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B Scutellà, E Bourlés, A Plana-Fattori, F Fonseca, D Flick, I C Trelea, S Passot
During the freeze-drying process, vials located at the border of the shelf usually present higher heat flow rates that result in higher product temperatures than vials in the center. This phenomenon, referred to as edge vial effect, can lead to product quality variability within the same batch of vials and between batches at different scales. Our objective was to investigate the effect of various freeze-dryer design features on heat transfer variability. A 3D mathematical model previously developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and experimentally validated was used to simulate the heat transfer of a set of vials located at the edge and in the center of the shelf...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sami Mecheri, Régis Lobjois
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate steering control in a low-cost driving simulator with and without a virtual vehicle cab. BACKGROUND: In low-cost simulators, the lack of a vehicle cab denies driver access to vehicle width, which could affect steering control, insofar as locomotor adjustments are known to be based on action-scaled visual judgments of the environment. METHOD: Two experiments were conducted in which steering control with and without a virtual vehicle cab was investigated in a within-subject design, using cornering and straight-lane-keeping tasks...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
Claudie Bolduc, Nisreen Maghraby, Patrick Fok, The Minh Luong, Valerie Homier
IntroductionMass-casualty incidents (MCIs) easily overwhelm a health care facility's human and material resources through the extraordinary influx of casualties. Efficient and accurate triage of incoming casualties is a critical step in the hospital disaster response.Hypothesis/ProblemTraditionally, triage during MCIs has been manually performed using paper cards. This study investigated the use of electronic Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage as compared to the manual method. METHODS: This observational, crossover study was performed during a live MCI simulation at an urban, Canadian, Level 1 trauma center on May 26, 2016...
April 17, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
William M S Yamashita, Shyam S Das, Grigori Chapiro
BACKGROUND: The global incidences of dengue virus have increased the interest in studying and understanding the mosquito population dynamics. It is predominantly spread by Aedes aegypti in the tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Understanding these dynamics is important for public health in countries where climatic and environmental conditions are favorable for the propagation of these diseases. For this reason, a new model has been proposed to investigate the population dynamics of mosquitoes in a city...
April 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ding-Ping Sun, Ling-Hsien Lee, Yu-Feng Tian, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Jinn-Rung Kuo, Che-Chuan Wang
PURPOSE: Dealing with the empty space after organ removal for transplantation has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 28, 2005, to November 21, 2017, 111 organ donors were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: no replacement, replaced with paper printed with organ graphics, or replaced with 3D-printed simulated organs after the organs were removed at different periods. The donor's age, gender, etiology of admission, characteristic and clinical pictures, time interval between admission and the date of donation, and time interval between donor coordinator consultations were evaluated...
April 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Janette Kwok, Mengbiao Guo, Wanling Yang, Patrick Ip, C K Lee, Liwei Lu, Godfrey C F Chan, Derek Middleton, Henk G M van der Zanden
In Cord blood transplantation (CBT), the non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) virtual six HLA matched CB is found to have similar outcomes to six HLA inherited matched CB. Such virtual HLA matched CB units can be generated by substituting the inherited alleles with one to three NIMAs. In Hong Kong Cord Blood Bank, CB units have no NIMA defined. 100 CB samples were collected with NIMA defined. Retrospective searches of Hong Kong patients (n = 520) were matched against the inherited and virtual HLA phenotypes of NIMA CB file...
April 13, 2018: Human Immunology
Giuseppe Troiano, Mario Dioguardi, Armando Cocco, Khrystyna Zhurakivska, Domenico Ciavarella, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of glide path preparation, performed with PathGlider 0.15 (Komet Brasseler GmbH & Co., Lemgo, Germany) and PathGlider 0.20 (Komet Brasseler GmbH & Co., Lemgo, Germany), on the centering ability of 25-size F6 Skytaper in J-shape simulated root canals, compared with no glide path executed. Materials and Methods: Sixty J-shaped ISO 15 0.02 taper endo training blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were assigned to three groups ( n = 20 for each group)...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
R C Galvan-Garza, T K Clark, A P Mulavara, C M Oman
BACKGROUND: Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a phenomenon broadly described as "noise benefit". The application of subsensory electrical Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation (SVS) via electrodes behind each ear has been used to improve human balance and gait, but its effect on motion perception thresholds has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the capability of subsensory SVS to reduce vestibular motion perception thresholds in a manner consistent with a characteristic bell-shaped SR curve...
