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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240771/a-master-equation-approach-to-actin-polymerization-applied-to-endocytosis-in-yeast
#1
Xinxin Wang, Anders E Carlsson
We present a Master Equation approach to calculating polymerization dynamics and force generation by branched actin networks at membranes. The method treats the time evolution of the F-actin distribution in three dimensions, with branching included as a directional spreading term. It is validated by comparison with stochastic simulations of force generation by actin polymerization at obstacles coated with actin "nucleation promoting factors" (NPFs). The method is then used to treat the dynamics of actin polymerization and force generation during endocytosis in yeast, using a model in which NPFs form a ring around the endocytic site, centered by a spot of molecules attaching the actin network strongly to the membrane...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240766/estimated-clinical-impact-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-cartridge-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-modeling-study
#2
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240694/centralized-networks-to-generate-human-body-motions
#3
Sergei Vakulenko, Ovidiu Radulescu, Ivan Morozov, Andres Weber
We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240121/dynamic-modulation-of-wideband-slow-light-with-continuous-group-index-in-polymer-filled-photonic-crystal-waveguide
#4
Chongqing Yan, Changhong Li, Yong Wan
The dynamic modulation of wide bandwidth and low-dispersion slow light with continuous variation of group index ng is realized in a polymer-filled photonic crystal waveguide (PF-PCW) with optimal structure. By adjusting the unified radius of air holes under a different refractive index of polymer in the first two rows of holes adjacent to the defect, the structure optimization of PF-PCW is first studied, then the fixed optimal structure is obtained. In the optimal photonic crystal waveguide with hole radius r0=0...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239992/comparison-of-resistance-based-walking-cardiorespiratory-test-to-the-bruce-protocol
#5
Christopher P Hurt, Marcas Bamman, Avantika Naidu, David A Brown
Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238645/the-effectiveness-of-bioskills-training-for-simulated-open-lumbar-laminectomy
#6
Barrett S Boody, Brett D Rosenthal, Tyler J Jenkins, Alpesh A Patel, Jason W Savage, Wellington K Hsu
Study Design: Randomized, prospective study within an orthopedic surgery resident program at a large urban academic medical center. Objectives: To develop an inexpensive, user-friendly, and reproducible lumbar laminectomy bioskills training module and evaluation protocol that can be readily implemented into residency training programs to augment the clinical education of orthopedic and neurosurgical physicians-in-training. Methods: Twenty participants comprising senior medical students and orthopedic surgical residents...
December 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238488/effect-of-hydrofluoric-acid-surface-treatments-on-micro-shear-bond-strength-of-cad-cam-ceramics
#7
Faraneh Mokhtarpour, Homayoon Alaghehmand, Soraya Khafri
Introduction: Dental ceramics are appreciated as highly esthetic restorative materials that can simulate the appearance of natural dentition better than other materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration and etching time on micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) to IPS e.max CAD and Vita Mark II of a dual cured resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Methods: This study was an experimental in vitro study, performed in the dental material research center of Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238314/computational-psychometrics-for-the-measurement-of-collaborative-problem-solving-skills
#8
Stephen T Polyak, Alina A von Davier, Kurt Peterschmidt
This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235862/characterization-of-the-b-center-defect-in-diamond-through-the-vibrational-spectrum-a-quantum-mechanical-approach
#9
Simone Salustro, Anna Maria Ferrari, Francesco Silvio Gentile, Jacques Kontak Desmarais, Michel Rérat, Roberto Dovesi
The B-center in diamond, that consists of a vacancy whose 4 first nearest neighbors are nitrogen atoms, has been investigated at the quantum mechanical level with an all electron Gaussian type basis set, hybrid functionals and the periodic supercell approach. In order to simulate various defect concentrations, four cubic supercells have been considered, containing (before the creation of the vacancy) 64, 216, 512 and 1000 atoms, respectively. Whereas the B-center does not affect the Raman spectrum of diamond, several intense peaks appear in the IR spectrum, that should permit to identify this defect...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234806/diagnostic-assessment-of-deep-learning-algorithms-for-detection-of-lymph-node-metastases-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#10
