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Functional electrical stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087519/sympathetic-modulation-of-electrical-activation-in-normal-and-infarcted-myocardium-implications-for-arrhythmogenesis
#1
Olujimi A Ajijola, Robert L Lux, Anadjeet Khahera, OhJin Kwon, Eric Aliotta, Daniel Ennis, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
: Background The influence of cardiac sympathetic innervation on electrical activation in normal and chronically infarcted ventricular myocardium is not understood. Methods and Results Yorkshire pigs with normal hearts (NL, n=12) or anterior myocardial infarction (MI, n=9) underwent high-resolution mapping of the anteroapical left ventricle, at baseline, and during left and right stellate ganglion stimulation (LSGS & RSGS, respectively). Conduction velocity (CV), activation times (AT), & directionality of propagation were measured...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087265/myocardial-relaxation-is-accelerated-by-fast-stretch-not-reduced-afterload
#2
Charles S Chung, Charles W Hoopes, Kenneth S Campbell
Fast relaxation of cross-bridge generated force in the myocardium facilitates efficient diastolic function. Recently published research studying mechanisms that modulate the relaxation rate has focused on molecular factors. Mechanical factors have received less attention since the 1980s when seminal work established the theory that reducing afterload accelerates the relaxation rate. Clinical trials using afterload reducing drugs, partially based on this theory, have thus far failed to improve outcomes for patients with diastolic dysfunction...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#3
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#4
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
January 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079427/effect-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#5
Nikolaos Pe Kadoglou, Christina Mandila, Apostolos Karavidas, Dimitrios Farmakis, Vasiliki Matzaraki, Christos Varounis, Sofia Arapi, Anastasia Perpinia, John Parissis
Background/design Functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles is an alternative method of training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although it improves exercise capacity in CHF, we performed a randomised, placebo-controlled study to investigate its effects on long-term clinical outcomes. Methods We randomly assigned 120 patients, aged 71 ± 8 years, with stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III (63%/37%), mean left ventricular ejection fraction 28 ± 5%), to either a 6-week functional electrical stimulation training programme or placebo...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079057/functional-mri-of-the-reserpine-induced-putative-rat-model-of-fibromyalgia-reveals-discriminatory-patterns-of-functional-augmentation-to-acute-nociceptive-stimuli
#6
Jack A Wells, Sayaka Shibata, Akihiko Fujikawa, Masayasu Takahashi, Tsuneo Saga, Ichio Aoki
Functional neuroimaging, applied to pre-clinical models of chronic pain, offers unique advantages in the drive to discover new treatments for this prevalent and oppressive condition. The high spatial and temporal resolution of fMRI affords detailed mapping of regional pharmacodynamics that underlie mechanisms of pain suppression by new analgesics. Despite evidence supporting the translational relevance of this approach, relatively few studies have investigated fMRI abnormalities in rodent models of chronic pain...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078074/fes-in-europe-and-beyond-current-translational-research
#7
Christine Azevedo Coste, Winfried Mayr, Manfred Bijak, Antonio Musarò, Ugo Carraro
Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES) is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators)...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078072/multisensor-classification-system-for-triggering-fes-in-order-to-support-voluntary-swallowing
#8
Benjamin Riebold, Holger Nahrstaedt, Corinna Schultheiss, Rainer O Seidl, Thomas Schauer
In dysphagia the ability of elevating the larynx and hyoid is usually impaired. Electromyography (EMG) and Bioimpedance (BI) measurements at the neck can be used to trigger functional electrical stimulation (FES) of swallowing related muscles. Nahrstaedt et al.(1) introduced an algorithm to trigger the stimulation in phase with the voluntary swallowing to improve the airway closure and elevation speed of the larynx and hyoid. However, due to non-swallow related movements like speaking, chewing or head turning, stimulations might be unintentionally triggered...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078071/electrical-stimulation-to-reduce-the-overload-in-upper-limbs-during-sitting-pivot-transfer-in-paraplegic-a-preliminary-study
#9
Ana Claudia G Lopes, Claudia Ochoa-Diaz, Roberto S Baptista, Lucas O Fonseca, Charles Fattal, Christine Azevedo Coste, Antônio P L Bó, Emerson Fachin-Martins
Transfer is a key ability and allows greater interact with the environment and social participation. Conversely, paraplegics have great risk of pain and injury in the upper limbs due to joint overloads during activities of daily living, like transfer. The main goal of this study is to verify if the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) in the lower limbs of paraplegic individuals can assist the sitting pivot transfer (SPT). The secondary objective is to verify if there is a greater participation of the lower limbs during lift pivot phase...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078068/efficacy-of-emg-bioimpedance-triggered-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-swallowing-performance
#10
Corinna Schultheiss, Thomas Schauer, Holger Nahrstaedt, Rainer O Seidl, Jehoschua Bieler
In order to support swallowing, the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation for different stimulation settings of the submental musculature has been investigated. The stimulation was administrated at rest and synchronously to voluntary initiated swallows. The onset of a swallow was detected in real-time by a combined electromyography/ bioimpedance measurement at the neck in order to trigger the stimulation. The amplitude and speed of larynx elevation caused by the FES has been assessed by the observed change in bioimpedance whereas a reduction of bioimpedance corresponds to an increase in larynx elevation...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#11
