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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#1
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#2
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870459/sex-differences-in-nicotine-preference
#3
REVIEW
Sakire Pogun, Gorkem Yararbas, Tanseli Nesil, Lutfiye Kanit
Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866932/oxytocin-attenuates-aversive-response-to-nicotine-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#4
Hyunchan Lee, Minji Jang, Jihyun Noh
Initial tobacco use is initiated with rewarding and aversive properties of nicotine and aversive response to nicotine plays a critical role in nicotine dependency. Decrease of nicotine aversion increases the nicotine use that causes behavioral and neuronal changes of animals. Oxytocin influences drug abuse and reciprocally affect vulnerability to drug use. To assess the effect of oxytocin on initial nicotine aversion and anxiety, we examined voluntary oral nicotine intake and anxiety-like behavior following oxytocin treatment in adolescent rats...
November 17, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848935/distinct-roles-of-creb-within-the-ventral-and-dorsal-hippocampus-in-mediating-nicotine-withdrawal-phenotypes
#5
Miranda Fisher, Rachel LeMalefant, Luyi Zhou, Gavin Huang, Jill Turner
Addiction to nicotine and the inability to quit smoking are influenced by genetic factors, emphasizing the importance of understanding how genes and drugs of abuse mechanistically impact each other. One well-characterized protein responsible for regulating both response to drugs and gene expression is the transcription factor CREB. Previous work indicates that hippocampal specific alterations in CREB signaling and synaptic plasticity may underlie certain nicotine withdrawal phenotypes. However, the structure of the hippocampus possesses dorsal and ventral sub-regions, each differing in behavioral, anatomic and gene expression characteristics...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848217/pregabalin-for-the-treatment-of-drug-and-alcohol-withdrawal-symptoms-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Rainer Freynhagen, Miroslav Backonja, Stephan Schug, Gavin Lyndon, Bruce Parsons, Stephen Watt, Regina Behar
Treatments for physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of prescription drugs (such as opioids and benzodiazepines), nicotine, alcohol, and cannabinoids are available, but there is still a need for new and more effective therapies. This review examines evidence supporting the potential use of pregabalin, an α2δ voltage-gated calcium channel subunit ligand, for the treatment of physical dependence and associated withdrawal symptoms. A literature search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases up to and including 11 December 2015 was conducted...
November 16, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817750/l-tetrahydropalmatine-reduces-nicotine-self-administration-and-reinstatement-in-rats
#7
Shamia L Faison, Charles W Schindler, Steven R Goldberg, Jia Bei Wang
BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of nicotine use are well known and documented, however, abstaining from nicotine use and achieving abstinence poses a major challenge for the majority of nicotine users trying to quit. l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a compound extracted from the Chinese herb Corydalis, displayed utility in the treatment of cocaine and heroin addiction via reduction of drug-intake and relapse. The present study examined the effects of l-THP on abuse-related effects of nicotine...
November 7, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793544/modulation-of-ethanol-reward-sensitivity-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-containing-the-%C3%AE-6-subunit
#8
Melissa J Guildford, Anthony V Sacino, Andrew R Tapper
The prevalent co-abuse of nicotine and alcohol suggests a common neural mechanism underlying the actions of the two drugs. Nicotine, the addictive component of tobacco, activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α6 subunit (α6* nAChRs) in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region known to be crucial for drug reward. Recent evidence suggests that ethanol may potentiate ACh activation of these receptors as well, although whether α6* nAChR expression is necessary for behavioral effects of acute ethanol exposure is unknown...
October 8, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781096/abortion-substance-abuse-and-mental-health-in-early-adulthood-thirteen-year-longitudinal-evidence-from-the-united-states
#9
Donald Paul Sullins
OBJECTIVE: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. METHOD: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss)...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780491/association-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-with-lifetime-mental-and-substance-use-disorders-among-men-and-women-aged-50-years
#10
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
BACKGROUND: Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. METHODS: Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders)...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767272/myocardial-scintigraphy-a-method-for-detecting-cardiac-comorbidity-in-psoriasis-patients
#11
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766371/nicotine-self-administration-research-the-legacy-of-steven-r-goldberg-and-implications-for-regulation-health-policy-and-research
#12
Jack E Henningfield, Tracy T Smith, Bethea A Kleykamp, Reginald V Fant, Eric C Donny
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg's contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options...
October 21, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730273/naturalistic-assessment-of-demand-for-cigarettes-snus-and-nicotine-gum
#13
Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Michael C Judd, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729826/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-a-young-man-with-subacute-myelopathy-induced-by-abusive-nitrous-oxide-consumption-a-case-report
#14
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721531/are-therapeutic-vaccines-an-answer-to-the-global-problem-of-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#15
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713687/differential-effects-of-toluene-and-ethanol-on-dopaminergic-neurons-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#16
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Chang You, Devinder S Arora, Maureen A McElvain, Bertha J Vandegrift, Mark S Brodie, John J Woodward
Drugs of abuse increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and output from the VTA is critical for both natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Ethanol and the abused inhalant toluene both enhance VTA neuronal firing, but the mechanisms of this effect is not fully known. In this study, we used extracellular recordings to compare the actions of toluene and ethanol on DA VTA neurons. Both ethanol and toluene increased the firing rate of DA neurons, although toluene was ~100 times more potent than ethanol...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693562/editorial-3rd-special-issue-on-behavior-change-health-and-health-disparities
#17
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 3rd that we have organized on behavior change, health, and health disparities. This is a topic of critical importance to improving U.S. population health. There is broad scientific consensus that personal behaviors such as cigarette smoking, other substance abuse, and physical inactivity/obesity are among the most important modifiable causes of chronic disease and its adverse impacts on population health. Hence, effectively promoting health-related behavior change needs to be a key component of health care research and policy...
September 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688733/patterns-of-care-in-patients-with-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Sławomir Poletajew, Radosław Biernacki, Paweł Buraczyński, Jarosław Chojnacki, Stefan Czarniecki, Dominika Gajewska, Tomasz Pohaba, Joanna Sondka, Michał Skrzypczyk, Tomasz Suchojad, Dominik Wojtkowiak, Bogusław Zaforemski, Łukasz Zapała, Aleksandra Zemła, Piotr Radziszewski
A potential reason for poor survival among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Poland is initial disqualification from curative treatment due to advanced stage of the disease or low performance status. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of care in patients with newly diagnosed MIBC. This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study involving 296 consecutive patients with primary histologically diagnosed MIBC. Therapeutic decisions and potentially underlying clinical factors were analysed...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648744/gambling-disorders-gambling-type-preferences-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-the-thai-general-population-results-of-the-2013-national-mental-health-survey
#19
Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Edward B McNeil, Nopporn Tantirangsee, Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon
Background and aims To estimate the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling, gender and age-group differences in gambling types, and comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders among the Thai general population. Methods Analysis was conducted on 4,727 participants of Thailand's 2013 National Mental Health Survey, a multistage stratified cluster survey, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Diagnoses of problem and pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders were based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria with the following additional criteria for gamblers: more than 10 lifetime gambling episodes and a single year loss of at least 365 USD from gambling...
September 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634143/effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-on-hippocampal-plasticity-and-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-contributions-to-development-and-maintenance-of-addiction
#20
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
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