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Gut, microbiota, bacteria, probiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321827/effects-of-dietary-administration-of-shewanella-xiamenensis-a-1-aeromonas-veronii-a-7-and-bacillus-subtilis-single-or-combined-on-the-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-intestinal-microbiota
#1
Kai Hao, Zhuo-Qi Wu, Dong-Liang Li, Xiao-Bo Yu, Gao-Xue Wang, Fei Ling
Gut microbiota of grass carp plays an important role in host. However, detailed information regarding the changes of microbiota after probiotics administration in relation to the gastrointestinal microbiota is absent. In the present study, dietary administration of putative probiotics Shewanella xiamenensis A-1, Aeromonas veronii A-7, and Bacillus subtilisstrains was conducted in grass carp to investigate if there is a discernible alteration in intestinal microbiota and whether the alteration is associated with previous study about the immunity regulation in grass carp...
March 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#2
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293920/the-intriguing-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Human microbiota is a term conventionally used to define the normal flora of microbes living in all of us, most of which are resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite it having been known for some time that the vast majority of intestinal bacteria exert a strong influence on human life, recent technologic breakthroughs have made it possible to more accurately characterize the host microbial communities and explore their relationship with many human diseases. Notably, the evidence accumulated over the past 10 years suggests that a reasonable relationship can now be established between gut microbiota composition and the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#4
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#5
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254498/effects-of-tussah-immunoreactive-substances-on-growth-immunity-disease-resistance-against-vibrio-splendidus-and-gut-microbiota-profile-of-apostichopus-japonicus
#6
Shuhui Ma, Yongxin Sun, Fuqiang Wang, Rui Mi, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Tussah immunoreactive substance (TIS) comprises a number of active chemicals with various bioactivities. The current study investigated the effects of these substances on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The specific growth rate (SGR) of TIS-fed sea cucumbers was significantly enhanced, whereas no significant difference in SGR was observed between those soaked in antibiotics and those fed with basal diet only. TIS also improved the immune response of the animals when given at a dose of 1.0% or 2.0%, as shown by increased phagocytic, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and catalase activities following injection with live Vibrio splendidus...
February 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243710/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-zinc-bacitracin-and-avilamycin-on-animal-production-linking-gut-microbiota-and-growth-performance-in-chickens
#7
Eduardo Crisol-Martínez, Dragana Stanley, Mark S Geier, Robert J Hughes, Robert J Moore
Unravelling the mechanisms of how antibiotics influence growth performance through changes in gut microbiota can lead to the identification of highly productive microbiota in animal production. Here we investigated the effect of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on growth performance and caecal microbiota in chickens and analysed associations between individual bacteria and growth performance. Two trials were undertaken; each used 96 individually caged 15-day-old Cobb broilers. Trial 1 had a control group (n = 48) and a zinc bacitracin (50 ppm) treatment group (n = 48)...
February 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#8
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239378/enterococcus-durans-ep1-a-promising-anti-inflammatory-probiotic-able-to-stimulate-siga-and-to-increase-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance
#9
Paula Carasi, Silvia María Racedo, Claudine Jacquot, Anne Marie Elie, María de Los Ángeles Serradell, María C Urdaci
Enterococcus species, principally Enterococcus faecium are used as probiotics since a long time with preference in animal applications but safety considerations were updated and also new uses as probiotics can be envisaged. Fifteen Enterococcus strains isolated from different foods were identified and analyzed for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Three Enterococcus durans strains were selected to study their immunomodulatory properties on PBMC and Caco2 cells. Two strains presented a profile toward a mild inflammatory Th1 response considering TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10 cytokines ratios...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#10
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#11
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176664/role-of-lactic-acid-probiotic-bacteria-in-ibd
#12
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: IBD is considered as one of the major public health concerns worldwide. The pathophysiology and gut microbial alteration during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still not completely understood. Gut microbiota is implicated in most of the gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including IBD. From the time of gut microbiota establishment and through aging, it undergoes a lot of changes in the composition. METHODS: In a healthy state, the composition of beneficial microbes in the gut is comparatively higher and due to factors such as malnutrition, use of antibiotics and any underlying diseases allow the colonization and invasion of pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164854/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161414/dairy-propionibacteria-prevent-the-proliferative-effect-of-plant-lectins-on-sw480%C3%A2-cells-and-protect-the-metabolic-activity-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in%C3%A2-vitro
#14
Gabriela Zárate, Gabriel D Sáez, Adriana Pérez Chaia
Plant lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in legumes such as beans and pulses, seeds, cereals, and many plants used as farm feeds. They are highly resistant to cooking and digestion, reaching the intestinal lumen and/or blood circulation with biological activity. Since many legume lectins trigger harmful local and systemic reactions after their binding to the mucosal surface, these molecules are generally considered anti-nutritive and/or toxic substances. In the gut, specific cell receptors and bacteria may interact with these dietary components, leading to changes in intestinal physiology...
