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running biomechanics

Aaron Uthoff, Jon Oliver, John Cronin, Craig Harrison, Paul Winwood
Backward running (BR) is a form of locomotion that occurs in short bursts during many overground field and court sports. It has also traditionally been used in clinical settings as a method to rehabilitate lower body injuries. Comparisons between BR and forward running (FR) have led to the discovery that both may be generated by the same neural circuitry. Comparisons of the acute responses to FR reveal that BR is characterised by a smaller ratio of braking to propulsive forces, increased step frequency, decreased step length, increased muscle activity and reliance on isometric and concentric muscle actions...
March 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
Pedro Forte, Daniel A Marinho, Jorge E Morais, Pedro G Morouço, Tiago M Barbosa
Biomechanics plays an important role helping Paralympic sprinters to excel, having the aerodynamic drag a significant impact on the athlete's performance. The aim of this study was to assess the aerodynamics in different key-moments of the stroke cycle by Computational Fluid Dynamics. A world-ranked wheelchair sprinter was scanned on the racing wheelchair wearing his competition gear and helmet. The sprinter was scanned in three different positions: (i) catch (hands in the 12h position on the hand-rim); (ii) the release (hands in the 18h position on the hand-rim) and; (iii) recovery phase (hands do not touch the hand-rim and are hyperextended backwards)...
2018: PloS One
Rui Zhang, Qiaoli Ji, Dianlei Han, Haijin Wan, Xiujuan Li, Gang Luo, Shuliang Xue, Songsong Ma, Mingming Yang, Jianqiao Li
In ostriches, the toes are the only body parts that contact loose sand surfaces. Thus, toe interphalangeal joint motions may play vital biomechanical roles. However, there is little research on ostrich phalangeal joint movements while walking or running on sand. The results from the three-dimensional motion track analysis system Simi Motion show that gait pattern has no significant effect on the key indicators (angles at touch-down, mid-stance, lift-off and range of motion) of the toe joint angles. The motion of the toe phalanges when walking and running on sand is basically the same...
2018: PloS One
Yushane C Shih, Brian P Beaubien, Qingshan Chen, Jonathan N Sembrano
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Fusion typically consists of joint preparation, grafting and rigid fixation. Fusion has been successfully used to treat symptomatic disruptions of the SIJ and degenerative sacroiliitis using purpose-specific, threaded implants. The biomechanical performance of these systems is important but has not been studied. PURPOSE: To compare two techniques for placing primary (12.5mm) and secondary (8.5mm) implants across the SIJ. STUDY DESIGN: A human cadaveric biomechanical study of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fixation...
February 23, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Nan Zheng, Yan-Yan Chi, Xiao-Han Yang, Nan-Xing Wang, Yi-Lin Li, Yang-Yang Ge, Lan-Xin Zhang, Tai-Yuan Liu, Xiao-Ying Yuan, Sheng-Bo Yu, Hong-Jin Sui
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Studies over the last 20 years have revealed that there are fibrous connective tissues between the suboccipital muscles, nuchal ligament and cervical spinal dura mater(SDM). This fibrous connection with the SDM is through the posterior atlanto-occipital and/or atlanto-axial interspaces and is called the Myodural Bridge(MDB). Researches have inferred that the MDB might have important functions. It was speculated that the function of MDB might be related to proprioception transmission, keeping the subarachnoid space and the cerebellomedullary cistern unobstructed, and affecting the dynamic circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
February 22, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
P J Bishop, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, J A Hancock, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd, C J Clemente
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range...
2018: PloS One
Patrick B Morrissey, Ryan Myers, Daniel Houskamp, Leo T Kroonen
PURPOSE: Ulnohumeral arthroplasty, also known as the Outerbridge-Kashiwagi procedure, was popularized after reports of successful results in 1978, and has long been a means of management for ulnohumeral arthritis. However, there are concerns over the loss of integrity of the distal humerus as a result of fenestration. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of fenestration and fracture risk. METHODS: Using a validated fourth-generation sawbones model, load to failure and site of fracture were investigated following incrementally increasing distal humeral fenestration sizes...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
C Markus Brahms, Yang Zhao, David Gerhard, John M Barden
From a research perspective, detailed knowledge about stride length (SL) is important for coaches, clinicians and researchers because together with stride rate it determines the speed of locomotion. Moreover, individual SL vectors represent the integrated output of different biomechanical determinants and as such provide valuable insight into the control of running gait. In recent years, several studies have tried to estimate SL using body-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) and have reported promising results...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
J Bartonicek, D Klika, M Tucek
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to present, on the basis of 3D CT reconstructions of 187 of scapular body fractures, a clinically oriented classification respecting the biomechanical architecture of the scapula. METHODS: In a series of 375 scapula fractures we identified 187 body fractures in187 patients (157 men, 30 women) with the mean age of 48 years (range; 16100 years). 3D CT reconstructions were obtainedof all fractures, to allow an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Karsten Hollander, Julie Stebbins, Inke Marie Albertsen, Daniel Hamacher, Kornelia Babin, Claudia Hacke, Astrid Zech
BACKGROUND: While altered foot arch characteristics (high or low) are frequently assumed to influence lower limb biomechanics and are suspected to be a contributing factor for injuries, the association between arch characteristics and lower limb running biomechanics in children is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a dynamically measured arch index and running biomechanics in healthy children...
