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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119914/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-with-comorbid-bipolar-disorders-clinical-features-and-treatment-implications
#1
Federico Mucci, Cristina Toni, Ettore Favaretto, Giulia Vannucchi, Donatella Marazziti, Giulio Perugi
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms within the context of a bipolar disorder (BD) have been described since the 19th century. Interestingly, the existence of a relevant overlap between the aforementioned psychiatric syndromes has been confirmed by a number of recent epidemiological and family studies. AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to review the clinical features and the therapeutic implications of the OCD-BD comorbidity. DISCUSSION: In the last two decades, the frequent association between OCD and BD has been earning a growing interest given its relevant nosological and therapeutic implications...
November 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119287/smoking-and-obesity-influence-the-risk-of-nonunion-in-lateral-opening-wedge-closing-wedge-and-torsional-distal-femoral-osteotomies
#2
Franz Liska, Bernhard Haller, Andreas Voss, Julian Mehl, Florian B Imhoff, Lukas Willinger, Andreas B Imhoff
PURPOSE: Lateral distal femoral osteotomies (DFO) have recently been performed more frequently. In addition to realignment for varus and valgus deformity, the indication was extended with the introduction of torsional osteotomies in patellofemoral instability. The purpose of this study was to assess the general and technical risk factors for nonunion in lateral opening, closing and torsional DFO. METHODS: A total of 150 lateral DFO [98 opening wedge (LOWDFO) and 52 closing wedge (LCWDFO)] were analyzed in regard to potential risk factors for nonunion until plate removal...
November 8, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#3
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076779/cigarette-smoking-and-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-nationwide-analysis
#4
Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Robert F Rudy, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Timothy R Smith, Kai U Frerichs, William B Gormley, M Ali Aziz-Sultan, Rose Du
OBJECTIVE Although cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for cerebral aneurysm development and rupture, there are limited data evaluating the impact of smoking on outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Additionally, two recent studies suggested that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with improved neurological outcomes among smokers who had sustained an SAH compared with smokers who did not receive nicotine. METHODS Patients who underwent endovascular or microsurgical repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2009-2011) and stratified by cigarette smoking...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065847/long-term-administration-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-and-influence-of-substance-and-drug-abuse-on-the-disease-outcome
#5
F-M Werner, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this mini-review is to examine the reasons for the high tendency of schizophrenic patients to consume alcohol, nicotine and drugs and in addition to suggest measures to reduce the abuse of substances and drugs...
October 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065200/basic-science-and-public-policy-informed-regulation-for-nicotine-and-tobacco-products
#6
Christie D Fowler, Cassandra D Gipson, Bethea A Kleykamp, Laura E Rupprecht, Paul T Harrell, Vaughan W Rees, Thomas J Gould, Jason Oliver, Deniz Bagdas, M Imad Damaj, Heath D Schmidt, Alexander Duncan, Mariella De Biasi
Introduction: Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations...
August 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059363/consortium-on-methods-evaluating-tobacco-research-tools-to-inform-fda-regulation-of-snus
#7
Micah L Berman, Warren K Bickel, Andrew C Harris, Mark G LeSage, Richard J O'Connor, Irina Stepanov, Peter G Shields, Dorothy K Hatsukami
Introduction: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has purview over tobacco products. To set policy, the FDA must rely on sound science, yet most existing tobacco research methods have not been designed to specifically inform regulation. The NCI and FDA-funded Consortium on Methods Evaluating Tobacco (COMET) was established to develop and assess valid and reliable methods for tobacco product evaluation. The goal of this paper is to describe these assessment methods using a U.S...
October 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058074/acute-coronary-syndrome-in-immigrants-and-non-immigrants-results-of-an-austrian-prospective-pilot-study
#8
Duygu Gündüz, Anita Lesjak, Angela Wiedemann, Marion Avanzini, Walther-Benedikt Winkler, Hadice Ucar-Altenberger, Claudia Stöllberger, Franz Weidinger
BACKGROUND: There are indications that immigrant patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) differ in demographic characteristics and clinical presentation from non-immigrant patients. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to gather clinical and sociodemographic data from patients with ACS and to compare immigrants with non-immigrants. METHODS: Included were consecutive patients who underwent acute coronary angiography in one cardiological department for ACS from September 2011 to September 2013...
