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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299690/%C3%AE-5-nachr-modulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-makes-attention-resilient
#1
William M Howe, Julie L Brooks, Patrick L Tierney, Jincheng Pang, Amie Rossi, Damon Young, Keith Dlugolenski, Ed Guillmette, Marc Roy, Katherine Hales, Rouba Kozak
A loss-of-function polymorphism in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene has been linked to both drug abuse and schizophrenia. The α5 nAChR subunit is strategically positioned in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), where a loss-of-function in this subunit may contribute to cognitive disruptions in both disorders. However, the specific contribution of α5 to PFC-dependent cognitive functions has yet to be illustrated. In the present studies, we used RNA interference to knockdown the α5 nAChR subunit in the PFC of adult rats...
January 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288750/generalization-of-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-seeking-for-different-classes-of-drugs-of-abuse
#2
Magdalena Sikora, Céline Nicolas, Marine Istin, Nematollah Jaafari, Nathalie Thiriet, Marcello Solinas
BACKGROUND: Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by persistent vulnerability to relapse during abstinence. In animal models of addiction, accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) during periods of abstinence can have curative effects on addiction and reduce the risks of relapse. However, until present most studies have mainly focused on cocaine. In this study, we investigated whether EE could have beneficial effects on cue-induced seeking for several psychoactive drugs belonging to different pharmacological classes such as methamphetamine (METH), heroin (HER) and nicotine (NIC)...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246856/the-behavioral-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-potential-of-lorcaserin-for-substance-use-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Gregory T Collins, Lisa R Gerak, Charles P France
Substance abuse is serious public health problem for which there are few effective pharmacotherapies. Traditional strategies for drug development have focused on antagonists to block the abuse-related effects of a drug at its site of action, and agonists to replace/mimic the effects of the abused substance. However, recent efforts have targeted receptors, such as serotonin (5-HT)2 receptors, that can indirectly modulate dopamine neurotransmission with the goal of developing a pharmacotherapy that might be effective at reducing the abuse-related effects of drugs more generally...
December 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230810/trauma-exposure-interacts-with-the-genetic-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-in-alcohol-misuse-of-us-soldiers
#4
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, M B Stein, J Gelernter
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether trauma exposure moderates the genetic correlation between substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders, we tested whether trauma exposure modifies the association of genetic risks for mental disorders with alcohol misuse and nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms. METHODS: High-resolution polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 10 732 US Army soldiers (8346 trauma-exposed and 2386 trauma-unexposed) based on genome-wide association studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia...
December 11, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229303/pretransplant-coronary-artery-disease-is-a-predictor-for-myocardial-infarction-and-cardiac-death-after-liver-transplantation
#5
F Darstein, M Hoppe-Lotichius, J Vollmar, V Weyer-Elberich, A Zimmermann, J Mittler, G Otto, H Lang, P R Galle, T Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a serious problem of liver transplant (LT) recipients because of increased cardiovascular risk due to immunosuppressive therapy, higher age, intraoperative risk and comorbidities (such as diabetes and nicotine abuse). Reported frequency of cardiovascular events after LT shows a high variability between different LT cohorts. Our aim was to analyze a cohort of LT recipients from a single center in Germany to evaluate frequency of the cardiovascular endpoints (CVE) myocardial infarction and/or cardiac death after LT and to investigate correlations of CVE post LT with pretransplant patient characteristics...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200550/-vaping-emergence-of-a-new-paraphernalia
#6
REVIEW
Subrata Naskar, Praveen Kumar Jakati
As research, has progressed through ages, we have been able to uncover the true nature of nicotine addiction. Humankind is now aware of the various ailments that it brings with it. As the slogan for a smokeless world for a better world has been raised, a new practice called "vaping" has come to the forefront. The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has been on the rise recently. Claims have been made over its role for nicotine deaddiction as well as reducing harmful use for chronic nicotine abusers. In the current review, we searched the PubMed database for available literatures on this practice...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194045/mothering-under-the-influence-how-perinatal-drugs-of-abuse-alter-the-mother-infant-interaction
#7
Anna Brancato, Carla Cannizzaro
Although drug-abusing women try to moderate their drug and alcohol use during pregnancy, they often relapse at a time when childcare needs are high and maternal bonding is critical to an infant's development. In the clinical setting, the search for the neural basis of drug-induced caregiving deficits is complex due to several intervening variables. Rather, the preclinical studies that control for drug dose and regimen, as well as for gestational and postpartum environment, allow a precise determination of the effects of drugs on maternal behaviour...
