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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441777/health-effects-of-psidium-guajava-l-leaves-an-overview-of-the-last-decade
#1
REVIEW
Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio, Vito Verardo, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441735/effects-of-flavonoids-and-triterpene-analogues-from-leaves-of-eleutherococcus-sieboldianus-makino-koidz-himeukogi-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#2
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Yuusuke Suzuki, Mamoru Koketsu, Masayuki Ninomiya, Daisuke Sato, Takashi Suzuki, Satoshi Hayakawa, Makoto Kuroda, Hirokazu Kimura
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin (1), isoquercetin (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucoside (3), and nicotiflorin (4)], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin (5)], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin (6), echinocystic acid 3-O-arabinoside (7), and cauloside B (8)] from the methanol extract of E...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441146/epigenetic-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#3
Sapna Sharma, Jennifer Kriebel, Harald Grallert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose metabolism is a central process in mammalian energy homeostasis. Its deregulation is a key factor in development of metabolic disease like diabetes and cancer. In recent decades, our understanding of gene regulation at the signaling, chromatin and posttranscriptional levels has seen dramatic developments. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of epigenetic mechanisms that do not affect the genetic code can be assessed with new technologies. However, increasing complexity becomes a major challenge for translation into clinical application...
April 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440767/zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein-is-overproduced-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#4
Xavier Escoté, Gloria B Aranda, Mireia Mora, Gregori Casals, Joaquim Enseñat, Oscar Vidal, Yaiza Esteban, Irene Halperin, Felicia A Hanzu
INTRODUCTION: Cushing syndrome (CS), an endogenous hypercortisolemic condition with increased cardiometabolic morbidity, leads to development of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. Zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a recently characterized lipolytic adipokine implicated in regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and fat distribution. In vitro and animal studies suggest that glucocorticoids interact with ZAG secretion and action. To assess the relationship between ZAG and glucocorticoids in a human model of hypercortisolism, circulating ZAG levels were tested in patients with CS and its counterpart controls...
January 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440735/nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-knockdown-enhances-glucose-uptake-and-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-aml12-hepatocytes
#5
Xiaoyang Yuan, Huijing Huang, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to induce the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Recently, increasing evidence has revealed roles for Nrf2 in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism; however, the exact functions of Nrf2 in hepatocyte biology are largely unclear. In the current study, the transient knockdown of Nrf2 via siRNA transfection enhanced the glucose uptake of fasting AML12 hepatocytes to 325.3 ± 11.1% ( P < 0.05) of that of untransfected control cells...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440499/effects-of-tanshinone-iia-on-the-regulation-of-renal-proximal-tubular-fibrosis
#6
Luoyuan Cao, Baoying Huang, Xianguo Fu, Jing Yang, Yinghua Lin, Feng Lin
The development of diabetes mellitus, along with its complications, is a chronic inflammatory response process. Chronic kidney diseases are characterized by renal fibrosis, and fibrosis is an important pathway for end‑stage renal failure. According to previous studies, high glucose (HG) has been demonstrated to be the most important fibrogenesis‑inducing agent. Tanshinone IIA is one of the main components isolated from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Although tanshinone IIA has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the possible role of tanshinone IIA in fibrosis regulation remains to be elucidated and requires investigation...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440284/cyp2j2-and-its-metabolites-eets-attenuate-insulin-resistance-via-regulating-macrophage-polarization-in-adipose-tissue
#7
Meiyan Dai, Lujin Wu, Peihua Wang, Zheng Wen, Xizhen Xu, Dao Wen Wang
Macrophages in adipose tissue are associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation, which contributed to insulin resistance and the related metabolic diseases. Previous studies demonstrated the beneficial effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on metabolic disorders and inflammation. Here we investigated the effects of CYP2J2-EETs-sEH metabolic pathway on insulin resistance in mice and the potential mechanisms. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity caused metabolic dysfunction with more weight gain, elevated glucose and lipids levels, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, while increase in EETs level by rAAV-mediated CYP2J2 overexpression, administration of sEH inhibit TUPS or EETs infusion significantly attenuated these metabolic disorders...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439947/sirt1-hsf1-hsps-pathway-is-essential-for-exenatide-alleviated-lipid-induced-hepatic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#8
