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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224209/sircle-a-randomised-controlled-cost-comparison-of-self-administered-short-course-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-for-cost-effective-latent-tuberculosis-eradication
#1
Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde, Damon Eisen, Alan Street, Elizabeth Matchett, Caroline Chen, Thomas Shultz, Beverly Biggs, Karin Leder
BACKGROUND: Currently, treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in Australia consists most commonly of a 9-month course of isoniazid (9H). A 3-month course of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine (3HP) has been shown to be as effective as 9 months of daily isoniazid, and associated with less hepatotoxicity; however, rifapentine is not currently available in Australia. Introduction of this regimen would have apparent advantages for people with LTBI in Victoria by safely shortening duration of LTBI therapy...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#2
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224132/treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-insulin-pump-therapy-are-current-recommendations-effective
#3
Véronique Gingras, Katherine Desjardins, Mohamed Raef Smaoui, Valérie Savard, Virginie Messier, Ahmad Haidar, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
AIMS: Mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 4.0 mmol/L) is recommended to be treated with 15 g of carbohydrates and to repeat the treatment if hypoglycemia persists after 15 min. This recommendation was established before intensive insulin therapy and based on studies using insulin with different pharmacokinetic profiles from actual insulin analogs showing that 15 g of glucose increases blood glucose by ~ 1.5 mmol/L in 15 min. We aimed to explore the effect of current recommended treatment of mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) participants and factors associated with treatment effectiveness...
December 9, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224127/defining-and-characterizing-sustained-remission-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Jeffrey R Curtis, Mona Trivedi, Boulos Haraoui, Paul Emery, Grace S Park, David H Collier, Girish A Aras, James Chung
The objective of this study is to characterize stability and clinical features of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in sustained remission. Combination therapy with methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) has increased remission rates in RA but optimal regimens to maintain remission are unknown. We describe Study of Etanercept And Methotrexate in Combination or as Monotherapy in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis (SEAM-RA) and data from a run-in period of longitudinal observation. Patients in Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) remission (score ≤ 3...
December 9, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224042/association-between-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-serum-aminotransferases-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#5
Li-Da Chen, Liang-Ji Zhang, Xue-Jun Lin, Jia-Chao Qi, Hao Li, Zhi Wu, Qiao-Zhen Xu, Ya-Ping Huang, Li Lin
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been suggested to be a potential contributing factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies on the association between continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and NAFLD in OSA patients are limited and controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between OSA and NAFLD and the effect of CPAP therapy on serum aminotransferase levels in OSA patients. METHODS: A total of 160 consecutive patients who underwent standard polysomnography were enrolled...
December 9, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224036/laser-advances-in-the-treatment-of-burn-and-traumatic-scars
#6
Shilpi Khetarpal, Urvashi Kaw, Jeffrey S Dover, Kenneth A Arndt
The realm of scar management is constantly changing. Many factors need to be considered when developing a comprehensive treatment plan, including the nature of the scar and the patient. Scar characteristics can be divided by color, scar type and thickness, and body location. Topical and intralesional agents and light- and laserbased treatments can be used to revitalize and restore damaged skin in atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The most commonly used lasers are the pulsed-dye laser (PDL) and fractional lasers...
December 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224000/the-depression-anxiety-and-stress-scale-dass-21-as-a-screener-for-depression-in-substance-use-disorder-inpatients-a-pilot-study
#7
Ilse N Beaufort, Gerdien H De Weert-Van Oene, Victor A J Buwalda, J Rob J de Leeuw, Anna E Goudriaan
Depression is a common co-morbid disorder in substance use disorder (SUD) patients. Hence, valid instruments are needed to screen for depression in this subpopulation. In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity...
December 8, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223996/metabolic-myopathies-a-practical-approach
#8
REVIEW
James B Lilleker, Yann Shern Keh, Federico Roncaroli, Reena Sharma, Mark Roberts
Metabolic myopathies are a diverse group of rare genetic disorders and their associated muscle symptoms may be subtle. Patients may present with indolent myopathic features, exercise intolerance or recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Diagnostic delays are common and clinicians need a high index of suspicion to recognise and differentiate metabolic myopathies from other conditions that present in a similar fashion. Standard laboratory tests may be normal or non-specific, particularly between symptomatic episodes. Targeted enzyme activity measurement and next-generation genetic sequencing are increasingly used...
December 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223965/advancing-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-through-point-of-care-testing-target-product-profiles-and-landscape-analysis
#9
Igor Toskin, Maurine Murtagh, Rosanna W Peeling, Karel Blondeel, Joanna Cordero, James Kiarie
OBJECTIVES: Advancing the field of point-of-care testing (POCT) for STIs can rapidly and substantially improve STI control and prevention by providing targeted, essential STI services (case detection and screening). POCT enables definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit and home and community-based testing. METHODS: Since 2014, the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with technical partners, has completed four landscape analyses of promising diagnostics for use at or near the point of patient care to detect syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and the human papillomavirus...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223960/systematic-reviews-of-point-of-care-tests-for-the-diagnosis-of-urogenital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections
#10
REVIEW
Helen Kelly, Cordelia E M Coltart, Nitika Pant Pai, Jeffrey D Klausner, Magnus Unemo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling
BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. OBJECTIVES: To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223871/intensity-ratio-to-improve-black-hole-assessment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Gautam Adusumilli, Kathryn Trinkaus, Peng Sun, Samantha Lancia, Jeffrey D Viox, Jie Wen, Robert T Naismith, Anne H Cross
BACKGROUND: Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions. OBJECTIVE: Develop a method to differentiate black and gray holes and estimate the severity of individual multiple sclerosis lesions using standard magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223870/validation-of-an-algorithm-to-detect-severe-ms-relapses-in-administrative-health-databases
#12
James John Marriott, Hui Chen, Randall Fransoo, Ruth Ann Marrie
BACKGROUND: Severe relapses that required treatment were important outcomes in the sentinel trials of disease-modifying therapy (DMT). Identifying such relapses in administrative data would allow comparative-effectiveness studies of DMTs to be conducted in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: All relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients living in Manitoba between 1999 and 2015 were identified using a validated case definition and linkage to the Manitoba MS Clinic database...
