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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634710/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-assessment-of-electronic-cigarettes-combustible-cigarettes-and-nicotine-gum-implications-for-abuse-liability
#1
Mitchell F Stiles, Leanne R Campbell, Donald W Graff, Bobbette A Jones, Reginald V Fant, Jack E Henningfield
RATIONALE: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. METHODS: Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC...
June 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634286/conjugate-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-substance-use-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Paul T Bremer, Kim D Janda
Substance use disorder, especially in relation to opioids such as heroin and fentanyl, is a significant public health issue and has intensified in recent years. As a result, substantial interest exists in developing therapeutics to counteract the effects of abused drugs. A promising universal strategy for antagonizing the pharmacology of virtually any drug involves the development of a conjugate vaccine, wherein a hapten structurally similar to the target drug is conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#3
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608236/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-curcumin-against-nicotine-induced-neurotoxicity-is-mediated-by-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#4
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sulail Fatima, Fahimeh Faraji, Shiva Mozaffari
Nicotine abuse adversely affects brain and causes apoptotic neurodegeneration. Curcumin- a bright yellow chemical compound found in turmeric is associated with neuroprotective properties. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of CREB-BDNF signaling in mediating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against nicotine-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Sixty adult male rats were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 received 0.7 ml/rat normal saline, group 2 received 6 mg/kg nicotine...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#5
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586306/revisiting-nicotine-s-role-in-the-ageing-brain-and-cognitive-impairment
#6
Alireza Majdi, Farzin Kamari, Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad
Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology...
June 6, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579351/preclinical-abuse-liability-assessment-of-abt-126-an-agonist-at-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr
#7
Thomas J Hudzik, Ana M Basso, James J Lynch, William M Bracken, Eric G Mohler, Kathy L Kohlhaas, Hongyu Xu, George Haig, Laura Gault
ABT-126 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is selective for the α7 subtype of the receptor. nAChRs are thought to play a role in a variety of neurocognitive processes and have been a pharmacologic target for disorders with cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As part of the preclinical safety package for ABT-126, its potential for abuse was assessed. While the involvement of the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor in the addictive properties of nicotine has been demonstrated, the role of the α7 receptor has been studied much less extensively...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577210/-distal-femoral-osteotomy-using-a-lateral-opening-wedge-technique
#8
M J Feucht, J Mehl, P Forkel, A B Imhoff, S Hinterwimmer
OBJECTIVE: To shift the weight-bearing axis of the lower limb medially by opening a lateral-based metaphyseal osteotomy at the distal femur. INDICATIONS: Femoral-based valgus malalignment and symptomatic lateral unicompartimental osteoarthritis, lateral hyperpression syndrome, cartilage therapy of the lateral compartment, lateral meniscal replacement/transplantation, medial instability with valgus thrust, reconstruction of the medial collateral ligament, patellar instability and/or maltracking...
June 2, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559549/re-exposure-to-nicotine-associated-context-from-adolescence-enhances-alcohol-intake-in-adulthood
#9
Dor Zipori, Yossi Sadot-Sogrin, Koral Goltseker, Oren Even-Chen, Nofar Rahamim, Ohad Shaham, Segev Barak
Alcohol and nicotine are the two most commonly-abused substances and are often used together. Nicotine enhances alcohol-drinking behaviors in humans and in animals, and was suggested to enhance the reinforcing properties of other reinforcers. Here, we show that nicotine-associated environment, rather than nicotine itself, enhances alcohol intake in rats. Adolescent rats received repeated intermittent injections of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., 5 injections, every 3(rd) day) or saline. The injection was paired with their home cage, or with the subsequent alcohol self-administration context...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552999/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-for-the-assessment-of-pelvic-floor-disorders-and-their-risk-factors-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum
#10
Melanie Metz, Bärbel Junginger, Wolfgang Henrich, Kaven Baeßler
Introduction The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their symptoms and risk factors in pregnancy and after birth including symptom course, severity and impact on quality of life. Methods The validated German pelvic floor questionnaire was modified and a new risk factor domain developed. The questionnaire was initially completed by 233 nulliparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy and at six weeks (n = 148) and one year (n = 120) post partum...
April 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546648/differences-in-delay-but-not-probability-discounting-in-current-smokers-e-cigarette-users-and-never-smokers
#11
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, David J Cox
Steeper delay discounting in substance abuse populations, compared to non-abusing populations, has been well-established in prior studies. Despite the growing interest in e-cigarettes as a novel and relatively understudied form of nicotine consumption, relatively little is known as to how e-cigarette users discount rewards compared to traditional cigarette smokers and never smokers. In the present study, we measured delay and probability discounting rates, as well as perceived risk inherent to a delayed reward, in current traditional cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and never smokers...
