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Liver function tests

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913180/structure-activity-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-novel-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-activator
#1
Werner J Geldenhuys, Joel Caporoso, Thomas C Leeper, Yoon-Kwang Lee, Li Lin, Altaf S Darvesh, Prabodh Sadana
Elevated triglycerides (TG) contribute towards increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of core triglycerides of very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons in the vasculature. In this study, we explored the structure-activity relationships of our lead compound (C10d) that we have previously identified as an LPL agonist. We found that the cyclopropyl moiety of C10d is not absolutely necessary for LPL activity. Several substitutions were found to result in loss of LPL activity...
November 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912954/effect-of-diet-based-on-the-principles-of-iranian-traditional-medicine-on-cirrhosis-a-clinical-trial
#2
Mohammad Javad Ehsani, Jamileh Mahdavi Jafari, Jale Aliasl, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Latif Gachkar, Rasool Choopani
OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis is associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) focused on nutritional intervention in order to improve liver function. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a diet designed based on ITM and current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: This controlled trial study was performed on 57 subjects with cirrhosis in 5 tertiary hospitals in Teharn, Iran. SETTING: Subjects were included if they were diagnosed with class A or B cirrhosis between October 2013 and December 2014...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912077/nlrp3-activation-induces-il-18-synthesis-and-affects-the-epithelial-barrier-function-in-reactive-cholangiocytes
#3
Luca Maroni, Laura Agostinelli, Stefania Saccomanno, Claudio Pinto, Debora Giordano, Chiara Rychlicki, Samuele De Minicis, Luciano Trozzi, Jesus M Banales, Espen Melum, Tom H Karlsen, Antonio Benedetti, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Marco Marzioni
Microbial products are thought to influence the progression of cholangiopathies, in particular primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Inflammasomes are molecular platforms that respond to microbial products through the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated the role of inflammasome activation in cholangiocyte response to injury. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (Nlrp3) expression was tested in cholangiocytes of normal and cholestatic livers...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909741/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifiers-in-extended-cultures-of-functional-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-neonatal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
M Cipriano, J C Correia, S P Camões, N G Oliveira, P Cruz, H Cruz, M Castro, J L Ruas, J M Santos, J P Miranda
The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909042/how-australian-general-practitioners-engage-in-discussions-about-alcohol-with-their-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Emma R Miller, Imogen J Ramsey, Ly Thi Tran, George Tsourtos, Genevieve Baratiny, Ramesh Manocha, Ian N Olver
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate factors that inhibit and facilitate discussion about alcohol between general practitioners (GPs) and patients. DESIGN: Data analysis from a cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 894 GP delegates of a national health seminar series held in five capital cities of Australia in 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Likelihood of routine alcohol enquiry; self-assessed confidence in assessing and managing alcohol issues in primary healthcare...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908157/volumetry-of-low-contrast-liver-lesions-with-ct-investigation-of-estimation-uncertainties-in-a-phantom-study
#7
Qin Li, Yongguang Liang, Qiao Huang, Min Zong, Benjamin Berman, Marios A Gavrielides, Lawrence H Schwartz, Binsheng Zhao, Nicholas Petrick
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of lesion volumetry in hepatic CT as a function of various imaging acquisition parameters. METHODS: An anthropomorphic abdominal phantom with removable liver inserts was designed for this study. Two liver inserts, each containing 19 synthetic lesions with varying diameter (6-40 mm), shape, contrast (10-65 HU), and both homogenous and mixed-density were designed to have background and lesion CT values corresponding to arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, respectively...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907201/tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-promotes-hepatic-stellate-cells-migration-via-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mmp9-pathway
#8
Mingcui Xu, Feng Zhang, Aixiu Wang, Chen Wang, Yu Cao, Ming Zhang, Mingming Zhang, Min Su, Xiaoping Zou, Guifang Xu, Yuzheng Zhuge
In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line-LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906430/recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-bowel-malrotation
#9
G Alessandri, A Amodio, L Landoni, N De' Liguori Carino, C Bassi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute pancreatitis is an uncommon diagnosis in teenagers. Excluded alcohol and biliary stones, more prevalent aetiologies in these group of patients are genetic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct system abnormalities, neoplasia, traumas and congenital abnormalities of the duodenum such as duodenal duplication or diverticulum. Two reported cases of recurrent pancreatitis associated to midgut malrotation were described in English literature. Bowel malrotation is a difficult diagnosis in a teenager or a young adult and a common delay is documented...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905922/influence-of-combined-therapy-with-conventional-and-herbal-medicines-on-liver-function-in-138-inpatients-with-abnormal-liver-transaminase-levels
#10
Jun Hyuk Shin, Kyuseok Kim, Hae Jeong Nam
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of combined therapy of conventional and herbal medicines on liver function. METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review. A total of 138 patients with abnormal liver transaminase levels at the time of admission were included in this study. We evaluated the influence of combined therapy of conventional and herbal medicines on liver transaminase levels over a period of at least 2 weeks at Kyung Hee University Korean Medical Hospital...
