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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732318/the-experimental-tobacco-marketplace-ii-substitutability-and-sex-effects-in-dual-electronic-cigarette-and-conventional-cigarette-users
#1
Amanda J Quisenberry, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental: Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. METHODS: The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant's usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content...
July 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712749/nicotine-and-cocaine-triggered-methamphetamine-reinstatement-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Steven T Pittenger, Shinnyi Chou, Scott T Barrett, Isabella Catalano, Maxwell Lydiatt, Rick A Bevins
Preclinical studies have demonstrated a return to methamphetamine (meth)-seeking behavior (reinstatement) induced by injections of meth administered by the experimenter (drug-prime). Notably, females tend to be more sensitive to drug-prime; often displaying more reinstatement behavior when compared to males. While meth-primed reinstatement of meth-seeking behavior has been established, little is known about the ability of other drugs of abuse to substitute for meth during drug-primed reinstatement; nicotine and cocaine were the focus of the present work...
July 13, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704277/effects-of-ceftriaxone-on-conditioned-nicotine-reward-in-rats
#3
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Nicotine is the addictive compound in tobacco products which exerts psychosomatic effects that contribute to abuse and to low rates of abstinence in treatment-seeking smokers. At present, the most successful smoking cessation aide helps one in four individuals quit smoking at 1 year postcessation. New adjunctive therapies are needed to improve status of smoking-related public health crises, and β-lactam antibiotics are one class of potential therapies as they favorably augment extrasynaptic glutamate clearance...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666811/%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-2-subunit-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-exert-opposing-actions-on-rapid-dopamine-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-rats-with-high-versus-low-response-to-novelty
#4
Cody A Siciliano, J Michael McIntosh, Sara R Jones, Mark J Ferris
Determining neurobiological factors that contribute to individual variance in drug addiction vulnerability allows for identification of at-risk populations, use of preventative measures and personalized medicine in the treatment of substance use disorders. Rodents that exhibit high locomotor activity when exploring an inescapable novel environment (high-responder; HR) are more susceptible to the reinforcing effects of many abused compounds, including nicotine, as compared to animals that exhibit low locomotor activity (low-responder; LR)...
June 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647007/childhood-psychiatric-disorders-as-risk-factor-for-subsequent-substance-abuse-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Annabeth P Groenman, Tieme W P Janssen, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (<18 years old) ADHD, ODD or CD, anxiety, or depression in relation to later alcohol-, nicotine-, or drug-related disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs) published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language from 1986 to May 2016...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646714/synthetic-cathinones-and-stereochemistry-s-enantiomer-of-mephedrone-reduces-anxiety-and-depressant-like-effects-in-cocaine-or-mdpv-abstinent-rats
#6
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Callum Hicks, Allen B Reitz, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropharmacological profile of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (MEPH) is influenced by stereochemistry. Both MEPH enantiomers are monoamine transporter substrates, but R-MEPH is primarily responsible for rewarding effects of MEPH as it produces greater locomotor activation and intracranial self-stimulation than S-MEPH. S-MEPH is a 50-fold more potent 5-HT releaser than R-MEPH and does not place preference in rats. MEPH is also structurally similar to the cathinone derivative bupropion, an antidepressant and smoking cessation medication, suggesting MEPH has therapeutic and addictive properties...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641491/nicotine-and-cigarette-smoke-modulate-nrf2-bdnf-dopaminergic-signal-and-neurobehavioral-disorders-in-adult-rat-cerebral-cortex
#7
Nibedita Naha, D N Gandhi, A K Gautam, J Ravi Prakash
BACKGROUND: Nicotine and cigarette smoking (CS) are associated with addiction behavior, drug-seeking, and abuse. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association especially, the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine (DA), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in the cerebral cortex, are not fully known. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpression of BDNF and DA, and suppression of Nrf2 contribute to several pathological and behavioral alterations in adult cerebral cortex...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634710/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-assessment-of-electronic-cigarettes-combustible-cigarettes-and-nicotine-gum-implications-for-abuse-liability
#8
Mitchell F Stiles, Leanne R Campbell, Donald W Graff, Bobbette A Jones, Reginald V Fant, Jack E Henningfield
RATIONALE: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. METHODS: Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC...
June 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#10
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608236/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-against-nicotine-induced-neurotoxicity-is-mediated-by-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#11
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Fahimeh Faraji, Shiva Mozaffari
Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586306/revisiting-nicotine-s-role-in-the-ageing-brain-and-cognitive-impairment
#13
Alireza Majdi, Farzin Kamari, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology...