Xiaobin Zheng, Fen Xu, Hua Liang, Huanyi Cao, Mengyin Cai, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng
Recent studies have indicated lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to be a major contributor to the progression of hepatic steatosis. Exenatide (Exendin-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is known to improve hepatic steatosis with accumulating evidence. In this study, we investigated whether exenatide could alleviate lipid-induced hepatic ER stress through mammal sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and illustrated the detailed mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) were then treated with exenatide or normal saline by intraperitoneal injection for 4 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439257/high-resolution-recording-of-the-circadian-oscillator-in-primary-mouse-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cell-culture
#9
Volodymyr Petrenko, Yvan Gosmain, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks have been developed in evolution as an anticipatory mechanism allowing for adaptation to the constantly changing light environment due to rotation of the Earth. This mechanism is functional in all light-sensitive organisms. There is a considerable body of evidence on the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Clocks, operative in the pancreatic islets, have caught particular attention in the last years due to recent reports on their critical roles in regulation of insulin secretion and etiology of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438760/use-of-the-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-to-assess-insulin-sensitivity-in-guinea-pigs-dose-response-partitioned-glucose-metabolism-and-species-comparisons
#10
Dane M Horton, David A Saint, Julie A Owens, Kathryn L Gatford, Karen L Kind
The guinea pig is an alternate small animal model for the study of metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. However, only one study to date has reported the use of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) in anaesthetized animals in this species, and the dose-response has not been reported. We therefore characterized the dose-response curve for whole-body glucose uptake using recombinant human insulin in the adult guinea pig. Inter-species comparisons with published data showed species differences in maximal whole body responses (guinea pig ≈ human < rat < mouse), and the insulin concentrations at which half-maximal insulin responses occurred (guinea pig > human ≈ rat > mouse)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437835/pten-downregulation-promotes-%C3%AE-oxidation-to-fuel-hypertrophic-liver-growth-after-hepatectomy-in-mice
#11
Ekaterina Kachaylo, Christoph Tschuor, Nicolas Calo, Nathalie Borgeaud, Perparim Limani, Anne-Christine Piguet, Jean-Francois Dufour, Michelangelo Foti, Rolf Graf, Pierre A Clavien, Bostjan Humar
In regenerating liver, hepatocytes accumulate lipids before the major wave of parenchymal growth. This transient, regeneration-associated steatosis (TRAS) is required for liver recovery, but its purpose is unclear. The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key inhibitor of the AKT-mTOR axis that regulates growth and metabolic adaptations after hepatectomy. In quiescent liver, PTEN causes pathological steatosis when lost, while its role in regenerating liver remains unknown. Here, we show that PTEN downregulation promotes liver growth in a TRAS-dependent way...
April 24, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437200/effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-fndc5-and-irisin-in-mice-skeletal-muscle
#12
Simone Moreira de Macêdo, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Keila Lopes Mendes, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho Fraga, Igor V Brandi, Jonh David Feltenberger, Lucyana Conceição Farias, André Luiz Sena Guimarães, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, Sérgio Henrique de Sousa Santos
BACKGROUND: Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and its protein product Irisin are therapeutic targets for obesity-associated disorders. Irisin plays an important role in energy regulation, inducing browning of white adipocytes, and improving obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle Irisin expression and dietary quality. METHODS: Twenty-eight female mice were divided into four groups and fed the following experimental diets for 60 days: standard diet (SD), high-carbohydrate diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-protein diet (HPD)...
February 23, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437168/regulation-of-pten-degradation-and-nedd4-1-e3-ligase-activity-by-numb
#13
Chen Shao, Zhiguo Li, Nihal Ahmad, Xiaoqi Liu
The critical tumor suppressor PTEN is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Ubiquitination of PTEN was reported to control both PTEN stability and nuclear localization. Notably, the HECT E3-ligase NEDD4-1 was identified as the ubiquitin ligase for PTEN, mediating its degradation and down-stream events. However, the mechanisms how NEDD4-1 is regulated by up-stream signaling pathways or interaction with other proteins in promoting PTEN degradation remain largely unclear...