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Mitko Veta, Paul Johannes van Diest, Bram van Ginneken, Nico Karssemeijer, Geert Litjens, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Meyke Hermsen, Quirine F Manson, Maschenka Balkenhol, Oscar Geessink, Nikolaos Stathonikos, Marcory Crf van Dijk, Peter Bult, Francisco Beca, Andrew H Beck, Dayong Wang, Aditya Khosla, Rishab Gargeya, Humayun Irshad, Aoxiao Zhong, Qi Dou, Quanzheng Li, Hao Chen, Huang-Jing Lin, Pheng-Ann Heng, Christian Haß, Elia Bruni, Quincy Wong, Ugur Halici, Mustafa Ümit Öner, Rengul Cetin-Atalay, Matt Berseth, Vitali Khvatkov, Alexei Vylegzhanin, Oren Kraus, Muhammad Shaban, Nasir Rajpoot, Ruqayya Awan, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Talha Qaiser, Yee-Wah Tsang, David Tellez, Jonas Annuscheit, Peter Hufnagl, Mira Valkonen, Kimmo Kartasalo, Leena Latonen, Pekka Ruusuvuori, Kaisa Liimatainen, Shadi Albarqouni, Bharti Mungal, Ami George, Stefanie Demirci, Nassir Navab, Seiryo Watanabe, Shigeto Seno, Yoichi Takenaka, Hideo Matsuda, Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Vassili Kovalev, Alexander Kalinovsky, Vitali Liauchuk, Gloria Bueno, M Milagro Fernandez-Carrobles, Ismael Serrano, Oscar Deniz, Daniel Racoceanu, Rui Venâncio
Importance: Application of deep learning algorithms to whole-slide pathology images can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Objective: Assess the performance of automated deep learning algorithms at detecting metastases in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of lymph nodes of women with breast cancer and compare it with pathologists' diagnoses in a diagnostic setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: Researcher challenge competition (CAMELYON16) to develop automated solutions for detecting lymph node metastases (November 2015-November 2016)...
December 12, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233854/efficacy-of-educational-video-game-versus-traditional-educational-apps-at-improving-physician-decision-making-in-trauma-triage-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Deepika Mohan, Coreen Farris, Baruch Fischhoff, Matthew R Rosengart, Derek C Angus, Donald M Yealy, David J Wallace, Amber E Barnato
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a behavioral intervention delivered through a video game can improve the appropriateness of trauma triage decisions in the emergency department of non-trauma centers. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Online intervention in national sample of emergency medicine physicians who make triage decisions at US hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 368 emergency medicine physicians primarily working at non-trauma centers...
December 12, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233803/a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-young-adults-in-australian-remote-indigenous-communities-design-formative-evaluation-and-user-testing
#12
Emma Tonkin, Lauren Jeffs, Thomas Philip Wycherley, Carol Maher, Ross Smith, Jonathon Hart, Beau Cubillo, Julie Brimblecombe
BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of noncommunicable disease among Indigenous Australians living in remote Indigenous communities (RICs) is a complex and persistent problem. Smartphones are increasingly being used by young Indigenous adults and therefore represent a promising method to engage them in programs seeking to improve nutritional intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to consult RIC members to inform the content of a smartphone app that can be used to monitor and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake in RICs...
December 12, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233728/characterization-of-the-hydrodynamics-in-a-miniaturized-dissolution-apparatus
#13
Kristoffer E Johansson, Jakob Plum, Majid Mosleh, Cecilie M Madsen, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz
The hydrodynamics of a miniaturized dissolution apparatus was characterized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and analyzed in relation to the biorelevance and robustness of measurements of drug dissolution and precipitation kinetics from supersaturated drug solutions. The effect of using three different agitator geometries operated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 RPM as well as different positioning of an UV probe in the vessel was systematically evaluated. The CFD simulations were validated using a particle streak velocimetry experiment...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233321/utilization-of-a-virtual-patient-for-advanced-assessment-of-student-performance-in-pain-management
#14
Michael A Smith, Laura H Waite
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess student performance and achievement of course objectives following the integration of a virtual patient case designed to promote active, patient-centered learning in a required pharmacy course. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: DecisionSim™ (Kynectiv, Inc., Chadsford, PA), a dynamic virtual patient platform, was used to implement an interactive patient case to augment pain management material presented during a didactic session in a pharmacotherapy course...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233194/ibuprofen-plasma-concentration-profile-in-deliberate-ibuprofen-overdose-with-circulatory-depression-treated-with-therapeutic-plasma-exchange-a-case-report
#15
Stefanie Geith, Bertold Renner, Christian Rabe, Jochen Stenzel, Florian Eyer
BACKGROUND: Inquiries relating to ibuprofen overdose have more than tripled in the last ten years in our poison control center. Although the vast majority of cases have a benign clinical course, there are few severe or even fatal cases present with refractory circulatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 48 year-old male with suicidal mono-ingestion of approximately 72 g ibuprofen. Despite an initial rapid spontaneous drop in the total ibuprofen plasma concentration (IPC) from 550 to 275 mcg/mL within the first 5 h after admission, the patient developed a circulatory failure, refractory to aggressive fluid resuscitation and high doses of vasopressors...
