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Gut, microbiota, bacteria, probiotics

Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qian Zhang, Hongyue Yu, Xinhua Xiao, Ling Hu, Fengjiao Xin, Xiaobing Yu
Background & Aims: Accumulating research has addressed the linkage between the changes to gut microbiota structure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Inulin is one type of soluble dietary fiber that can alleviate T2D. As a prebiotic, inulin cannot be digested by humans, but rather is digested by probiotics. However, whether inulin treatment can benefit the entire gut bacteria community remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among diabetic, inulin-treated diabetic, normal control, and inulin-treated normal control rats...
2018: PeerJ
Noelia Martínez, Roberto Luque, Christian Milani, Marco Ventura, Oscar Bañuelos, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are non-pathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Taekil Eom, Yong Sung Kim, Chang Hwan Choi, Michael J Sadowsky, Tatsuya Unno
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a result of chronic inflammation caused, in some part, by dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, mainly commensal bacteria. Gut dysbiosis can be caused by multiple factors, including abnormal immune responses which might be related to genetic susceptibility, infection, western dietary habits, and administration of antibiotics. Consequently, the disease itself is characterized as having multiple causes, etiologies, and severities. Recent studies have identified >200 IBD risk loci in the host...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Simon D Goldenberg, Rahul Batra, Ian Beales, Jonathan Leith Digby-Bell, Peter Miles Irving, Lee Kellingray, Arjan Narbad, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Elodie Guilhot, Saber Khelaifia, Bernard La Scola, Didier Raoult, Grégory Dubourg
Anaerobes represent the dominating population in the human gut microbiota and play a key role in gut homeostasis. In addition, several anaerobes are now considered as probiotics and they remain essential to several processes in the field of biotechnology. With the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS in routine laboratories, anaerobes are no longer neglected in clinical microbiology, as their identification is made easy. However, the isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria, remains time consuming, fastidious and costly...
February 15, 2018: Future Microbiology
Alok Kumar Mishra, Asit Ranjan Ghosh
Gut microbiota remains a prominent source for a diverse range of potential probiotics. In this context, the current study explored the rectal region of experimental Wistar rat for the isolation of potent probiotic. Sixteen lactic acid bacteria (LAB), from rectal swab of Wistar rats, were subjected to evaluation of probiotic properties. Among all, AG5 was found unique with consistent probiotic properties and was further identified as Enterococcus faecalis AG5 (NCBI accession number KT248537) using 16S rDNA sequencing, followed by BLAST analysis...
February 9, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Caroline Fraga Cabral Gomes Nunes, Jeane S Nogueira, Fábio B Canto, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Bianca Torres Ciambarella, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues E Silva, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pillotto Domingues, Mileane Busch, Georgia Correa Atella, André Macedo Vale, Maria Bellio, Alberto Nóbrega, Rita Fucs
The incidence of allergic diseases, which increased to epidemic proportions in developed countries over the last few decades, has been correlated with altered gut microbiota colonization. Although probiotics may play a critical role on the restoration of gut homeostasis, its efficiency on the control of allergy is controversial. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic treatment initiated at neonatal or adult ages on the suppression of experimental ovalbumin-induced asthma. Neonatal or adult mice were orally treated with probiotic bacteria and subjected to ovalbumin-induced allergy...
February 6, 2018: International Immunology
Brittany D Needham, Weiyi Tang, Wei-Li Wu
Social impairment is one of the major symptoms in multiple psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Accumulated studies indicate a crucial role for the gut microbiota in social development, but these mechanisms remain unclear. This review focuses on two strategies adopted to elucidate the complicated relationship between gut bacteria and host social behavior. In a top-down approach, researchers have attempted to correlate behavioral abnormalities with altered gut microbial profiles in rodent models of ASD, including BTBR mice, maternal immune activation (MIA), maternal valproic acid (VPA) and maternal high-fat diet (MHFD) offspring...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Sanjoy Roychowdhury, Jennifer Cadnum, Bryan Glueck, Mark Obrenovich, Curtis Donskey, Gail A M Cresci
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) increases patient morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Antibiotic treatment induces gut dysbiosis and is both a major risk factor for CD colonization and treatment of CDI. Probiotics have been trialed to support commensal gut microbiota and reduce CDI. This study investigated commensal microbe Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FP) and a prebiotic, both known to yield butyrate and be anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory, on CD colonization and gut integrity in mice...
January 31, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Murphy L Y Wan, K H Ling, Hani El-Nezami, M F Wang
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Lili Chen, Bowen Jiang, Chunge Zhong, Jun Guo, Lihao Zhang, Teng Mu, Qiuhua Zhang, Xiuli Bi
Freeze-dried black raspberry powder is considered as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. In this study, we fed AOM/DSS treated C57BL/6J mice with diet containing black raspberry anthocyanins for 12 weeks and this led to a reduction in colon carcinogenesis. These animals had consistently lower tumor multiplicity compared to AOM/DSS-treated mice not receiving BRB anthocyanins. In AOM/DSS-treated mice, the number of pathogenic bacteria, including Desulfovibriosp and Enterococcus spp, were increased significantly, whereas probiotics such as Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were dramatically decreased, but BRB anthocyanins supplement could reverse this imbalance in gut microbiota...
January 19, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Elena Rinaldi, Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dana Jeong, Hyunsook Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a natural complex fermented milk product containing more than 50 species of probiotic bacteria and yeast, and has been demonstrated to have multiple properties conferring health benefits, including antiobesity, anti-hepatic steatosis, antioxidative, antiallergenic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, constipation-alleviating, and antimicrobial properties. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these benefits, we here review research on the effect of kefir (and kefir microorganisms) consumption to modulate the host gut microbiota...
January 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mark Lyte, David R Brown
The ability of prokaryotic microbes to produce and respond to neurochemicals that are more often associated with eukaryotic systems is increasingly recognized through the concept of microbial endocrinology. Most studies have described the phenomena of neurochemical production by bacteria, but there remains an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which microbe- or host-derived neuroactive substances can be recognized by bacteria. Based on the evolutionary origins of eukaryotic solute carrier transporters, we hypothesized that bacteria may possess an analogous uptake function for neuroactive biogenic amines...
2018: PloS One
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