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Nicotine abuse

Karolina Pekala, Agnieszka Michalak, Marta Kruk-Slomka, Barbara Budzynska, Grazyna Biala
Taking into account the rather frequent concomitance of nicotine abuse and stress, we aimed to research memory- and depression-related effects of nicotine administration in combination with chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMUS) in mice and an involvement of the endocannabinoid system through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Mice were submitted to the CMUS for 4 weeks. Effects on depression-like behaviors and cognition, exerted by a combined administration of CB1, i.e., Oleamide (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg), AM 251 (0.1, 0.25 mg/kg) and CB2, i...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Soundarya Soundararajan, Gitanjali Narayanan, Arpana Agrawal, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Pratima Murthy
Background & objectives: Age at first drink has its influence on later life drinking patterns. The association between age at first drink and adult alcohol consumption has not been studied in clinical population. This study was aimed to determine the age at first drink and its correlation with adult life drinking patterns in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: Adult participants with alcohol dependence were included from the inpatient and outpatient wards of a tertiary care de-addiction facility in India...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Lea Estermann, Pascal Ducommun, Isabelle Steurer-Dober, Urs Hug
The hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is a rare entity of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. The blunt hypothenar trauma causes a lesion of the vessel wall with a consecutive thrombosis or aneurysm of the ulnar artery at the Guyon's canal. Different risk factors are discussed such as nicotine abuse, or a muscle anomaly in the Guyon's canal. To date, there are five case reports published about muscle anomalies and HHS. We present a case of a 51-year-old shipbuilder with a unilateral HHS on his right dominant hand with a bilateral muscle anomaly...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Laila Schneidewind, Thomas Neumann, Kai Alexander Probst, Christian Andreas Schmidt, William Krüger
OBJECTIVE: There is a substantial lack of data about men's health in adult allogeneic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: We conducted prospective unicentric non-interventional clinical study on men's health with a follow-up time of one year. RESULTS: Between 11/2013 and 12/2015, we were able to include 27 patients. AML was the most frequent underlying disease (25.9%), we mainly used intermediate intense conditioning protocols (77.8%). Erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and loss of efficiency were the most frequent symptoms of hypogonadism...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is a health problem worldwide. Has been reported a high prevalence of use of tobacco and cocaine, either separately or in combination. Clinical and animal studies have suggested that the concurrent use of cocaine and nicotine reinforces the potency of one or both drugs and that nicotine may enhance the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Our study evaluated the combined effects of cocaine and nicotine on locomotor activity during the induction and expression phases of locomotor sensitization-a physiological mechanism that plays an important role in establishing some of the defining characteristics of drug abuse...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
M P Faillace, A Pisera-Fuster, R Bernabeu
The rewarding properties of drugs in zebrafish can be studied using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Most devices that have been used for CPP consist of two-half tanks with or without a central chamber. Here we evaluated the rewarding effects of nicotine and caffeine using a tank with five arms distributed radially from a central chamber that we have denoted Fish Tank Radial Maze (FTRM). Zebrafish were trained to associate nicotine or caffeine with a coloured arm. In testing sessions to assess CPP induction, between two and five different arms were available to explore...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Gurjot Kaur, Thivanka Muthumalage, Irfan Rahman
Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs...
February 23, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jian-Feng Liu, Robert Seaman, Justin N Siemian, Rohan Bhimani, Bernard Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Qing Zhu, Marius C Hoener, Jinwoo Park, David M Dietz, Jun-Xu Li
Nicotine addiction and abuse remains a global health issue. To date, the fundamental neurobiological mechanism of nicotine addiction remains incompletely understood. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is thought to directly modulate dopaminergic system and are thought to be a neural substrate underlying addictive-like behaviors. We aimed to investigate the role of TAAR1 in nicotine addictive-like behaviors. TAAR1 expression after nicotine treatment was evaluated by western blotting. c-Fos immunofluorescence and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry were used to examine the activation of brain regions and dopamine release, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C M Ho, Melvyn W B Zhang
Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Alberto J López, Yousheng Jia, André O White, Janine L Kwapis, Monica Espinoza, Philip Hwang, Rianne Campbell, Yasaman Alaghband, Om Chitnis, Dina P Matheos, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. One area that may provide further insight to the mechanisms of relapse is the habenula complex, an epithalamic region composed of lateral and medial (MHb) substructures, each with unique cell and target populations...
