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idiopathic epilepsy

Lukman Femi Owolabi, Shehu Sale, Shakirah Desola Owolabi, Aisha Nalado, Muhammad Umar, Aminu Abdullahi Taura
Background: In spite of the overwhelming significance of knowledge of basic elements of electroencephalography (EEG) in its application to the diagnostic workup and the management of patients with suspected or already established generalized epilepsy (GE), there is a dearth of data on the pattern and utility of clinical variables that can independently determine EEG abnormalities in GE. Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the frequency and pattern of EEG abnormality as well as assess the utility of clinical variables in predicting the likelihood of an abnormal EEG in GE...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Ling Li, Haisong Yang, Jian Li, Yunli Yu, Fan Wang, Xianghui Zhu, Guicheng Liu
RATIONALE: Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) is a rare endocrine condition, which is frequently represented by neuropsychiatric disorders. Hence, the misdiagnosis rate of the disease is rather high, especially for neurologists. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of misdiagnosed, atypical IHP. In addition, the literature on IHP and the misdiagnosis published in China in the past 2 decades has been reviewed and summarized. DIAGNOSES: Blood testing confirmed that parathyroid hormone (PTH) = 0 pg/mL and the final diagnosis was IHP...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Danielle Nolan, John Fink
Discovery of nearly 200 genes implicated in epilepsy and insights into the molecular and cellular pathways involved are transforming our knowledge of the causes, classifications, diagnosis, and in some cases, treatments for individuals with chronic seizure disorders. Numerous disorders once considered "idiopathic" are now recognized as genetic conditions. Despite these remarkable advances, the cause of epilepsy for most individuals is unknown. We present a clinical approach to patients with epilepsy, presenting an algorithm for clinical and genetic testing, and review genes implicated in epilepsy and their associated syndromes...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Vigdis Andersen Eidsvaag, Hans-Arne Hansson, Kjell Heuser, Erlend A Nagelhus, Per Kristian Eide
AIM: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is characterized by symptoms indicative of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), such as headache and visual impairment. We have previously reported that brain biopsies from IIH patients show patchy astrogliosis and increased expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) at perivascular astrocytic endfeet. METHODS: The present study was undertaken to investigate for ultrastructural changes of the cerebral capillaries in individuals with IIH...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research
Hülya Olgun Yazar, Günay Gül, Tamer Yazar, Fulya Eren, Demet-Yandım Kuscu, Dursun Kirbas
Background and purpose: Epilepsy with photosensitivity (PSE) is one of the reflex epilepsy types with pathophysiology still unexplained. In our study we aimed to evaluate the clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG) and prognosis of patients with PSE diagnosis. Methods: A total of 44 patients with PSE diagnosis according to international classification were included in this retrospective and cross-sectional study. The age, gender, syndrome, clinical and EEG characteristics of patients, and treatment response were investigated...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
M Kwiatkowska, A Tipold, E Huenerfauth, A Pomianowski
BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures are a common cause for neurological evaluations in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the timing, frequency, and risk factors for early seizure recurrence (ESR) among dogs admitted to the hospital for seizure evaluation and to facilitate rapid decision making about whether dogs should be placed in the intensive care unit (ICU) or day ward. ANIMALS: Nine-hundred twenty-two dogs referred for seizure investigation; 214 patients were included...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, Anette Huuse Farmen, Margrete Larsen Burns, Arton Baftiu, Morten I Lossius, Svein I Johannessen, Torbjörn Tomson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Use of valproate (VPA) in women of childbearing age is restricted due to dose-dependent risk of teratogenicity. The purpose of this study was to characterise pharmacokinetic variability of VPA in pregnancy, and discuss use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as guidance to exposure in women. METHOD: Measurements of trough total and unbound VPA concentrations before, during and after pregnancy, at assumed steady-state were collected from the TDM-database (2006-2016) at the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway...