2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498868/a-drosophila-model-for-developmental-nicotine-exposure
#12
Norma Andrea Velazquez-Ulloa
Despite the known health risks of tobacco smoking, many people including pregnant women continue smoking. The effects of developmental nicotine exposure are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that can be used for uncovering genetic and molecular mechanisms for drugs of abuse. Here I show that Drosophila can be a model to elucidate the mechanisms for nicotine's effects on a developing organism. Drosophila reared on nicotine food display developmental and behavioral effects similar to those in mammals including decreased survival and weight, increased developmental time, and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine and ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492955/the-association-of-self-concept-with-substance-abuse-and-problematic-use-of-video-games-in-university-students-a-structural-equation-model
#13
Ramón Chacón Cuberos, Félix Zurita Ortega, Manuel Castro Sánchez, Tamara Espejo Garcés, Asunción Martínez Martínez, Gerardo Ruiz-Rico Ruiz
This study aims to define and contrast an explanatory model of consumption of alcohol, tobacco consumption, and problematic use of video games based on self-concept and its dimensions in a sample of university students. The research was conducted with a sample of 490 students from the province of Granada (Spain), aged between 20 and 29 years (M = 22.80 ± 3.63), with a homogeneous distribution by gender. The instruments used were the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (García & Musitu, 1999), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De la Fuente, & Grant, 1993), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (Heatherton, Kozlowski, Frecker, & Fagerström, 1991) and the Questionnaire for Experiences Related to Video Games (Chamarro et al...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487076/evidence-for-differential-opioid-use-disorder-in-schizophrenia-in-an-addiction-treatment-population
#14
Joshua Chiappelli, Shuo Chen, Ann Hackman, L Elliot Hong
Although people diagnosed with schizophrenia are known to have elevated risks of abuse and dependence for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and cannabis, it is less clear if schizophrenia is associated with higher rates of opioid use disorders compared to either the general population or individuals with other major psychiatric disorders. Here we examine a large publicly available database from substance abuse treatment centers to compare how frequently patients with schizophrenia report problems with heroin or other opioid drugs compared to other major drugs of abuse...
May 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486710/association-between-reward-reactivity-and-drug-use-severity-is-substance-dependent-preliminary-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#15
Alyssa L Peechatka, Amy C Janes
Introduction: Blunted nucleus accumbens (NAc) reactivity to reward is common across drug users. One theory is that individuals abuse substances due to this reward deficit. However, whether there is a relationship between the amount an individual uses and the severity of NAc dysfunction is unclear. It also is possible that such a relationship is substance specific, as nicotine transiently increases reward system sensitivity while alcohol, another commonly used substance, does not. As smokers may use nicotine to bolster NAc reward function, we hypothesize that NAc reactivity to reward will be related to volume of cigarette use, but not volume of alcohol use...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460123/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-leads-to-significant-beta2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-occupancy-evidence-from-a-pet-imaging-study
#16
Stephen R Baldassarri, Ansel T Hillmer, Jon Mikael Anderson, Peter Jatlow, Nabeel Nabulsi, David Labaree, Kelly P Cosgrove, Stephanie S O'Malley, Thomas Eissenberg, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Irina Esterlis
Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) can influence nicotine addiction by delivering aerosolized nicotine. We investigated if nicotine from ECs is delivered to the brain β2*-nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChR) and how this relates to the behavioral effects and nicotine delivery from cigarettes. Methods: Seven nicotine users participated in positron emission tomography (PET) studies with (-)-[18F]Flubatine before and after nicotine challenge with 0, 8 mg/ml, and 36 mg/ml nicotine in a 3...
April 29, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#17
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#18
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406266/the-3-year-course-of-multiple-substance-use-disorders-in-the-united-states-a-national-longitudinal-study
#19
Sean Esteban McCabe, Brady T West
OBJECTIVE: To examine the 3-year course of multiple co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) based on longitudinal survey data from a large, nationally representative sample. METHODS: National estimates of the prevalence of DSM-IV SUDs were derived by analyzing data from structured, face-to-face diagnostic interviews as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which collected data from a large, nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized US adults at 2 waves (2001-2002 and 2004-2005; N = 34,653)...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391109/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-abuse-an-investigation-in-young-austrian-males
#20
Anita Riegler, Sabine Völkl-Kernstock, Otto Lesch, Henriette Walter, Katrin Skala
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found an association between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. We intended to determine whether substance abuse and SUDs are associated with former and current ADHD symptomatology in a non-clinical sample of 17 and 18 year old males. METHOD: A representative sample of 3280 young men (6.8% of all males born in Austria in the respective year) was investigated during the examination for military service...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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