February 12, 2018: Addiction Biology
John R Smethells, Andrew C Harris, Danielle Burroughs, Steven R Hursh, Mark G LeSage
BACKGROUND: For the Food and Drug Administration to effectively regulate tobacco products, the contribution of non-nicotine tobacco constituents to the abuse liability of tobacco must be well understood. Our previous work compared the abuse liability of electronic cigarette refill liquids (EC liquids) and nicotine (Nic) alone when each was available in isolation and found no difference in abuse liability (i.e., demand elasticity). Another, and potentially more sensitive measure, would be to examine abuse liability in a choice context, which also provides a better model of the tobacco marketplace...
February 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Na-Ra Lee, Guangrong Zheng, Peter A Crooks, Michael T Bardo, Linda P Dwoskin
Despite increased methamphetamine use worldwide, pharmacotherapies are not available to treat methamphetamine use disorder. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) is an important pharmacological target for discovery of treatments for methamphetamine use disorder. VMAT2 inhibition by the natural product, lobeline, reduced methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Compared to lobeline, lobelane exhibited improved affinity and selectivity for VMAT2 over nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
February 9, 2018: AAPS Journal
Andrew C Harris, Peter Muelken, John R Smethells, Katrina Yershova, Irina Stepanov, Thao Tran Olson, Kenneth J Kellar, Mark G LeSage
BACKGROUND: Animal models are needed to inform FDA regulation of electronic cigarettes (ECs) because they avoid limitations associated with human studies. We previously reported that an EC refill liquid produced less aversive/anhedonic effects at a high nicotine dose than nicotine alone as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds, which may reflect the presence of behaviorally active non-nicotine constituents (e.g., propylene glycol) in the EC liquids...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Meryem Ozlem Kutuk, Ebru Altintas, Ali Evren Tufan, Gulen Guler, Betul Aslan, Nurgul Aytan, Ozgur Kutuk
The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic and clinical features of the mothers and their offspring staying with them in prison. The study was planned as a cross-sectional, single-center study of mothers residing in Tarsus Closed Women's Prison of Turkish Ministry of Justice along with their 0 to 6 years old offspring. Mothers were evaluated via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. A psychologist blind to maternal evaluations applied the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DII-DST)...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jose I Juncosa, Kenji Takaya, Hoang V Le, Matthew J Moschitto, Pathum M Weerawarna, Romila Mascarenhas, Dali Liu, Stephen L Dewey, Richard B Silverman
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, has been established as a possible strategy for the treatment of substance abuse. The raised GABA levels that occur as a consequence of this inhibition have been found to antagonize the rapid release of dopamine in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) that follows an acute challenge by an addictive substance...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Johanna Maass, Egbert Matthé
PURPOSE: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is relatively rare, and no clinical pathognomonic signs exist. We present a rare case of bilateral vision loss of a patient with multiple drug abuse in the history. OBSERVATION: A 31-year-old man presented with a history of progressive, decreased vision in both eyes for 6 month. On examination, his visual acuity was hand motion in both eyes. Funduscopy demonstrated a temporal pallor of the optic disc. Goldmann visual field perimetry showed a crescent visual field in the right eye and a circular decrease to less than 50 ° in the left eye...
January 25, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Renee F Keller, Pinar Kanlikilicer, Andrei Dragomir, Yantao Fan, Yasemin M Akay, Metin Akay
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with developmental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders, including low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and drug abuse later in life. Nicotine activates the reward-driven behavior characteristic of drug abuse. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, which are stimulated by nicotine and other stimuli, are widely implicated in the natural reward pathway that is known to contribute to addiction...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
P S S Rao, Kelly O'Connell, Thomas Kyle Finnerty
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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