October 20, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056353/the-ghr-r-antagonist-jmv-2959-neither-induces-malaise-nor-alters-the-malaise-property-of-licl-in-the-adult-male-rat
#9
Juan A Rodriguez, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Paul J Wellman
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion...
January 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056152/orexin-hypocretin-system-role-in-food-and-drug-overconsumption
#10
Jessica R Barson, Sarah F Leibowitz
The neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin (OX), while largely transcribed within the hypothalamus, is released throughout the brain to affect complex behaviors. Primarily through the hypothalamus itself, OX homeostatically regulates adaptive behaviors needed for survival, including food intake, sleep-wake regulation, mating, and maternal behavior. However, through extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, OX promotes seeking and intake of rewarding substances of abuse, like palatable food, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#11
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049971/food-addiction-prevalence-psychopathological-correlates-and-associations-with-quality-of-life-in-a-large-sample
#12
Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Cristiano A Köhler, Felipe B Schuch, Marco Solmi, João Quevedo, Michael Maes, Andrea Murru, Eduard Vieta, Roger S McIntyre, Susan L McElroy, Ashley N Gearhardt, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of food addiction in a large Brazilian non-clinical sample. Sociodemographic and psychopathological correlates of food addiction as well as associations with quality (QoL) domains were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study obtained data from a Brazilian anonymous web-based research platform (N = 7639; 71.3% females). Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048188/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-d-amphetamine-self-administration-following-nicotine-exposure
#13
Dustin J Stairs, Sarah E Ewin, Megan M Kangiser, Markus N Pfaff
Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038721/gender-differences-in-substance-use-patterns-and-disorders-among-an-iranian-patient-sample-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#14
Amir Ghaderi, Maryam Motmaen, Iraj Abdi, Morad Rasouli-Azad
BACKGROUND: The current prevalence rate of substance abuse and dependence, represents an increasing trend of substance abuse and dependence among women, and the results of epidemiology studies indicate that substance use patterns are different between men and women. This study aimed to determine gender differences in substance use patterns and disorders among the patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from September 2012 through March 2013 in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clinics of Mashhad, Iran...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#15
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020601/pioglitazone-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-reduces-nicotine-craving-in-humans-with-marginal-effects-on-abuse-potential
#16
Jermaine D Jones, Sandra D Comer, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Suky Martinez, Mudassir Mumtaz, Adam Bisaga
Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study. Upon admission, participants were randomized to either active (45mg, n=14) or placebo (0mg, n=13) PIO maintenance conditions for the duration of the study...
October 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019642/spine-conditions-occupational-spine-conditions
#17
Marc A Childress
Neck and back conditions have significant effects on employee health and productivity. More than $7 billion in lost revenue in the United States annually can be attributed to workplace back pain among employees ages 40 to 65 years. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2012 back pain was the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition resulting in workplace absenteeism. The incidence of these conditions is higher among individuals in certain professions, such as bus drivers, police officers, and correctional officers...
October 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958601/ghrelin-receptor-antagonism-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-behavioral-and-accumbens-dopaminergic-sensitization-in-rats
#18
Pavel Jerabek, Tereza Havlickova, Nina Puskina, Chrysostomos Charalambous, Marek Lapka, Petr Kacer, Magdalena Sustkova-Fiserova
An increasing number of studies over the past few years have demonstrated ghrelin's role in alcohol, cocaine and nicotine abuse. However, the role of ghrelin in opioid effects has rarely been examined. Recently we substantiated in rats that ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A) appear to be involved in acute opioid-induced changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system associated with the reward processing. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether a ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) was able to inhibit morphine-induced biased conditioned place preference and challenge-morphine-induced accumbens dopaminergic sensitization and behavioral sensitization in adult male rats...
September 27, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950810/the-role-of-dietary-compounds-in-the-therapy-of-nicotine-induced-osteoporosis
#19
Norazlina Mohamed, Norliza Muhammad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman
Nicotine is one of the most abused substances worldwide and can cause several harmful effects on health. One of the harmful effects which is often ignored is osteoporosis. Smoking has been shown to cause a decrease in bone mineral density in humans. Animal studies have proven that nicotine exerts negative effects on bone. The number of people who smoke increases each day. Those who smoke starts at a very young age and they usually smoke for years. This will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis. As the prevalence of osteoporosis increases, the risk of fractures also increases...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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