February 11, 2018: Epilepsy Research
M Lowrie, O A Garden, M Hadjivassiliou, D S Sanders, R Powell, L Garosi
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Rowena M A Packer, Paul D McGreevy, Hannah E Salvin, Michael J Valenzuela, Chloe M Chaplin, Holger A Volk
Globally, epilepsy is a common serious brain disorder. In addition to seizure activity, epilepsy is associated with cognitive impairments including static cognitive impairments present at onset, progressive seizure-induced impairments and co-morbid dementia. Epilepsy occurs naturally in domestic dogs but its impact on canine cognition has yet to be studied, despite canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) recognised as a spontaneous model of dementia. Here we use data from a psychometrically validated tool, the canine cognitive dysfunction rating (CCDR) scale, to compare cognitive dysfunction in dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) with controls while accounting for age...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Brigo, Eugen Trinka, Simona Lattanzi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Raffaele Nardone, Mariano Martini
In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Anamaria Todoran Butilă, Ancuta Zazgyva, Anca Ileana Sin, Elisabeta Racoș Szabo, Mariana Cornelia Tilinca
Introduction: This case-control study aimed to assess two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene encoding the GABRG2 protein - GABRG2 (3145 G>A) and GABRG2 rs 211037 Asn196Asn (C588T) - in a cohort of pediatric patients from Romania, and evaluate their possible impact on drug-resistant forms of generalized epilepsy and recurrent febrile seizures. Material and methods: One hundred and fourteen children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (group 1) or febrile seizures (group 2) were compared to 153 controls...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Christopher D Whelan, Andre Altmann, Juan A Botía, Neda Jahanshad, Derrek P Hibar, Julie Absil, Saud Alhusaini, Marina K M Alvim, Pia Auvinen, Emanuele Bartolini, Felipe P G Bergo, Tauana Bernardes, Karen Blackmon, Barbara Braga, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Anna Calvo, Sarah J Carr, Jian Chen, Shuai Chen, Andrea Cherubini, Philippe David, Martin Domin, Sonya Foley, Wendy França, Gerrit Haaker, Dmitry Isaev, Simon S Keller, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Magdalena A Kowalczyk, Ruben Kuzniecky, Soenke Langner, Matteo Lenge, Kelly M Leyden, Min Liu, Richard Q Loi, Pascal Martin, Mario Mascalchi, Marcia E Morita, Jose C Pariente, Raul Rodríguez-Cruces, Christian Rummel, Taavi Saavalainen, Mira K Semmelroch, Mariasavina Severino, Rhys H Thomas, Manuela Tondelli, Domenico Tortora, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Lucy Vivash, Felix von Podewils, Jan Wagner, Bernd Weber, Yi Yao, Clarissa L Yasuda, Guohao Zhang, Nuria Bargalló, Benjamin Bender, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Ingmar Blümcke, Chad Carlson, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Fernando Cendes, Luis Concha, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Orrin Devinsky, Colin P Doherty, Niels K Focke, Antonio Gambardella, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Graeme D Jackson, Reetta Kälviäinen, Peter Kochunov, Patrick Kwan, Angelo Labate, Carrie R McDonald, Stefano Meletti, Terence J O'Brien, Sebastien Ourselin, Mark P Richardson, Pasquale Striano, Thomas Thesen, Roland Wiest, Junsong Zhang, Annamaria Vezzani, Mina Ryten, Paul M Thompson, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Progressive functional decline in the epilepsies is largely unexplained. We formed the ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium to understand factors that influence brain measures in epilepsy, pooling data from 24 research centres in 14 countries across Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Structural brain measures were extracted from MRI brain scans across 2149 individuals with epilepsy, divided into four epilepsy subgroups including idiopathic generalized epilepsies (n =367), mesial temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE; left, n = 415; right, n = 339), and all other epilepsies in aggregate (n = 1026), and compared to 1727 matched healthy controls...
January 22, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lauren Burke, Jamie Kirkham, Janine Arnott, Victoria Gray, Matthew Peak, Michael W Beresford
Young people with long-term health conditions (LTCs) can face challenges when making the transition to adult health services. This paper sought to identify studies that assess and explore transitional care for young people with LTCs. Two conditions were used as exemplars: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and epilepsy. A scoping review of the literature was conducted by using search terms to search for papers in English between 2001 and 2016 concerning transitional care on four databases. Qualitative papers were reviewed and synthesized using thematic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Ji Hyun Kim
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by a strong genetic basis, age-specific onset of seizures, specific types of seizures, generalized spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, a wide range of advanced neuroimaging techniques have been utilized to elucidate the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying JME...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Emily R Blatt, Kathryn E Seeley, Mathew C Lovett, Randall E Junge
This report describes the diagnosis and management of idiopathic epilepsy in a 4-yr-old intact female Reeve's muntjac ( Muntiacus reevesi). The patient was initially witnessed to have isolated paroxysmal events consistent with epileptic seizures (altered consciousness, lateral recumbency, tonic/clonic movement of limbs) lasting less than 3 min with an immediate return to normal consciousness. The seizure frequency increased to >3 seizures within 24 hr and phenobarbital 3 mg/kg orally every 12 hr was started...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Azza Kamal Alshahawy, Amira Hamed Darwish, Safynaz Elsaid Shalaby, Wegdan Mawlana
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders among children. Data about its prevalence in Egypt is limited. Our aim was to study the prevalence of idiopathic epilepsy among school children in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A Cross-sectional school-based survey study was conducted; a validated screening questionnaire was distributed among urban and rural primary and preparatory school children. Students with suspected epilepsy were subjected to clinical evaluation, Electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging...
December 30, 2017: Brain & Development
W Quan, Q Xu, F Yang, G H Chen, Z X Lin, Q R Zhang, J H Xiao, G M Lu, Z Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Tiina Alapirtti, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Riikka Mäkinen, Jani Raitanen, Eeva Moilanen, Jussi Mäkinen, Jukka Peltola
Experimental and clinical reports highlight the role of cytokines in pathophysiological processes in underpinning epilepsy, but the clinical data remains somewhat limited. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 were measured in serum from 49 patients with refractory epilepsy [temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=23), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (XLE, n=22), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=4)] before and after the first verified seizure (IS; index seizure) during inpatient video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
María Calderón Romero, Elena Arce Portillo, Mercedes López Lobato, Beatriz Muñoz Cabello, Bárbara Blanco Martínez, Marcos Madruga Garrido, Olga Alonso Luego
INTRODUCTION: West syndrome (WS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy in which the prognosis varies according to the, not always identified, underlying origin. OBJECTIVES: To define the profile of cryptogenic (a least studied isolated sub-group) WS, in Spain. To study its outcome, response to different treatments, and to establish prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included a review of the medical records of 16 patients diagnosed with cryptogenic WS during the period, 2000-2015...
December 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
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