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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900189/novel-coaching-cricket-bat-can-it-be-used-to-enhance-the-backlift-and-performance-of-junior-cricket-batsmen
#1
M Habib Noorbhai, Russell C Woolmer, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: In the current literature, it is questionable whether cricket bats in their current form and dimensions allow a young cricketer to hit the ball effectively. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a novel coaching cricket bat among junior cricket batsmen with regard to enhancing performance and the direction of the backlift. METHODS: A cross-sectional research study with analytical research methods was employed, in which 2 groups (coached: n=12 and uncoached: n=35) of participants (ages 9-13) took part in a pilot and intervention study...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885522/efficacy-and-safety-of-fractional-co2-laser-versus-fractional-er-yag-laser-in-the-treatment-of-facial-skin-wrinkles
#2
Reza M Robati, Elmira Asadi
Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser...
November 24, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#3
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865154/a-narrow-bimalleolar-width-is-a-risk-factor-for-ankle-inversion-injury-in-male-military-recruits-a-prospective-study
#4
Hannah Rice, Michael Nunns, Carol House, Joanne Fallowfield, Adrian Allsopp, Sharon Dixon
BACKGROUND: Ankle inversion injuries are one of the most common and burdensome injuries in athletic populations. Research that prospectively identifies characteristics associated with this injury is lacking. This prospective study compared baseline anthropometric and biomechanical gait characteristics of military recruits who sustained an ankle inversion injury during training, with those who remained injury-free. METHODS: Bilateral plantar pressure and three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were recorded in 1065 male, injury-free military recruits, during barefoot running...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855362/are-the-arms-and-head-required-to-accurately-estimate-centre-of-mass-motion-during-running
#5
Niamh Gill, Stephen J Preece, Samantha Young, Christopher Bramah
Accurate measurement of centre of mass (CoM) motion can provide valuable insight into the biomechanics of human running. However, full-body kinematic measurement protocols can be time consuming and difficult to implement. Therefore, this study was performed to understand whether CoM motion during running could be estimated from a model incorporating only lower extremity, pelvic and trunk segments. Full-body kinematic data was collected whilst (n=12) participants ran on a treadmill at two speeds (3.1 and 3.9ms(-1))...
November 2, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852765/light-level-impacts-locomotor-biomechanics-in-a-secondarily-diurnal-gecko-rhoptropus-afer
#6
Aleksandra V Birn-Jeffery, Timothy E Higham
Locomotion through complex habitats relies on the continuous feedback from a number of sensory systems, including vision. Animals face a visual trade-off between acuity and light sensitivity that depends on light levels, which will dramatically impact the ability to process information and move quickly through a habitat, making ambient illumination an incredibly important ecological factor. Despite this, there is a paucity of data examining ambient light in the context of locomotor dynamics. There have been several independent transitions from the nocturnal ancestor to a diurnal activity pattern among geckos...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#7
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT:  Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE:  To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813684/altered-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-participants-with-chronic-ankle-instability-while-running
#8
John Bigouette, Janet Simon, Kathy Liu, Carrie L Docherty
CONTEXT: Altered gait kinetics may increase the risk of long-term injuries in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) can provide insight into how body loading is altered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the components of vGRFs while running in participants with or without CAI. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four experienced, college-aged runners...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802142/a-different-angle-comparative-analyses-of-whole-animal-transport-costs-running-uphill
#9
Lewis G Halsey, Craig R White
Comparative work on animals' costs of terrestrial locomotion has focussed on the underpinning physiology and biomechanics. Often, much of an animal's energy budget is spent on moving around thus there is also value in interpreting such data from an ecological perspective. When animals move through their environment they encounter topographical variation, and this is a key factor that can dramatically affect their energy expenditure. We collated published data on the costs for birds and mammals to locomote terrestrially on inclines, and investigated the scaling relationships using a phylogenetically informed approach...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801744/long-term-effects-of-habitual-barefoot-running-and-walking-a-systematic-review
#10
Karsten Hollander, Christoph Heidt, Babette van der Zwaard, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Astrid Zech
INTRODUCTION: Barefoot locomotion is widely believed to be beneficial for motor development and biomechanics but are implied to be responsible for foot pathologies and running-related injuries. While most of available studies focused on acute effects of barefoot running and walking little is known regarding the effects of long-term barefoot vs. shod locomotion. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to evaluate current evidence of habitual barefoot (HB) vs...