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#12
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074292/reliability-of-the-nociceptive-blink-reflex-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-trigeminal-nerve-in-humans
#13
Yuri Martins Costa, Lene Baad-Hansen, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Peter Svensson
OBJECTIVE: The nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) can be useful to investigate trigeminal nociceptive function. The aim of this study was to estimate the reliability of the nBR evoked by electrical stimulation of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve under the following conditions: over time (test-retest and intrarater reliability) and by two examiners (interrater reliability). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy participants were evaluated in two sessions (24 h apart)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073285/muscle-nerve-muscle-grafting-for-facial-reanimation-in-rats
#14
Steven J Charous, Jeffery M Hotaling, Bridget D Burgess, Joshua M Sappington, James Park, Grant Turek, Eileen M Foecking
OBJECTIVE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition leaving patients with a myriad of aesthetic and functional consequences. Muscle-nerve-muscle (MNM) neurotization is a reinnervation technique that involves implanting an autogenous nerve graft as a conduit between an innervated "donor" muscle and a denervated "recipient" muscle. We investigated the use of MNM reinnervation, alone or in combination with electrical stimulation (ES) and testosterone propionate (TP) in comparison to nerve reanastomosis (RE), on functional recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072807/occipital-nerve-stimulation-for-refractory-chronic-migraine-results-of-a-long-term-prospective-study
#15
Dolores Rodrigo, Pilar Acin, Pedro Bermejo
BACKGROUND: Refractory chronic migraine affects approximately 4% of the population worldwide and results in severe pain, lifestyle limitations, and decreased quality of life. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) refers to the electric stimulation of the distal branches of greater and lesser occipital nerves; the surgical technique has previously been described and has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of a wide variety of headache disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of ONS for medically intractable chronic migraine...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071962/the-feasibility-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-to-improve-upper-extremity-function-in-a-two-year-old-child-with-perinatal-stroke-a-case-report
#16
Kristin E Musselman, Patricia Manns, Jaclyn Dawe, Rhina Delgado, Jaynie F Yang
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility (i.e. tolerability, adherence) of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the upper extremity (UE) in a two-year-old child with perinatal stroke. METHODS: Forty hours of FES over eight weeks was prescribed. FES to the hemiplegic triceps, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum was timed with reaching during play. Assessments were performed before, during, and two months post-intervention...
January 10, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068359/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplemented-diet-influences-the-orchidectomy-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-rat-mesenteric-arteries
#17
Diva M Villalpando, Rocío Navarro, Lara Del Campo, Carlota Largo, David Muñoz, María Tabernero, Ramiro Baeza, Cristina Otero, Hugo S García, Mercedes Ferrer
Over the past few decades, the cardiovascular benefits of a high dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been extensively studied. However, many of the molecular mechanisms and effects exerted by PUFAs have yet to be well explained. The lack of sex hormones alters vascular tone, and we have described that a DHA-supplemented diet to orchidectomized rats improve vascular function of the aorta. Based on these data and since the mesenteric artery importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a DHA-supplemented diet on the mesenteric vascular function from orchidectomized rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068296/orientation-selective-deep-brain-stimulation
#18
Lauri J Lehto, Julia P Slopsema, Matthew D Johnson, Artem Shatillo, Benjamin A Teplitzky, Lynn Utecht, Gregor Adriany, Silvia Mangia, Alejandra Sierra, Walter C Low, Olli Gröhn, Shalom Michaeli
OBJECTIVE: Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064474/the-effect-of-alcohol-administration-on-the-corpus-cavernosum
#19
See Min Choi, Deok Ha Seo, Sin Woo Lee, Chunwoo Lee, Seong Uk Jeh, Sung Chul Kam, Jeong Seok Hwa, Ky Hyun Chung, Jae Seog Hyun
PURPOSE: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC) using an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064021/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-field-induced-dose-dependent-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-signaling-and-intracellular-electro-sensitization
#20
Gleb P Tolstykh, Melissa Tarango, Caleb C Roth, Bennett L Ibey
Previously, it was demonstrated that nanometer-sized pores (nanopores) are formed in outer cellular membranes after exposure to nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs). We reported that plasma membrane nanoporation affects phospholipids of the cell membrane, culminating in cascading phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) intracellular signaling. In the current study, we show that nsEPs initiated electric field (EF) dose-dependent PIP2 hydrolysis and/or depletion from the plasma membrane. This process was confirmed using fluorescent optical probes of PIP2 hydrolysis: PLCδ-PH-EGFP and GFP-C1-PKCγ-C1a...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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