December 1, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904598/the-effects-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-liver-function-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#11
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Although several observational and experimental studies have examined the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are considerable inconsistencies among studies. We summarized the effect of LCDs on liver function tests, including intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant publications until July 2014, resulting in ten relevant papers that were included in meta-analysis...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904243/a-systematic-approach-to-patients-with-jaundice
#12
REVIEW
Bilal Gondal, Andrew Aronsohn
Jaundice is a clinical manifestation of disorders of underlying bilirubin metabolism, hepatocellular dysfunction, or biliary obstruction. As clinical presentations of yellowing of eyes or skin can be somewhat nonspecific for the underlying etiology of disease, a stepwise approach to evaluation is necessary for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment plan. In this review, we discuss underlying mechanisms of cholestasis and jaundice as well as laboratory and imaging modalities needed to evaluate a patient presenting with hyperbilirubinemia...
December 2016: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901159/a-portable-and-reconfigurable-multi-organ-platform-for-drug-development-with-onboard-microfluidic-flow-control
#13
J R Coppeta, M J Mescher, B C Isenberg, A J Spencer, E S Kim, A R Lever, T J Mulhern, R Prantil-Baun, J C Comolli, J T Borenstein
The drug development pipeline is severely limited by a lack of reliable tools for prediction of human clinical safety and efficacy profiles for compounds at the pre-clinical stage. Here we present the design and implementation of a platform technology comprising multiple human cell-based tissue models in a portable and reconfigurable format that supports individual organ function and crosstalk for periods of up to several weeks. Organ perfusion and crosstalk are enabled by a precision flow control technology based on electromagnetic actuators embedded in an arrayed format on a microfluidic platform...
November 30, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#14
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899277/protective-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-dependent-cd39-and-cd73-in-fulminant-acute-liver-failure
#15
Eunyoung Tak, Dong-Hwan Jung, Seok-Hwan Kim, Gil-Chun Park, Dae Young Jun, Jooyoung Lee, Bo-Hyun Jung, Varvara A Kirchner, Shin Hwang, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe life-threatening disease which usually arises in patients with-irreversible liver illnesses. Although human ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, E-NTPDase1 (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase, Ecto5'NTase (CD73) are known to protect tissues from ALF, the expression and function of CD39 and CD73 during ALF are currently not fully investigated. We tested whether CD39 and CD73 are upregulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and improve ischemic tolerance to ALF...
November 26, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896568/how-can-a-good-idea-fail-basal-insulin-peglispro-ly2605541-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Araceli Muñoz-Garach, María Molina-Vega, Francisco J Tinahones
INTRODUCTION: Lack of control in diabetic patients has stimulated the development of new insulin analogues. One of these was basal insulin peglispro (BIL) or LY2605541; it had a large hydrodynamic size, flat pharmacokinetic profile, half life of 2-3 days and acted preferably in the liver. METHODS: We reviewed the recent literature examining the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of BIL treatment in type 2 diabetes patients. RESULTS: The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic outline of BIL seemed to have an advantage over neutral protamine Hagedorn and glargine insulins...
November 28, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895772/hotair-a-long-non-coding-rna-driver-of-malignancy-whose-expression-is-activated-by-foxc1-negatively-regulates-mirna-1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Dong-Na Su, Shi-Pin Wu, Hong-Tao Chen, Jin-Hua He
Evidence is rapidly accumulating that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in human tumorigenesis and are dysregulated in multiple cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). lncRNAs can regulate essential pathways that contribute to tumor initiation and progression with tissue specificity, which suggests that lncRNAs may be valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has previously been demonstrated to be an oncogene and a negative prognostic factor in a variety of cancers; however, the factors that contribute to the upregulation of HOTAIR and the interaction between HOTAIR and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are largely unknown...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895432/prevalence-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-chronic-digestive-system-diseases-a-multicenter-epidemiological-study
#18
An-Zhong Zhang, Qing-Cai Wang, Kun-Ming Huang, Jia-Guo Huang, Chang-Hong Zhou, Fu-Qiang Sun, Su-Wen Wang, Feng-Ting Wu
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases. METHODS: A total of 1736 patients with chronic digestive system diseases were included in this cross-sectional study, including 871 outpatients and 865 in-patients. A self-designed General Information for Patients of the Department of Gastroenterology of General Hospitals questionnaire was used to collect each patient's general information, which included demographic data (including age, sex, marital status, and education) and disease characteristics (including major diseases, disease duration, principal symptoms, chronic pain, sleep disorder, and limited daily activities)...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893783/role-of-pten-in-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-the-liver-of-whole-body-pten-haplodeficient-mice
#19
Ezgi Eyluel Bankoglu, Oliver Tschopp, Johannes Schmitt, Philipp Burkard, Daniel Jahn, Andreas Geier, Helga Stopper
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with an elevated cancer incidence. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in this context are only partially understood. High blood insulin levels are typical in early T2DM and excessive insulin can cause elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and genomic instability. ROS are important for various cellular functions in signaling and host defense. However, elevated ROS formation is thought to be involved in cancer induction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891331/association-of-diabetic-nephropathy-and-liver-disorders
#20
Usha Sachidananda Adiga, B N Malawadi
INTRODUCTION: Liver disorder is known to be a risk factor for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and diabetic patients are at risk of developing liver disorders. Association of liver and renal disease is less explored in the field of research; hence, we conducted a retrospective study on this. AIM: To compare the renal and liver profiles of type II DM patients compared to healthy controls and find the association between the two profiles in diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The renal and liver profiles of 68 type II DM patients and 58 controls were compared...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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