October 31, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789034/soldier-relevant-body-borne-loads-increase-knee-joint-contact-force-during-a-run-to-stop-maneuver
#11
John W Ramsay, Clifford L Hancock, Meghan P O'Donovan, Tyler N Brown
The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of load carriage on human performance, specifically during a run-to-stop (RTS) task. Using OpenSim analysis tools, knee joint contact force, grounds reaction force, leg stiffness and lower extremity joint angles and moments were determined for nine male military personnel performing a RTS under three load configurations (light, ~6kg, medium, ~20kg, and heavy, ~40kg). Subject-based means for each biomechanical variable were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the effects of load...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777924/ischial-tuberosity-avulsion-stress-fracture-after-short-period-of-repetitive-training
#12
Bo-Kyu Yang, Seung-Rim Yi, Young-Joon Ahn, Se-Hyuk Im, Sang-Hyun Park
Fatigue fracture of the pelvis is the form of fracture due to repetitive micro-stress accumulation, can be affected by a number of factors such as patient's nutritional status, biomechanics, social status and so on. Still there is no study about precise standard degree of external force that lead to stress fracture, but it may caused by compression force, traction force or complex force and others. Avulsion stress to ischial tuberosity or anterior superior iliac spine by attached muscle is known as the main factor for the avulsion fracture...
September 2016: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776927/the-energetic-cost-of-gait-retraining-a-pilot-study-of-the-acute-effect
#13
Andrew D Townshend, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Mark W Creaby
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effect of gait retraining aimed at reducing tibial peak positive acceleration (PPA) on energetic cost (VO2). DESIGN: Intervention with a pre/post-test design. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 12 healthy male runners (23.4 ± 5.3 years, 179.7 ± 4.3 cm, 75.6 ± 9.2 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tibial PPA and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured after a five minute baseline run and at the end of a gait retraining session aimed at minimizing tibial PPA...
August 21, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770687/the-effects-of-squatting-footwear-on-three-dimensional-lower-limb-and-spine-kinetics
#15
Daniel J Southwell, Shane A Petersen, Tyson A C Beach, Ryan B Graham
Altering footwear worn during performance of the barbell back squat has been shown to change motion patterns, but it is not completely understood how this affects biomechanical loading demands. The primary objective was to compare lower back and extremity net joint moments in 24 experienced weightlifters (12M, 12F) who performed 80% one-repetition maximum back squats under three different footwear conditions (barefoot, running shoes, weightlifting shoes). Results showed that there was a significant main effect of footwear condition on the knee extension moment (p=0...
December 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755283/hip-biomechanics-are-altered-in-male-runners-with-achilles-tendinopathy
#16
Mark W Creaby, Conor Honeywill, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Anthony G Schache, Kay M Crossley
PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a prevalent injury in running sports. Understanding the biomechanical factors associated with AT will assist in its management and prevention. The purpose of this study was to compare hip and ankle kinematics and kinetics in runners with and without AT. METHODS: Fourteen male runners with AT and eleven healthy male runners (CTRL) ran over-ground whilst lower-limb joint motion and ground reaction force data were synchronously captured...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747844/running-economy-measurement-norms-and-determining-factors
#17
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744106/high-compared-to-low-arched-athletes-exhibit-smaller-knee-abduction-moments-in-walking-and-running
#18
Douglas W Powell, Samantha Andrews, Cris Stickley, D S Blaise Williams
: High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded...
December 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741056/differences-in-spatio-temporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#19
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735232/lower-extremity-joint-work-during-acceleration-deceleration-and-steady-state-running
#20
D S Blaise Williams, Jonathan H Cole, Douglas W Powell
Running during sports and for physical activity often requires changes in velocity through acceleration and deceleration. While it is clear that lower extremity biomechanics vary during these accelerations and decelerations, the work requirements of the individual joints are not well understood. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the sagittal plane mechanical work of the individual lower extremity joints during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running. 10 runners were compared during acceleration, deceleration and steady state running using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics measures...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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