April 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436964/swell1-is-a-regulator-of-adipocyte-size-insulin-signalling-and-glucose-homeostasis
#14
Yanhui Zhang, Litao Xie, Susheel K Gunasekar, Dan Tong, Anil Mishra, William J Gibson, Chuansong Wang, Trevor Fidler, Brodie Marthaler, Aloysius Klingelhutz, E Dale Abel, Isaac Samuel, Jessica K Smith, Lei Cao, Rajan Sah
Adipocytes undergo considerable volumetric expansion in the setting of obesity. It has been proposed that such marked increases in adipocyte size may be sensed via adipocyte-autonomous mechanisms to mediate size-dependent intracellular signalling. Here, we show that SWELL1 (LRRC8a), a member of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein family, is an essential component of a volume-sensitive ion channel (VRAC) in adipocytes. We find that SWELL1-mediated VRAC is augmented in hypertrophic murine and human adipocytes in the setting of obesity...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436517/real-time-measurement-of-the-intracellular-ph-of-yeast-cells-during-glucose-metabolism-using-ratiometric-fluorescent-nanosensors
#15
Mohamed M Elsutohy, Veeren M Chauhan, Robert Markus, Mohammed Aref Kyyaly, Saul J B Tendler, Jonathan W Aylott
Intracellular pH is a key parameter that influences many biochemical and metabolic pathways that can also be used as an indirect marker to monitor metabolic and intracellular processes. Herein, we utilise ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive nanosensors with an extended dynamic pH range to measure the intracellular pH of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during glucose metabolism in real-time. Ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive nanosensors consisting of a polyacrylamide nanoparticle matrix covalently linked to two pH-sensitive fluorophores, Oregon green (OG) and 5(6)carboxyfluorescein (FAM), and a reference pH-insensitive fluorophore, 5(6)carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), were synthesised...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436464/glucose-dependent-regulation-of-pregnane-x-receptor-is-modulated-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#16
Peter O Oladimeji, Wenwei Lin, C Trent Brewer, Taosheng Chen
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a xenobiotic receptor that regulates the detoxification and clearance of drugs and foreign compounds from the liver. There has been mounting evidence of crosstalk between the drug metabolism pathway and the energy metabolism pathway, but little is known about this cross-regulation. To further delineate the energy metabolism and drug metabolism crosstalk in this study, we exposed HepG2 cells to varying glucose concentrations. We observed that PXR activity was induced under high-glucose conditions...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436331/lep-expression-and-its-role-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zara Ahmed
Obesity is metabolic disorder that increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and other metabolic syndromes in human beings. One sign of diabetes is increased blood glucose levels in the body. Glucose levels increase due to problems with insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Maturity onset of diabetes of the young is more common in adults and occurs due to insulin resistance. Both diabetes and obesity are major problems that are responsible for the death of millions of individuals every year, worldwide...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436327/mechanism-of-glucose-regulates-the-fruiting-body-formation-in-the-beech-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-hypsizygus-marmoreus-agaricomycetes
#18
Jin-Jing Zhang, Hui Chen, Min-Ying Xie, Ming-Jie Chen, Hai-Bo Hao, Hong Wang, Zhi-Yong Feng
To understand the fruiting process of Hypsizygus marmoreus, a synthetic liquid medium (SLM) was optimized to induce fruiting body initiation. Dependent on the SLM, the effect of a monofactor (glucose) on the fruiting bodies of H. marmoreus was studied at different concentrations (10 and 40 g/L). Primordia appeared approximately 10 days earlier in low-glucose media (LGM) than in high-glucose media (HGM), whereas mature fruiting bodies formed on mushrooms approximately 7 days earlier and more primordia developed into mature fruiting bodies when cultured in HGM...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436095/berberine-alleviates-oxidative-stress-in-islets-of-diabetic-mice-by-inhibiting-mir-106b-expression-and-up-regulating-sirt1
#19
Dong-Liang Chen, Ke-Ya Yang
BACKGROUND: Mounting studies have indicated the role of berberine, SIRT1 and oxidative stress in diabetes, respectively. However, few studies have demonstrated their correlation and regulation function in diabetes. Therefore, the protective effect of berberine in diabetic and the underlying core mechanism were investigated in the current study. METHODS: Diabetic mice model in vivo were established. Mouse pancreatic beta-cell line NIT-1 cells were treated with 30 mM high glucose to induce diabetic condition in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436023/activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-by-metformin-ablates-angiotensin-ii-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hypertension-in-mice-in-vivo
#20
Quanlu Duan, Ping Song, Ye Ding, Ming-Hui Zou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Metformin, one of the most frequently prescribed medications for type 2 diabetes, reportedly exerts blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in patients with diabetes; however, the effects and underlying mechanisms of metformin on BP in non-diabetic condition remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of metformin on angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion-induced hypertension in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of metformin on BP were investigated in wild-type (WT, C57BL/6 J) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα2) knockout (AMPKα2(-/-) ) mice with or without Ang II-infusion...
April 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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