February 1, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134688/progress-with-treating-the-microbial-dysbiosis-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
James S Pearson, Peter J Whorwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial dysbiosis is receiving increasing attention as possibly being important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. This review will summarize the most recent literature addressing attempts to explore and target the microbiome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome is receiving increasing attention. Traditionally, dietary manipulation has been utilized...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121325/modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-increase-in-fecal-water-content-in-mice-induced-by-administration-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-dn1
#16
Dana Jeong, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Il-Byeong Kang, Hyunsook Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Hong-Seok Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10(8) cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed...
January 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116928/assessment-of-the-synbiotic-properites-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-in-vitro-and-in-humanised-mice
#17
S Musilova, N Modrackova, P Hermanova, T Hudcovic, R Svejstil, V Rada, V Tejnecky, V Bunesova
The mode of delivery plays a crucial role in infant gastrointestinal tract colonisation, which in the case of caesarean section is characterised by the presence of clostridia and low bifidobacterial counts. Gut colonisation can be modified by probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are infant prebiotics that show a bifidogenic effect. Moreover, genome sequencing of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis within the infant microbiome revealed adaptations for milk utilisation. This study aimed to evaluate the synbiotic effect of B...
January 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106826/colorectal-carcinoma-a-general-overview-and-future-perspectives-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Inés Mármol, Cristina Sánchez-de-Diego, Alberto Pradilla Dieste, Elena Cerrada, María Jesús Rodriguez Yoldi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%-5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105081/cross-feeding-of-glucose-metabolism-byproducts-of-escherichia-coli-human-gut-isolates-and-probiotic-strains-affect-survival-of-vibrio-cholerae
#19
Chirantana Sengupta, Manjula Ekka, Saurabh Arora, Prashant D Dhaware, Rukhsana Chowdhury, Saumya Raychaudhuri
Vibrio cholerae converts glucose into either acid or the neutral end product acetoin and its survival in carbohydrate enriched media is linked to the nature of the byproducts produced. It has been demonstrated in this study that Escherichia coli strain isolated from the gut of healthy human volunteers and the commonly used probiotic E. coli Nissle strain that metabolize glucose to acidic byproducts drastically reduce the survival of V. cholerae strains irrespective of their glucose sensitivity and acetoin production status...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071925/gene-editing-and-genetic-engineering-approaches-for-advanced-probiotics-a-review
#20
Ruby Yadav, Vishal Kumar, Mehak Baweja, Pratyoosh Shukla
The applications of probiotics are significant and thus resulted in need of genome analysis of probiotic strains. Various omics methods and systems biology approaches enables us to understand and optimize the metabolic processes. These techniques have increased the researcher's attention towards gut microbiome and provided a new source for the revelation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways which enables novel metabolic engineering approaches. In recent years, the broad and quantitative analysis of modified strains relies on systems biology tools such as in silico design which are commonly used methods for improving strain performance...
January 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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