xia, Ruobing Wang, Lin Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nogo-B, a conservative protein of endoplasmic reticulum, is a member of the reticulon family of proteins. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the major concerning problem of diabetic retinopathy. This study explored the role of Nogo-B in the regulation of angiogenesis in PDR patients and primary human retinal endothelial cells (HRMECs). METHODS: Nogo-B was down-regulated through the use of Lentivirus-NogoB-RNAi, the effects of Nogo-B on angiogenesis under high glucose stimulation were evaluated via CCK-8 assay, wound closure assay, transwell assay, and tube formation assay...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049980/the-dual-role-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-in-modulating-parthanatos-and-autophagy-under-oxidative-stress-in-rat-cochlear-marginal-cells-of-the-stria-vascularis
#5
Hong-Yan Jiang, Yang Yang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Xie, Xue-Yan Zhao, Yu Sun, Wei-Jia Kong
Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H2O2 to mimic continuous exposure to H2O2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process...
October 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049853/nutrient-driven-o-glcnac-in-proteostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#6
REVIEW
Ilhan Akan, Stephanie Olivier-Van Stichelen, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
Proteostasis is essential in the mammalian brain where post-mitotic cells must function for decades to maintain synaptic contacts and memory. The brain is dependent on glucose and other metabolites for proper function and is spared from metabolic deficits even during starvation. In this review, we outline how the nutrient sensitive nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates protein homeostasis. The O-GlcNAc modification is highly abundant in the mammalian brain, and has been linked to proteopathies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049850/-epigenetic-control-of-early-neurodegenerative-events-in-diabetic-retinopathy-by-the-histone-deacetylase-sirt6
#7
María A Zorrilla-Zubilete, Ada Yeste, Francisco J Quintana, Debra Toiber, Raul Mostoslavsky, Dafne M Silberman
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but may be a result of neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, glucose-induced neuron and glial cell damage may occur shortly after the onset of diabetes which makes the disease hard to diagnose at early stages. SIRT6, a NAD-dependent sirtuin deacylase, modulates aging, energy metabolism and neurodegeneration...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047090/metabolic-reprogramming-and-redox-signaling-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Angelo D'alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Petr Ježek, Kurt R Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disease of the pulmonary vasculature, which in severe cases terminates in right heart failure. Complex remodeling of pulmonary arteries comprises the central issue of its pathology. This includes extensive proliferation, apoptotic resistance and inflammation. As such, the molecular and cellular features of pulmonary hypertension resemble hallmark characteristics of cancer cell behavior. The vascular remodeling derives from significant metabolic changes in resident cells, which we describe in detail...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046721/engineering-bacillus-licheniformis-as-a-thermophilic-platform-for-the-production-of-l-lactic-acid-from-lignocellulose-derived-sugars
#9
Chao Li, Zhongchao Gai, Kai Wang, Liping Jin
BACKGROUND: Bacillus licheniformis MW3 as a GRAS and thermophilic strain is a promising microorganism for chemical and biofuel production. However, its capacity to co-utilize glucose and xylose, the major sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a "dual-channel" process was implemented to engineer strain MW3 for simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose, using l-lactic acid as a target product...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046394/recombinant-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-forms-shorter-fibrils-and-mediates-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-via-generation-of-oxidative-stress
#10
Richa Dubey, Pooja Minj, Nikita Malik, Devika M Sardesai, Shruti H Kulkarni, Jhankar D Acharya, Neel S Bhavesh, Shilpy Sharma, Ashutosh Kumar
Protein aggregation play an important role in many human diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) forms amyloid plaques in pancreas of T2DM subjects that are involved in deteriorating islet function and in mediating β- cell apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of action, structure and nature of toxic hIAPP species responsible for this effect remains elusive till date mainly due to the high cost associated with the chemical synthesis of pure peptide required for these studies...
October 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046349/differential-regulation-of-the-rac1-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-bcr-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#11
Katharine R Smith, Dipen Rajgor, Jonathan G Hanley
Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signalling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046340/nnt-is-a-key-regulator-of-adrenal-redox-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-male-mice
#12
Eirini Meimaridou, Michelle Goldsworthy, Vasileios Chortis, Ersi Fragouli, Paul A Foster, Wiebke Arlt, Roger Cox, Louise A Metherell
Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, NNT, is a ubiquitous protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane with a key role in mitochondrial redox balance. NNT produces high concentrations of NADPH for detoxification of reactive oxygen species by glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. In humans, NNT dysfunction leads to an adrenal specific disorder, glucocorticoid deficiency. Certain sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice contain a spontaneously occurring inactivating Nnt mutation and display glucocorticoid deficiency along with glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046333/the-p53-inducible-long-noncoding-rna-trings-protects-cancer-cells-from-necrosis-under-glucose%C3%A2-starvation
#13
Muhammad Riaz Khan, Shaoxun Xiang, Zhiyin Song, Mian Wu
The tumor suppressor p53 is activated in response to cellular stress to prevent malignant transformation. However, several recent studies have shown that p53 can play protective roles in tumor cell survival under adversity. Whether p53-regulated long noncoding RNAs are involved in this process remains to be fully understood. Here, we show that under glucose starvation condition, p53 directly upregulates a novel lncRNA named TRINGS (Tp53-regulated inhibitor of necrosis under glucose starvation) in human tumor cells...