December 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#8
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179044/nicotine-as-a-discriminative-stimulus-for-ethanol-use
#9
Brett C Ginsburg, Simon A Levy, R J Lamb
Abused drugs reinforce behavior; i.e., they increase the probability of the behavior preceding their administration. Abused drugs can also act as discriminative stimuli; i.e., they can set the occasion for responding reinforced by another event. Thus, one abused drug could come to set the occasion for the use of another and this functional relationship may play a role in polysubstance abuse, where common patterns of use could result in this relationship. Here we establish nicotine (0.4mg/kg, ip 5-min pre-session) as a discriminative stimulus for behavior reinforced by ethanol (0...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166444/patterns-of-tobacco-consumption-among-residents-of-a-rural-settlement-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Andrécia Cósmem da Silva, Lorena Silva Vargas, Roselma Lucchese, Bruno de Souza Calixto, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Ivania Vera, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Valéria Pagotto, Inaina Lara Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Investigate patterns and factors associated with tobacco consumption among residents of a rural settlement. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between September and November 2014, with 172 residents of a rural settlement in the Midwest region of Brazil. We analyzed as dependent variables tobacco consumption at some point in life; current tobacco consumption; tobacco abuse; and the high risk of nicotine dependence, with sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use, and we applied the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20)...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158387/retrograde-inhibition-by-a-specific-subset-of-interpeduncular-%C3%AE-5-nicotinic-neurons-regulates-nicotine-preference
#11
Jessica L Ables, Andreas Görlich, Beatriz Antolin-Fontes, Cuidong Wang, Sylvia M Lipford, Michael H Riad, Jing Ren, Fei Hu, Minmin Luo, Paul J Kenny, Nathaniel Heintz, Ines Ibañez-Tallon
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can produce adaptive changes that lead to the establishment of dependence. It has been shown that allelic variation in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene CHRNA5 is associated with higher risk of tobacco dependence. In the brain, α5-containing nAChRs are expressed at very high levels in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Here we identified two nonoverlapping α5 (+) cell populations (α5- (Amigo1) and α5- (Epyc) ) in mouse IPN that respond differentially to nicotine...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119914/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-comorbid-bipolar-disorders-clinical-features-and-treatment-implications
#12
Federico Mucci, Cristina Toni, Ettore Favaretto, Giulia Vannucchi, Donatella Marazziti, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms within the context of a bipolar disorder (BD) have been described since the 19th century. Interestingly, the existence of a relevant overlap between the aforementioned psychiatric syndromes has been confirmed by a number of recent epidemiological and family studies. AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to review the clinical features and the therapeutic implications of the OCD-BD comorbidity. DISCUSSION: In the last two decades, the frequent association between OCD and BD has been earning a growing interest given its relevant nosological and therapeutic implications...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119287/smoking-and-obesity-influence-the-risk-of-nonunion-in-lateral-opening-wedge-closing-wedge-and-torsional-distal-femoral-osteotomies
#13
Franz Liska, Bernhard Haller, Andreas Voss, Julian Mehl, Florian B Imhoff, Lukas Willinger, Andreas B Imhoff
PURPOSE: Lateral distal femoral osteotomies (DFO) have recently been performed more frequently. In addition to realignment for varus and valgus deformity, the indication was extended with the introduction of torsional osteotomies in patellofemoral instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the general and technical risk factors for nonunion in lateral opening, closing and torsional DFO. METHODS: A total of 150 lateral DFO [98 opening wedge (LOWDFO) and 52 closing wedge (LCWDFO)] were analyzed in regard to potential risk factors for nonunion until plate removal...
November 8, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#14
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076779/cigarette-smoking-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-nationwide-analysis
#15
Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Robert F Rudy, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Timothy R Smith, Kai U Frerichs, William B Gormley, M Ali Aziz-Sultan, Rose Du
OBJECTIVE Although cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for cerebral aneurysm development and rupture, there are limited data evaluating the impact of smoking on outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additionally, two recent studies suggested that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with improved neurological outcomes among smokers who had sustained an SAH compared with smokers who did not receive nicotine. METHODS Patients who underwent endovascular or microsurgical repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2009-2011) and stratified by cigarette smoking...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065847/long-term-administration-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-and-influence-of-substance-and-drug-abuse-on-the-disease-outcome
#16
F-M Werner, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
October 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065200/basic-science-and-public-policy-informed-regulation-for-nicotine-and-tobacco-products
#17
Christie D Fowler, Cassandra D Gipson, Bethea A Kleykamp, Laura E Rupprecht, Paul T Harrell, Vaughan W Rees, Thomas J Gould, Jason Oliver, Deniz Bagdas, M Imad Damaj, Heath D Schmidt, Alexander Duncan, Mariella De Biasi
Introduction: Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations...
August 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059363/consortium-on-methods-evaluating-tobacco-research-tools-to-inform-fda-regulation-of-snus
#18
Micah L Berman, Warren K Bickel, Andrew C Harris, Mark G LeSage, Richard J O'Connor, Irina Stepanov, Peter G Shields, Dorothy K Hatsukami
Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has purview over tobacco products. To set policy, the FDA must rely on sound science, yet most existing tobacco research methods have not been designed to specifically inform regulation. The NCI and FDA-funded Consortium on Methods Evaluating Tobacco (COMET) was established to develop and assess valid and reliable methods for tobacco product evaluation. The goal of this paper is to describe these assessment methods using a U.S...
October 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058074/acute-coronary-syndrome-in-immigrants-and-non-immigrants-results-of-an-austrian-prospective-pilot-study
#19
Duygu Gündüz, Anita Lesjak, Angela Wiedemann, Marion Avanzini, Walther-Benedikt Winkler, Hadice Ucar-Altenberger, Claudia Stöllberger, Franz Weidinger
BACKGROUND: There are indications that immigrant patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) differ in demographic characteristics and clinical presentation from non-immigrant patients. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to gather clinical and sociodemographic data from patients with ACS and to compare immigrants with non-immigrants. METHODS: Included were consecutive patients who underwent acute coronary angiography in one cardiological department for ACS from September 2011 to September 2013...
December 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056353/the-ghr-r-antagonist-jmv-2959-neither-induces-malaise-nor-alters-the-malaise-property-of-licl-in-the-adult-male-rat
#20
Juan A Rodriguez, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Paul J Wellman
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion...
January 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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