February 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
Derek N Pamukoff, Melissa M Montgomery, Kevin Choe, Tyler J Moffit, Michael N Vakula
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on running biomechanics in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). DESIGN: Single-blind randomized crossover trial. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 20 individuals with unilateral ACLR (age=22.3 (3.3) years; mass=71.8 (15.3) kg; time since ACLR=44.9 (22.8) months; 15 females, 10 patellar tendon autograft, 7 hamstrings autograft, 3 allograft; International Knee Documentation Committee Score=83...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Brandon G Santoni, David M Donohue, T Kyle Stoops, Gregory Tanner, Miguel A Diaz, Mark Mighell
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the stability of 3 points of inferiorly-directed versus 3 points of superiorly-directed locking screw fixation compared to the full contingent of 6 points of locked screw fixation in the treatment of a 3-part proximal humerus fracture. METHODS: A standardized 3-part fracture was created in 10 matched pairs (experimental groups) and 10 non-matched humeri (control group). Osteosynthesis was performed using three locking screws in the superior hemisphere of the humeral head (suspension), three locking screws in the inferior hemisphere (buttress), or the full complement of 6 locking screws (control)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Christopher D Stickley, Melanie M Presuto, Kara N Radzak, Christina M Bourbeau, Ronald K Hetzler
CONTEXT:   Although the risk of osteoarthritis development after acute knee injury has been widely studied, the long-term consequences of knee overuse injury are not well understood. OBJECTIVE:   To identify the relationship between gait-related risk factors osteoarthritis and the development of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in members of a single University Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) unit. DESIGN:   Prospective cohort study...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Eric A Branch, Dustin Loveland, Sohale Sadeghpour, Adam W Anz
Background: Knee injuries encountered in clinical practice can involve avulsions of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia. Advances in tendon repair methods now allow for repairs with increased surface areas using modern suture anchor techniques. Despite descriptions of repair techniques, there are no biomechanical studies on the biceps femoris for comparison. Purpose/Hypothesis: The objective of this controlled laboratory study was to determine the failure load of the native biceps femoris distal insertion and to evaluate modern repair techniques...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Ana Ogueta-Alday, Juan Carlos Morante, Josué Gómez-Molina, Juan García-López
This study aimed to identify the similarities and differences among half-marathon runners in relation to their performance level. Forty-eight male runners were classified into 4 groups according to their performance level in a half-marathon (min): Group 1 (n = 11, < 70 min), Group 2 (n = 13, < 80 min), Group 3 (n = 13, < 90 min), Group 4 (n = 11, < 105 min). In two separate sessions, training-related, anthropometric, physiological, foot strike pattern and spatio-temporal variables were recorded...
2018: PloS One
Alan M Wilson, Tatjana Y Hubel, Simon D Wilshin, John C Lowe, Maja Lorenc, Oliver P Dewhirst, Hattie L A Bartlam-Brooks, Rebecca Diack, Emily Bennitt, Krystyna A Golabek, Roger C Woledge, J Weldon McNutt, Nancy A Curtin, Timothy G West
The fastest and most manoeuvrable terrestrial animals are found in savannah habitats, where predators chase and capture running prey. Hunt outcome and success rate are critical to survival, so both predator and prey should evolve to be faster and/or more manoeuvrable. Here we compare locomotor characteristics in two pursuit predator-prey pairs, lion-zebra and cheetah-impala, in their natural savannah habitat in Botswana. We show that although cheetahs and impalas were universally more athletic than lions and zebras in terms of speed, acceleration and turning, within each predator-prey pair, the predators had 20% higher muscle fibre power than prey, 37% greater acceleration and 72% greater deceleration capacity than their prey...
February 8, 2018: Nature
Tyler N Brown, Jonathan T Kaplan, Sarah E Cameron, Kayla D Seymore, John W Ramsay
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common occupational hazard for service members. This study quantified how body borne load impacts knee biomechanics for participants who do and do not present varus thrust (range of knee adduction motion exhibited from heel strike to mid-stance (0-51%)) during over-ground running. Eighteen (9 varus thrust and 9 control) military personnel had knee biomechanics recorded when running with three load conditions (light, ∼6 kg, medium, 15% BW, and heavy, 30% BW). Subject-based means for knee biomechanics were calculated and submitted to a RM ANOVA to test the main effects and possible interactions between load and varus thrust group...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Alexandra S Voloshina, Daniel P Ferris
Studying human and animal locomotion on uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. We modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, we compared ground reaction force data collected during running on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface to data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Marcus D Dunn, David B Claxton, Graham Fletcher, Jonathan S Wheat, David M Binney
Injury risk is an important concern for runners; however, limited evidence exists regarding changes to injury risk following running style retraining. Biomechanical factors, such as absolute peak free moment, knee abduction impulse, peak foot eversion and foot eversion excursion, have been shown to predict lower limb injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pose running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb running injury. Twenty uninjured recreational runners were pair-matched based on their five km run time performance and randomly assigned to control (n = 10) and intervention (three 2-h Pose running retraining sessions) groups (n = 10)...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
Nassib Tawa, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Running economy (RE) is a determinant of performance in endurance sports and is a complex multi-factorial measure which reflects the combined functioning of bio-mechanical, neuro-muscular, metabolic and cardio-respiratory factors some of which are hereditary or adapt to coaching. Kenyan distance runners have dominated major global events with their unmatched performance for decades and this phenomenon has prompted several investigations aimed at establishing possible factors associated with their performance...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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