December 2, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223842/interstage-evaluation-of-homograft-valved-right-ventricle-to-pulmonary-artery-conduits-for-palliation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#13
Nefthi Sandeep, Rajesh Punn, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Shea N Smith, Olaf Reinhartz, Yulin Zhang, Gail E Wright, Lynn F Peng, Lisa Wise-Faberowski, Frank L Hanley, Doff B McElhinney
OBJECTIVE: Palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a standard nonvalved right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit results in an inefficient circulation in part due to diastolic regurgitation. A composite right ventricle pulmonary artery conduit with a homograft valve has a hypothetical advantage of reducing regurgitation, but may differ in the propensity for stenosis because of valve remodeling. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 130 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent a modified stage 1 procedure with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit from 2002 to 2015...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223804/oxindole-based-oxadiazole-hybrid-analogs-novel-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors
#14
Muhammad Taha, Syahrul Imran, Fazal Rahim, Abdul Wadood, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an effective strategy for controlling post-prandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Beside these α-glucosidase inhibitors has been also used as anti-obesity and anti-viral drugs. Keeping in view the greater importance of α-glucosidase inhibitors here in this study we are presenting oxindole based oxadiazoles hybrid analogs (1-20) synthesis, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR and EI-MS and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All compounds were found potent inhibitors for the enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 1...
December 2, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223789/medical-and-developmental-outcomes-of-bevacizumab-versus-laser-for-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#15
Kathleen A Kennedy, Helen A Mintz-Hittner
BACKGROUND: Infants with stage 3+ retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in zone I or zone II posterior were randomized to initial treatment with bevacizumab or laser in a multicenter trial (BEAT-ROP). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of bevacizumab on nonophthalmologic outcomes. METHODS: At one study site, inborn infants of <27 weeks' gestational age underwent medical and standardized neurologic and developmental assessments at 18-22 months' corrected age (age after expected date of full-term delivery)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223769/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-search-of-shared-pathomechanisms
#16
REVIEW
D Polsek, N Gildeh, D Cash, R Winsky-Sommerer, S C R Williams, F Turkheimer, G D Leschziner, M J Morrell, I Rosenzweig
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health concern. The incidence continues to rise, and it is set to be over one million in the UK by 2025. The processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD have been shown to overlap with those found in cognitive decline in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Currently, the standard treatment for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Adherence to treatment can, however, be an issue, especially in patients with dementia. Also, not all patients respond adequately, necessitating the use of additional treatments...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223767/evaluation-of-a-national-pediatric-subinternship-curriculum-implemented-through-individual-learning-plans
#17
Linda R Tewksbury, Cristina Carter, Lyuba Konopasek, Sandra M Sanguino, Janice L Hanson
OBJECTIVE: The Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics and Association of Pediatric Program Directors developed a Pediatric Subinternship (CAPS) Curriculum for use with an individualized learning plan (ILP). The authors determined which learning objectives (LOs) pediatric subinterns selected when provided the CAPS Curriculum, summarized students' self-reported progress, and determined feasibility of ILPs in subinternship. METHODS: Students from 10 medical schools completed a standardized ILP during pediatric subinternship...
December 6, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223726/computed-tomography-measurement-of-the-left-atrial-appendage-for-optimal-sizing-of-the-watchman-device
#18
Bo Xu, Jorge Betancor, Kimi Sato, Serge Harb, Karim Abdur Rehman, Kunal Patel, Arnav Kumar, Paul C Cremer, Wael Jaber, L Leonardo Rodriguez, Paul Schoenhagen, Oussama Wazni
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an emerging treatment option for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who cannot tolerate oral anticoagulation. The Watchman device (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA) is deployed at the ostium of the LAA, and an appropriately sized device is critical for successful occlusion. However, standardized imaging protocols for device sizing have not been established. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical utility of a standardized imaging protocol, with pre-procedural multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT), and intra-procedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), for Watchman device sizing...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223692/recent-technological-advancements-in-cardiac-ultrasound-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Jaydev K Dave, Maureen E Mc Donald, Praveen Mehrotra, Andrew R Kohut, John R Eisenbrey, Flemming Forsberg
About 92.1 million Americans suffer from at least one type of cardiovascular disease. Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death (about 31% of all global deaths). Recent technological advancements in cardiac ultrasound imaging are expected to aid in the clinical diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases. This article provides an overview of such recent technological advancements, specifically focusing on tissue Doppler imaging, strain imaging, contrast echocardiography, 3D echocardiography, point-of-care echocardiography, 3D volumetric flow assessments, and elastography...
November 23, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223688/comparison-of-color-flow-with-standard-ultrasound-for-the-detection-of-endotracheal-intubation
#20
Michael Gottlieb, Dallas Holladay, Anthony Serici, Shital Shah, Damali Nakitende
INTRODUCTION: Intubation is a frequently performed procedure in emergency medicine that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality when unrecognized esophageal intubation occurs. However, it may be difficult to visualize the endotracheal tube (ETT) in some patients. This study assessed whether the addition of color Doppler was able to improve the ability to visualize the ETT location. METHODS: This study was performed in a cadaver lab using three different cadavers chosen to represent varying neck circumference...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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