October 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046313/dicarbonyl-stress-and-glyoxalase-enzymatic-system-regulation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#14
Jacob T Mey, Brian K Blackburn, Edwin R Miranda, Alec B Chaves, Joan Briller, Marcelo G Bonini, Jacob M Haus
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark of Type II Diabetes (T2DM) and may be exacerbated by protein modifications by methylglyoxal (MG), known as dicarbonyl stress. The glyoxalase enzyme system composed of glyoxalase 1/2 (GLO1/GLO2) is the natural defense against dicarbonyl stress, yet its protein expression, activity and regulation remain largely unexplored in skeletal muscle. Therefore, this study investigated dicarbonyl stress and the glyoxalase enzyme system in the skeletal muscle of subjects with T2DM (age: 56 ± 5 yrs; BMI: 32 ± 2 kg/m(2)) compared to lean healthy control subjects (LHC; age: 27 ± 1 yrs; BMI: 22 ± 1 kg/m(2))...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045036/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-parthanatos-in-human-sh-sy5y-cells-via-improvement-of-intracellular-ros
#15
Hai-Feng Wang, Zong-Qi Wang, Ye Ding, Mei-Hua Piao, Chun-Sheng Feng, Guang-Fan Chi, Yi-Nan Luo, Peng-Fei Ge
AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal death caused by ischemic insults via activation of apoptosis, but it still remains unclear whether ER stress participates in regulation of parthanatos, a new type of programmed cell death characterized by PARP-1 overactivation and intracellular accumulation of PAR polymer. METHODS: we used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and human SH-SY5Y cells to simulate neuronal damage caused by ischemia...
October 16, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044991/tuneable-transient-thermogels-mediated-by-a-ph-and-redox-regulated-supramolecular-polymerization
#16
Daniel Spitzer, Leona Lucas Rodrigues, David Straßburger, Markus Mezger, Pol Besenius
We present a multi-stimuli responsive transient supramolecular polymerization of ß-sheet encoded dendritic peptide monomers in water. The glutamic acid and methionine containing amphiphiles undergo a glucose oxidase-catalyzed, glucose-fueled transient hydrogelation in response to an interplay of pH- and oxidation-stimuli, promoted by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). By adjusting the enzyme and glucose concentration we tune the assembly and the disassembly rates of the supramolecular polymers, which dictate the stiffness and transient stability of the hydrogels...
October 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044772/rd-lawrence-lecture-2017-incretins-the-intelligent-hormones-in-diabetes
#17
V A Gault
The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest due largely to their insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering properties. Indeed, GLP-1-based therapies are now key treatment options for many people with diabetes worldwide. In contrast, GIP-based agents have yet to reach the clinic based primarily on the impaired insulinotropic action of GIP observed in people with diabetes. Nevertheless, GIP is a key physiological regulator of insulin secretion and stable forms of GIP show much promise in rodent models to alleviate diabetes-obesity...
October 16, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044608/nutrient-sensing-in-pancreatic-islets-lessons-from-congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-monogenic-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Ming Lu, Changhong Li
Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM))...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044290/protease-activated-receptor-par-4-an-inducible-switch-between-thrombosis-and-vascular-inflammation
#19
Anke C Fender, Bernhard H Rauch, Tobias Geisler, Karsten Schrör
Thrombin triggers activation of platelets through protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4. Both receptors are widely expressed and exert multiple platelet-independent functions. PAR signalling contributes to healing responses after injury, by promoting cytokine activity and cellular growth and mobility. Uncontrolled PAR activation, however, can prevent timely resolution of inflammation, enhance thrombogenic endothelial function and drive adverse remodelling. The specific role of PAR-4 in thromboinflammatory vascular disease has been largely underestimated, given the relatively limited expression of PAR-4 in non-platelet cells under healthy conditions...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043564/the-ucp2-866g-a-polymorphism-could-be-considered-as-a-genetic-marker-of-different-functional-prognosis-in-ischemic-stroke-after-recanalization
#20
I Díaz-Maroto Cicuéndez, E Fernández-Díaz, J García-García, J Jordán, I Fernández-Cadenas, J Montaner, G Serrano-Heras, T Segura
Recent studies based on experimental animal models of stroke have suggested that uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is thought to regulate energy metabolism and reduce reactive oxygen species generation, provides protection against reperfusion damage. We aimed to investigate whether -866G/A polymorphism in the promoter of the UCP2 gene, which enhances its transcriptional activity, is associated with functional prognosis in patients with embolic ischemic stroke after early recanalization...
October 17, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
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