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Nicotine abuse

Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Michael C Judd, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Chang You, Devinder S Arora, Maureen A McElvain, Bertha J Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie, John J Woodward
Drugs of abuse increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and output from the VTA is critical for both natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Ethanol and the abused inhalant toluene both enhance VTA neuronal firing, but the mechanisms of this effect is not fully known. In this study, we used extracellular recordings to compare the actions of toluene and ethanol on DA VTA neurons. Both ethanol and toluene increased the firing rate of DA neurons, although toluene was ~100 times more potent than ethanol...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Sławomir Poletajew, Radosław Biernacki, Paweł Buraczyński, Jarosław Chojnacki, Stefan Czarniecki, Dominika Gajewska, Tomasz Pohaba, Joanna Sondka, Michał Skrzypczyk, Tomasz Suchojad, Dominik Wojtkowiak, Bogusław Zaforemski, Łukasz Zapała, Aleksandra Zemła, Piotr Radziszewski
A potential reason for poor survival among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Poland is initial disqualification from curative treatment due to advanced stage of the disease or low performance status. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of care in patients with newly diagnosed MIBC. This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study involving 296 consecutive patients with primary histologically diagnosed MIBC. Therapeutic decisions and potentially underlying clinical factors were analysed...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Edward B McNeil, Nopporn Tantirangsee, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Gilberto Gerra, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Giulia Milano, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Claudia Donnini
Studies evidenced the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and tobacco smoking in adulthood. An appropriate parenting style has been found to be associated with children's less frequent tobacco consumption. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity could represent the potential link between ACEs, mood disorders and smoking susceptibility. We studied a sample of 50 male smokers, affected by nicotine dependence and 50 controls who never smoked. Self-reported retrospective perception of neglect (Child Experience of Care and Abuse: CECA-Q questionnaire), age of smoking onset, number of cigarette/day, psychiatric symptoms (Symptoms Check List 90 scale: SCL 90) and basal level of ACTH and cortisol have been evaluated...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M G LeSage, M Staley, P Muelken, J R Smethells, I Stepanov, R I Vogel, P R Pentel, A C Harris
BACKGROUND: The popularity of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased dramatically despite their unknown health consequences. Because the abuse liability of ECs is one of the leading concerns of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), models to assess it are urgently needed to inform FDA regulatory decisions regarding these products. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative abuse liability of an EC liquid compared to nicotine alone in rats. Because this EC liquid contains non-nicotine constituents that may enhance its abuse liability, we hypothesized that it would have greater abuse liability than nicotine alone...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Patrizia Panzani, Juliane Unterhauser, Stefania Mulas, Antonio Fanolla, Claudia Zitelli, Alessandro Briani, Giancarlo Giupponi, Icro Maremmani, Andreas Conca
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite this comorbidity being firmly established, alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are not routinely and systematically assessed in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of risky use of alcohol, alcohol use disorder (AUD), smoking, and nicotine use disorder in people with psychiatric diagnoses and their association with age, gender, and occupational functioning...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Daniel J Bach, Matthew Tenaglia, Debra L Baker, Sean Deats, Erica Montgomery, Oné R Pagán
Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs abused by humans. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that nicotine decreases motility and induces seizure-like behavior in planarians (pSLM, which are vigorous writhing and bending of the body) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nicotine also induces withdrawal-like behaviors in these worms. Cotinine is the major nicotine metabolite in humans, although it is not the final product of nicotine metabolism. Cotinine is mostly inactive in vertebrate nervous systems and is currently being explored as a molecule which possess most of nicotine's beneficial effects and few of its undesirable ones...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Stephen T Higgins, Ryan Redner, Jeff S Priest, Janice Y Bunn
INTRODUCTION: Use of machine-estimated higher nicotine/tar yield (regular full-flavor) cigarettes is associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence. The present study examined risk factors for using full-flavor versus other cigarette types, including socioeconomic disadvantage and other risk factors for tobacco use or tobacco-related adverse health impacts. Associations between use of full-flavor cigarettes and risk of nicotine dependence were also examined. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative samples of adult cigarette smokers from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health...
August 9, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Erica D Holliday, Thomas J Gould
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood...
July 13, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Montserrat Bellés, Luis Heredia, Noemí Serra, José L Domingo, Victoria Linares
Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Stephen J Kohut
Polysubstance abuse is common among substance-use disorder patients, and nicotine is one of the most commonly co-used substances. Epidemiological and clinical laboratory studies suggest that nicotine, when combined with other drugs of abuse, increases intake of one or both substances. This review focuses on the preclinical literature regarding nicotine's interaction with alcohol, stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamines), opioids (i.e., morphine, heroin), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The current understanding of how these various classes of abused drugs may interact with nicotine on behavioral, physiological, and pharmacological indices that may be important in maintaining co-use of one or both substances in human populations are highlighted...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Elizabeth J Santa Ana, Steven D LaRowe, Kent Armeson, Kayla E Lamb, Karen Hartwell
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI) for dually diagnosed patients holds promise for increasing treatment engagement. OBJECTIVES: The current study evaluated the impact of a novel GMI protocol that included tobacco-specific components (referred to as "Tobacco GMI or T-GMI") targeting enhanced engagement in smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Thirty-seven primary alcohol and nicotine-dependent cigarette smoking homeless Veterans with co-morbid psychiatric conditions were recruited to receive four GMI sessions over 4 consecutive days...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Amador Calafat, Elisardo Becoña, Bart Thijs, Wolfgang Glänzel
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to introduce a new methodology in the field of substance abuse, namely, co-citation analysis, which uses the bibliographic references of publications to establish the main thematic areas being researched and to identify the seminal documents that have contributed to establishing the intellectual foundation of the discipline at the present time. METHOD: We identified all bibliographic references that were cited in documents published in the substance abuse journals included in the Journal Citation Reports in the 2001-2012 period, generating a co-citation matrix...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Timothy E Wilens, Joseph Biederman, MaryKate Martelon, Courtney Zulauf, Jesse P Anderson, Nicholas W Carrellas, Amy Yule, Janet Wozniak, Ronna Fried, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a highly morbid disorder increasingly recognized in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the relative risk for substance use disorders (SUDs; alcohol or drug abuse or dependence) and cigarette smoking in adolescents with BPD. METHODS: We evaluated the relative risk for SUDs and cigarette smoking in a case-controlled, 5-year prospective follow-up of adolescents with (n = 105, mean ± SD baseline age = 13.6 ± 2.5 years) and without ("controls"; n = 98, baseline age = 13...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jirawoot Srisontiyakul, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Andrew J Lawrence
Cigarettes and alcohol are the most abused substances in the world and are commonly co-abused. Nicotine primarily acts in the brain on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), which are also a target for alcohol. The alpha6 subunit of nAChR is expressed almost exclusively in the brain reward system and may modulate the rewarding properties of alcohol and nicotine. Recently, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI) was synthesized as a selective, brain penetrant α6 subunit antagonist that reduces nicotine self-administration...
August 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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