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Gut, microbiota, bacteria, probiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411221/an-extracellular-cell-attached-pullulanase-confers-branched-%C3%AE-glucan-utilization-in-human-gut-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#2
Marie S Møller, Yong Jun Goh, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Wojciech Cypryk, Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Todd R Klaenhammer, Birte Svensson, Maher Abou Hachem
Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM that is widely used as a probiotic...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#5
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373240/engineering-bacterial-thiosulfate-and-tetrathionate-sensors-for-detecting-gut-inflammation
#6
Kristina N-M Daeffler, Jeffrey D Galley, Ravi U Sheth, Laura C Ortiz-Velez, Christopher O Bibb, Noah F Shroyer, Robert A Britton, Jeffrey J Tabor
There is a groundswell of interest in using genetically engineered sensor bacteria to study gut microbiota pathways, and diagnose or treat associated diseases. Here, we computationally identify the first biological thiosulfate sensor and an improved tetrathionate sensor, both two-component systems from marine Shewanella species, and validate them in laboratory Escherichia coli Then, we port these sensors into a gut-adapted probiotic E. coli strain, and develop a method based upon oral gavage and flow cytometry of colon and fecal samples to demonstrate that colon inflammation (colitis) activates the thiosulfate sensor in mice harboring native gut microbiota...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368910/iron-supplements-modulate-colon-microbiota-composition-and-potentiate-the-protective-effects-of-probiotics-in-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#8
Marco Constante, Gabriela Fragoso, Joseph Lupien-Meilleur, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
BACKGROUND: Iron is an important nutrient for both the host and colonizing bacteria. Oral iron supplementation may impact the composition of the microbiota and can be particularly damaging to patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, patients with IBD may require iron supplementation to treat their anemia. METHODS: We fed mice with diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate at different doses (5, 50, and 500 mg of iron/kg chow) and with different iron formulations (ferrous sulfate, ferrous bisglycinate and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [FEDTA]), and analyzed the effects on the composition of the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361445/roles-of-probiotic-lactobacilli-inclusion-in-helping-piglets-establish-healthy-intestinal-inter-environment-for-pathogen-defense
#9
REVIEW
Jiajun Yang, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang, Yijing Wu
The gastrointestinal tract of pigs is densely populated with microorganisms that closely interact with the host and with ingested feed. Gut microbiota benefits the host by providing nutrients from dietary substrates and modulating the development and function of the digestive and immune systems. An optimized gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial for pigs' health, and establishment of the microbiome in piglets is especially important for growth and disease resistance. However, the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is immature and easily influenced by the environment...
March 30, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356129/the-effects-of-probiotic-and-synbiotic-supplementation-on-metabolic-syndrome-indices-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Nazila Kassaian, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Awat Feizi, Parvaneh Jafari, Masoud Amini
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity has been rising dramatically; however, their pathogenesis is particularly intriguing. Recently, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new candidate that may be linked to metabolic diseases. We hypothesize that selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic or synbiotic supplementation may improve metabolic dysfunction and prevent diabetes in prediabetics. In this study, a synthesis and study of synbiotics will be carried out for the first time in Iran...
March 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349964/probiotics-may-delay-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-restoring-the-gut-microbiota-structure-and-improving-intestinal-endotoxemia
#11
Li Xue, Juntao He, Ning Gao, Xiaolan Lu, Ming Li, Xiaokang Wu, Zeshi Liu, Yaofeng Jin, Jiali Liu, Jiru Xu, Yan Geng
Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation have been recognized to be involved in the onset of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little is known about the variation of LPS and TLR4 during the progression of NAFLD. Probiotics were able to inhibit proliferation of harmful bacteria and improve gastrointestinal barrier function. However, it's unclear whether LPS/TLR4 is involved in the protection effect of probiotics on NAFLD...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337589/colonization-by-non-pathogenic-bacteria-alters-mrna-expression-of-cytochromes-p450-in-originally-germ-free-mice
#12
L Jourová, P Anzenbacher, B Lišková, Z Matušková, P Hermanová, T Hudcovic, H Kozáková, L Hrnčířová, E Anzenbacherová
Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (NIZO2877) or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice...
March 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321827/effects-of-dietary-administration-of-shewanella-xiamenensis-a-1-aeromonas-veronii-a-7-and-bacillus-subtilis-single-or-combined-on-the-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-intestinal-microbiota
#13
Kai Hao, Zhuo-Qi Wu, Dong-Liang Li, Xiao-Bo Yu, Gao-Xue Wang, Fei Ling
Gut microbiota of grass carp plays an important role in host. However, detailed information regarding the changes of microbiota after probiotics administration in relation to the gastrointestinal microbiota is absent. In the present study, dietary administration of putative probiotics Shewanella xiamenensis A-1, Aeromonas veronii A-7, and Bacillus subtilisstrains was conducted in grass carp to investigate if there is a discernible alteration in intestinal microbiota and whether the alteration is associated with previous study about the immunity regulation in grass carp...
March 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#14
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293920/the-intriguing-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Human microbiota is a term conventionally used to define the normal flora of microbes living in all of us, most of which are resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite it having been known for some time that the vast majority of intestinal bacteria exert a strong influence on human life, recent technologic breakthroughs have made it possible to more accurately characterize the host microbial communities and explore their relationship with many human diseases. Notably, the evidence accumulated over the past 10 years suggests that a reasonable relationship can now be established between gut microbiota composition and the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#16
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#17
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254498/effects-of-tussah-immunoreactive-substances-on-growth-immunity-disease-resistance-against-vibrio-splendidus-and-gut-microbiota-profile-of-apostichopus-japonicus
#18
Shuhui Ma, Yongxin Sun, Fuqiang Wang, Rui Mi, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Tussah immunoreactive substance (TIS) comprises a number of active chemicals with various bioactivities. The current study investigated the effects of these substances on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The specific growth rate (SGR) of TIS-fed sea cucumbers was significantly enhanced, whereas no significant difference in SGR was observed between those soaked in antibiotics and those fed with basal diet only. TIS also improved the immune response of the animals when given at a dose of 1.0% or 2.0%, as shown by increased phagocytic, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and catalase activities following injection with live Vibrio splendidus...
February 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243710/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-zinc-bacitracin-and-avilamycin-on-animal-production-linking-gut-microbiota-and-growth-performance-in-chickens
#19
Eduardo Crisol-Martínez, Dragana Stanley, Mark S Geier, Robert J Hughes, Robert J Moore
Unravelling the mechanisms of how antibiotics influence growth performance through changes in gut microbiota can lead to the identification of highly productive microbiota in animal production. Here we investigated the effect of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on growth performance and caecal microbiota in chickens and analysed associations between individual bacteria and growth performance. Two trials were undertaken; each used 96 individually caged 15-day-old Cobb broilers. Trial 1 had a control group (n = 48) and a zinc bacitracin (50 ppm) treatment group (n = 48)...
February 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#20
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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