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Gut, microbiota, bacteria, probiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534820/antioxidant-properties-of-probiotic-bacteria
#1
REVIEW
Yang Wang, Yanping Wu, Yuanyuan Wang, Han Xu, Xiaoqiang Mei, Dongyou Yu, Yibing Wang, Weifen Li
Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#3
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505101/dairy-propionibacteria-versatile-probiotics
#4
REVIEW
Houem Rabah, Fillipe Luiz Rosa do Carmo, Gwénaël Jan
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties...
May 13, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488210/food-additives-contaminants-and-other-minor-components-effects-on-human-gut-microbiota-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Paula Roca-Saavedra, Veronica Mendez-Vilabrille, Jose Manuel Miranda, Carolina Nebot, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Carlos M Franco, Alberto Cepeda
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487606/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-bifidobacterium-longum-bb536-on-the-healthy-gut-microbiota-composition-at-phyla-and-species-level-a-preliminary-study
#6
Marco Toscano, Roberta De Grandi, Laura Stronati, Elena De Vecchi, Lorenzo Drago
AIM: To evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 to colonize the intestinal environment of healthy subjects and modify the gut microbiota composition. METHODS: Twenty healthy Italian volunteers, eight males and twelve females, participated in the study. Ten subjects took a sachet containing 4 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and 10(9) CFU of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, 30 min before breakfast (pre-prandial administration), while ten subjects took a sachet of probiotic product 30 min after breakfast (post-prandial administration)...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465509/saccharomyces-boulardii-administration-changes-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-d-galactosamine-induced-liver-injury
#7
Lei Yu, Xue-Ke Zhao, Ming-Liang Cheng, Guo-Zhen Yang, Bi Wang, Hua-Juan Liu, Ya-Xin Hu, Li-Li Zhu, Shuai Zhang, Zi-Wen Xiao, Yong-Mei Liu, Bao-Fang Zhang, Mao Mu
Growing evidence has shown that gut microbiome is a key factor involved in liver health. Therefore, gut microbiota modulation with probiotic bacteria, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, constitutes a promising therapy for hepatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of S. boulardii on D-Galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Liver function test and histopathological analysis both suggested that the liver injury can be effectively attenuated by S. boulardii administration. In the meantime, S...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458670/gut-microbiota-species-can-provoke-both-inflammatory-and-tolerogenic-immune-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-mediated-by-retinoic-acid-receptor-alpha-ligation
#8
Krisztian Bene, Zsofia Varga, Viktor O Petrov, Nadiya Boyko, Eva Rajnavolgyi
Dendritic cells are considered as the main coordinators of both mucosal and systemic immune responses, thus playing a determining role in shaping the outcome of effector cell responses. However, it is still uncovered how primary human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) populations drive the polarization of helper T (Th) cells in the presence of commensal bacteria harboring unique immunomodulatory properties. Furthermore, the individual members of the gut microbiota have the potential to modulate the outcome of immune responses and shape the immunogenicity of differentiating moDCs via the activation of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444600/antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-of-indigenous-lactobacilli-isolated-from-curd-and-human-milk-samples
#9
Chetan Sharma, Sachin Gulati, Nishchal Thakur, Brij Pal Singh, Sanjolly Gupta, Simranpreet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar Puniya, Jatinder Pal Singh Gill, Harsh Panwar
The gut microbiota plays a vital role in host well-being and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained an overwhelming attention as health promoter. This perception has evolved from traditional dairy products to a money-spinning market of probiotics. The safety of probiotics is coupled to their intended use and LAB may act as pool of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in food matrix or in gastrointestinal tract, which could be detrimental to host. This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB isolated from curd (20) and human milk (11) samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#10
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
June 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411221/an-extracellular-cell-attached-pullulanase-confers-branched-%C3%AE-glucan-utilization-in-human-gut-lactobacillus-acidophilus
#12
Marie S Møller, Yong Jun Goh, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Wojciech Cypryk, Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Todd R Klaenhammer, Birte Svensson, Maher Abou Hachem
Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM that is widely used as a probiotic...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408909/the-maternal-diet-gut-bacteria-and-bacterial-metabolites-during-pregnancy-influence-offspring-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Lawrence E K Gray, Martin O'Hely, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter David Sly, Peter Vuillermin
This review focuses on the current evidence that maternal dietary and gut bacterial exposures during pregnancy influence the developing fetal immune system and subsequent offspring asthma. Part 1 addresses exposure to a farm environment, antibiotics, and prebiotic and probiotic supplementation that together indicate the importance of bacterial experience in immune programming and offspring asthma. Part 2 outlines proposed mechanisms to explain these associations including bacterial exposure of the fetoplacental unit; immunoglobulin-related transplacental transport of gut bacterial components; cytokine signaling producing fetomaternal immune alignment; and immune programming via metabolites produced by gut bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#15
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
June 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373240/engineering-bacterial-thiosulfate-and-tetrathionate-sensors-for-detecting-gut-inflammation
#16
Kristina N-M Daeffler, Jeffrey D Galley, Ravi U Sheth, Laura C Ortiz-Velez, Christopher O Bibb, Noah F Shroyer, Robert A Britton, Jeffrey J Tabor
There is a groundswell of interest in using genetically engineered sensor bacteria to study gut microbiota pathways, and diagnose or treat associated diseases. Here, we computationally identify the first biological thiosulfate sensor and an improved tetrathionate sensor, both two-component systems from marine Shewanella species, and validate them in laboratory Escherichia coli Then, we port these sensors into a gut-adapted probiotic E. coli strain, and develop a method based upon oral gavage and flow cytometry of colon and fecal samples to demonstrate that colon inflammation (colitis) activates the thiosulfate sensor in mice harboring native gut microbiota...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368910/iron-supplements-modulate-colon-microbiota-composition-and-potentiate-the-protective-effects-of-probiotics-in-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#18
Marco Constante, Gabriela Fragoso, Joseph Lupien-Meilleur, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
BACKGROUND: Iron is an important nutrient for both the host and colonizing bacteria. Oral iron supplementation may impact the composition of the microbiota and can be particularly damaging to patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, patients with IBD may require iron supplementation to treat their anemia. METHODS: We fed mice with diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate at different doses (5, 50, and 500 mg of iron/kg chow) and with different iron formulations (ferrous sulfate, ferrous bisglycinate and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [FEDTA]), and analyzed the effects on the composition of the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361445/roles-of-probiotic-lactobacilli-inclusion-in-helping-piglets-establish-healthy-intestinal-inter-environment-for-pathogen-defense
#19
REVIEW
Jiajun Yang, Kun Qian, Chonglong Wang, Yijing Wu
The gastrointestinal tract of pigs is densely populated with microorganisms that closely interact with the host and with ingested feed. Gut microbiota benefits the host by providing nutrients from dietary substrates and modulating the development and function of the digestive and immune systems. An optimized gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial for pigs' health, and establishment of the microbiome in piglets is especially important for growth and disease resistance. However, the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is immature and easily influenced by the environment...
March 30, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356129/the-effects-of-probiotic-and-synbiotic-supplementation-on-metabolic-syndrome-indices-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Nazila Kassaian, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Awat Feizi, Parvaneh Jafari, Masoud Amini
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity has been rising dramatically; however, their pathogenesis is particularly intriguing. Recently, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new candidate that may be linked to metabolic diseases. We hypothesize that selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic or synbiotic supplementation may improve metabolic dysfunction and prevent diabetes in prediabetics. In this study, a synthesis and study of synbiotics will be carried out for the first time in Iran...
March 29, 2017: Trials
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