June 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579351/preclinical-abuse-liability-assessment-of-abt-126-an-agonist-at-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr
#14
Thomas J Hudzik, Ana M Basso, James J Lynch, William M Bracken, Eric G Mohler, Kathy L Kohlhaas, Hongyu Xu, George Haig, Laura Gault
ABT-126 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is selective for the α7 subtype of the receptor. nAChRs are thought to play a role in a variety of neurocognitive processes and have been a pharmacologic target for disorders with cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As part of the preclinical safety package for ABT-126, its potential for abuse was assessed. While the involvement of the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor in the addictive properties of nicotine has been demonstrated, the role of the α7 receptor has been studied much less extensively...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577210/-distal-femoral-osteotomy-using-a-lateral-opening-wedge-technique
#15
M J Feucht, J Mehl, P Forkel, A B Imhoff, S Hinterwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To shift the weight-bearing axis of the lower limb medially by opening a lateral-based metaphyseal osteotomy at the distal femur. INDICATIONS: Femoral-based valgus malalignment and symptomatic lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis, lateral hyperpression syndrome, cartilage therapy of the lateral compartment, lateral meniscal replacement/transplantation, medial instability with valgus thrust, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament, patellar instability and/or maltracking...
June 2, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559549/re-exposure-to-nicotine-associated-context-from-adolescence-enhances-alcohol-intake-in-adulthood
#16
Dor Zipori, Yossi Sadot-Sogrin, Koral Goltseker, Oren Even-Chen, Nofar Rahamim, Ohad Shaham, Segev Barak
Alcohol and nicotine are the two most commonly-abused substances and are often used together. Nicotine enhances alcohol-drinking behaviors in humans and in animals, and was suggested to enhance the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers. Here, we show that nicotine-associated environment, rather than nicotine itself, enhances alcohol intake in rats. Adolescent rats received repeated intermittent injections of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., 5 injections, every 3(rd) day) or saline. The injection was paired with their home cage, or with the subsequent alcohol self-administration context...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552999/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-for-the-assessment-of-pelvic-floor-disorders-and-their-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum
#17
Melanie Metz, Bärbel Junginger, Wolfgang Henrich, Kaven Baeßler
Introduction The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their symptoms and risk factors in pregnancy and after birth including symptom course, severity and impact on quality of life. Methods The validated German pelvic floor questionnaire was modified and a new risk factor domain developed. The questionnaire was initially completed by 233 nulliparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy and at six weeks (n = 148) and one year (n = 120) post partum...
April 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546648/differences-in-delay-but-not-probability-discounting-in-current-smokers-e-cigarette-users-and-never-smokers
#18
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, David J Cox
Steeper delay discounting in substance abuse populations, compared to non-abusing populations, has been well-established in prior studies. Despite the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a novel and relatively understudied form of nicotine consumption, relatively little is known as to how e-cigarette users discount rewards compared to traditional cigarette smokers and never smokers. In the present study, we measured delay and probability discounting rates, as well as perceived risk inherent to a delayed reward, in current traditional cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and never smokers...
2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498868/a-drosophila-model-for-developmental-nicotine-exposure
#19
Norma Andrea Velazquez-Ulloa
Despite the known health risks of tobacco smoking, many people including pregnant women continue smoking. The effects of developmental nicotine exposure are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that can be used for uncovering genetic and molecular mechanisms for drugs of abuse. Here I show that Drosophila can be a model to elucidate the mechanisms for nicotine's effects on a developing organism. Drosophila reared on nicotine food display developmental and behavioral effects similar to those in mammals including decreased survival and weight, increased developmental time, and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine and ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492955/the-association-of-self-concept-with-substance-abuse-and-problematic-use-of-video-games-in-university-students-a-structural-equation-model
#20
Ramón Chacón Cuberos, Félix Zurita Ortega, Manuel Castro Sánchez, Tamara Espejo Garcés, Asunción Martínez Martínez, Gerardo Ruiz-Rico Ruiz
This study aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of consumption of alcohol, tobacco consumption, and problematic use of video games based on self-concept and its dimensions in a sample of university students. The research was conducted with a sample of 490 students from the province of Granada (Spain), aged between 20 and 29 years (M = 22.80 ± 3.63), with a homogeneous distribution by gender. The instruments used were the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (García & Musitu, 1999), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De la Fuente, & Grant, 1993), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) and the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video Games (Chamarro et al...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
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