December 12, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229377/dosimetric-effects-of-saline-versus-water-filled-balloon-applicators-for-iort-using-the-model-s700-electronic-brachytherapy-source
#16
Gage Redler, Alistair Templeton, Heming Zhen, Julius Turian, Damian Bernard, James C H Chu, Katherine L Griem, Yixiang Liao
PURPOSE: The Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System (Xoft, Inc., San Jose, CA) is a viable option for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The low-energy (50-kVp) X-ray source simplifies shielding and increases relative biological effectiveness but increases dose distribution sensitivity to medium composition. Treatment planning systems typically assume homogenous water for brachytherapy dose calculations, including precalculated atlas plans for Xoft IORT...
December 8, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229307/localizing-implanted-fiducial-markers-using-undersampled-co-rasor-mr-imaging
#17
Evan McNabb, Raimond Wong, Michael D Noseworthy
The goal of this work was to use an undersampled, dual-plane centre-out radial sampling acquisition pulse sequence, with off-resonance reception, to localize fiducial markers with reduced acquisition time. Two iterative reconstruction techniques, conjugate gradient CG-SENSE and the variational penalty Total Generalized Variation (TGV), were investigated to minimize the undersampling artifacts in off-resonant radialimaging. Simulations of a field perturber were performed at sub-millimeter resolution and reconstructed to display signal pileups that can be radially compressed towards the geometric center of the perturber for high contrast visualization, but contrast is non-recoverable as the echo time increases...
December 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228882/medical-education-and-human-trafficking-using-simulation
#18
Hanni Stoklosa, Michelle Lyman, Carrie Bohnert, Olivia Mittel
Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226012/hydride-transfer-versus-deprotonation-kinetics-in-the-isobutane-propene-alkylation-reaction-a-computational-study
#19
Chong Liu, Rutger A van Santen, Ali Poursaeidesfahani, Thijs J H Vlugt, Evgeny A Pidko, Emiel J M Hensen
The alkylation of isobutane with light alkenes plays an essential role in modern petrochemical processes for the production of high-octane gasoline. In this study we have employed periodic DFT calculations combined with microkinetic simulations to investigate the complex reaction mechanism of isobutane-propene alkylation catalyzed by zeolitic solid acids. Particular emphasis was given to addressing the selectivity of the alkylate formation versus alkene formation, which requires a high rate of hydride transfer in comparison to the competitive oligomerization and deprotonation reactions resulting in catalyst deactivation...
December 1, 2017: ACS Catalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222467/elemental-preference-and-atomic-scale-site-recognition-in-a-co-al-w-base-superalloy
#20
Yanhui Chen, Fei Xue, Shengcheng Mao, Haibo Long, Bin Zhang, Qingsong Deng, Bin Chen, Yinong Liu, Pierce Maguire, Hongzhou Zhang, Xiaodong Han, Qiang Feng
Using state-of-the-art atomic scale super energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field imaging this study reveals the elemental partitioning preference between the γ' and γ phases in a Co-Al-W-Ti-Ta superalloy and the site preference of its alloying elements in the ordered L12 γ' phase. A semi-quantitative analysis of atomic column compositions in the ordered L12 γ' structure is provided. Co atoms were found to occupy the {1/2, 1/2, 0} face-center positions whereas Al, W, Ti and Ta atoms prefer to occupy the {0, 0, 0} cube corner positions in the L12 γ phase...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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