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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#1
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#2
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170058/evaluating-nicotine-dependence-levels-in-e-cigarette-users
#3
Alba González Roz, Roberto Secades Villa, Sara Weidberg
Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers...
January 11, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167004/e-cigarettes-an-update-on-considerations-for-the-otolaryngologist
#4
REVIEW
Sneh Biyani, Craig S Derkay
PURPOSE: We provide an update in the literature and national regulations regarding electronic cigarettes with special attention to the pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are handheld battery operated devices that vaporize nicotine-containing liquids for inhalation. Use of these products has dramatically increased over the last several years, particularly among the youth. ENDS are being marketed with advertising techniques and flavors which appeal to the adolescent and young adult population...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161246/partial-agonism-at-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-improves-attention-impulsive-action-and-vigilance-in-low-attentive-rats
#5
Andrew Hayward, Lisa Adamson, Joanna C Neill
Inattention is a disabling symptom in conditions such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nicotine can improve attention and vigilance, but is unsuitable for clinical use due to abuse liability. Genetic knockout of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) induces attention deficits therefore selective agonism may improve attention, without the abuse liability associated with nicotine. The α7 nAChR partial agonist encenicline (formerly EVP-6124) enhances memory in rodents and humans...
February 1, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160016/nicotine-at-clinically-relevant-concentrations-affects-atrial-inward-rectifier-potassium-current-sensitive-to-acetylcholine
#6
Markéta Bébarová, Peter Matejovič, Olga Švecová, Roman Kula, Milena Šimurdová, Jiří Šimurda
Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0...
February 3, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115487/cholinergic-interneurons-underlie-spontaneous-dopamine-release-in-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Jordan T Yorgason, Douglas M Zeppenfeld, John T Williams
: The release of dopamine from terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is regulated by a number of factors, including voltage gated ion channels, D2-autoreceptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Cholinergic interneurons (CINs) drive dopamine release through activation of nAChRs on dopamine terminals. Using cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices, nAChR-dependent spontaneous dopamine transients and the mechanisms underlying the origin were examined in the NAc. Spontaneous events were infrequent (0...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074940/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-required-for-amyloid-pathology-in-brain-endothelial-cells-induced-by-glycoprotein-120-methamphetamine-and-nicotine
#8
Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058022/role-of-original-and-modified-frey-s-procedures-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#9
Chun-Lu Tan, Hao Zhang, Min Yang, Shao-Jun Li, Xu-Bao Liu, Ke-Zhou Li
AIM: To retrospectively review patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with CP treated with Frey's procedures between January 2009 and January 2014 in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery. A cross-sectional study of postoperative pain relief, quality of life (QoL), and alcohol and nicotine abuse was performed by clinical interview, letters and telephone interview in January 2016...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#10
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda M Fiorenza, Suelen L Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase the level of release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that diazepam not only causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine from enhancing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in the level of tonic and electrically evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane-anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029335/enhanced-susceptibility-of-ca3-hippocampus-to-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#11
O O Kalejaiye, M C Gondré-Lewis
The brain is highly susceptible to adverse effects of drugs of abuse during early phases of life. Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE), a preventable cause of gestational and infant mortality, can alter neuron wiring and induce sustained deficits in attention and learning. Here, a rat model of PNE (embryonic days 7-21) was used to examine the maturing hippocampus, which encodes new memories and processes emotional memory. Components of synaptic signaling were evaluated at postnatal day 14 (P14), a period of prolific synaptogenesis in rats, to determine if glutamatergic transmission-associated molecules are regulated in subregions of hippocampus as early as P14...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012948/orbitofrontal-participation-in-sign-and-goal-tracking-conditioned-responses-effects-of-nicotine
#12
Sierra J Stringfield, Matthew I Palmatier, Charlotte A Boettiger, Donita L Robinson
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can acquire incentive motivational properties, and this phenomenon can be measured in animals using Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior. Drugs of abuse can influence the expression of this behavior, and nicotine in particular exhibits incentive amplifying effects. Both conditioned approach behavior and drug abuse rely on overlapping corticolimbic circuitry. We hypothesize that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) regulates conditioned approach, and that one site of nicotine action is in the OFC where it reduces cortical output...
December 22, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994114/nicotine-and-tobacco-as-substances-of-abuse-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Lorena M Siqueira
Nicotine is the primary pharmacologic component of tobacco, and users of tobacco products seek out its effects. The highly addictive nature of nicotine is responsible for its widespread use and difficulty with quitting. This technical report focuses on nicotine and discusses the stages of use in progression to dependence on nicotine-containing products; the physiologic characteristics, neurobiology, metabolism, pharmacogenetics, and health effects of nicotine; and acute nicotine toxicity. Finally, some newer approaches to cessation are noted...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931777/effects-of-maternal-separation-on-nicotine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-subsequent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-female-rats
#14
Fatemeh Dalaveri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Vahid Sheibani
Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions...
February 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929684/acute-effects-of-snus-in-never-tobacco-users-a-pilot-study
#15
Jenny E Ozga, Nicholas J Felicione, Daniel Elswick, Melissa D Blank
BACKGROUND: Snus tobacco characteristics may attract non-tobacco users, including relatively low, but pharmacologically active, doses of nicotine. Lower nicotine doses may limit adverse drug effects while also producing a physiologically active response. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study is the first to profile the acute effects of snus on physiological and subjective assessments in a sample of never-tobacco users. METHODS: Eleven never-tobacco users (five women; <100 uses/lifetime) were recruited from the community via university-approved advertisements...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929656/epilogue-to-special-issue-on-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-links-and-implications
#16
Steven A Schroeder
This paper summarizes The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse special issue and offers suggestions for future steps. People who use alcohol or other addictive substances are much more likely to use tobacco. Yet, clinicians and scientists have long regarded these addiction categories as separate and unrelated. The resultant benign neglect of tobacco use has had disastrous consequences on patients. This special issue is an important step toward remedying that situation. It has reviewed what is known and what more needs to be discovered regarding the co-occurrence of tobacco use disorder (TUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs)...
March 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921634/smoking-cessation-in-smoke-free-prisons-a-grounded-theory-study
#17
Ashleigh Djachenko, Winsome St John, Creina Mitchell
Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#18
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#19
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870459/sex-differences-in-nicotine-preference
#20
REVIEW
Sakire Pogun, Gorkem Yararbas, Tanseli Nesil, Lutfiye Kanit
Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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