April 3, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Shanna A Matalon, Sona A Chikarmane, Eren D Yeh, Stacy E Smith, William W Mayo-Smith, Catherine S Giess
OBJECTIVE: Increased attention to quality and safety has led to a re-evaluation of the classic apprenticeship model for procedural training. Many have proposed simulation as a supplementary teaching tool. The purpose of this study was to assess radiology resident exposure to procedural training and procedural simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IRB-exempt online survey was distributed to current radiology residents in the United States by e-mail. Survey results were summarized using frequency and percentages...
March 19, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Penghui Li, Gustav Markkula, Yibing Li, Natasha Merat
Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance...
April 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Maria Asisa Butollo, Anita Holzinger, Michaela Wagner-Menghin
INTRODUCTION: The use of simulated patients (SPs) for doctor-patient communication training has been established in medical curricula as an important didactic method. The study addresses the question, if patients' emotions and perceptions are represented adequately in patient-centered communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 22 of 37 SPs of the Medical University of Vienna (12 women, 10 men) were asked openly about their feelings after having acted as an SP in a semi-structured interview, which employed the Critical Incident Technique...
April 13, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Purushottam A Nagarkar, Jeffrey E Janis
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that programs emphasize USMLE scores, publications, and geography in creating rank lists. We aimed to quantify the importance of geography and to determine how eliminating geographic preferences would affect Match outcomes. METHODS: The Match algorithm was implemented and validated on six years of de-identified data from SF Match (2009-2014). A 'consensus' ranking was generated for each year-all applicants were ordered into a single list using Markov chain rank aggregation...
March 30, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Vincent P Swamy, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram, Federico Rastrelli, Giacomo Saielli
We present the 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts of bulk ionic liquids based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (the cation also known as 1-butyl-3-picolinium) halides (Cl-, Br- and I-) and tribromide (Br3-) salts. A characterization in solution of the analogous ICl2- and I3- salts is also reported. A series of DFT calculations has been run to predict the features of the NMR spectra of the pure ILs based on a few selected supramolecular ionic aggregates. To test the effect of temperature, and vibrational and conformational motions, only for the chloride salt, we also run first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of the ion pair in the gas phase, using the ADMP scheme (Atom Centered Density Matrix Propagation molecular dynamics model)...
April 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuting Lin, El Hassane Bentefour, Jacob B Flanz, Hanne M Kooy, Benjamin M Clasie
Pencil beam scanning (PBS) periodic quality assurance (QA) programs ensure the beam delivered to patients is within technical specifications. Two critical specifications for PBS delivery are the beam width and position. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a 2-dimensional ionization chamber array, such as the MatriXX detector (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), can be used to characterize submillimeter-sized PBS beam properties. The motivation is to use standard equipment, which may have pixel spacing coarser than the pencil beam size, and simplify QA workflow...
April 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Federico Gheza, Paolo Raimondi, Leonardo Solaini, Federico Coccolini, Gian Luca Baiocchi, Nazario Portolani, Guido Alberto Massimo Tiberio
BACKGROUND: Outside the US, FLS certification is not required and its teaching methods are not well standardized. Even if the FLS was designed as "stand alone" training system, most of Academic Institution offer support to residents during training. We present the first systematic application of FLS in Italy. Our aim was to evaluate the role of mentoring/coaching on FLS training in terms of the passing rate and global performance in the search for resource optimization. METHODS: Sixty residents in general surgery, obstetrics & gynecology, and urology were selected to be enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, practicing FLS with the goal of passing a simulated final exam...
April 11, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Tibor Török, Cooper Downs, Jon A Linker, R Lionello, Viacheslav S Titov, Zoran Mikić, Pete Riley, Ronald M Caplan, Janvier Wijaya
Solar eruptions are the main driver of space-weather disturbances at the Earth. Extreme events are of particular interest, not only because of the scientific challenges they pose, but also because of their possible societal consequences. Here we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the 14 July 2000 "Bastille Day" eruption, which produced a very strong geomagnetic storm. After constructing a "thermodynamic" MHD model of the corona and solar wind, we insert a magnetically stable flux rope along the polarity inversion line of the eruption's source region and initiate the eruption by boundary flows...
March 20, 2018: Astrophysical Journal
W Robert Leeper, Elliott R Haut, Vinciya Pandian, Sajan Nakka, Jeffrey Dodd-O, Nasir Bhatti, Elizabeth A Hunt, Mustapha Saheed, Nicholas Dalesio, Adam Schiavi, Christina Miller, Thomas D Kirsch, Lauren Berkow
OBJECTIVE: A hospital-wide difficult airway response team was developed in 2008 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital with three central pillars: operations, safety monitoring, and education. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of the educational pillar of the difficult airway response team program, known as the multidisciplinary difficult airway course (MDAC). DESIGN: The comprehensive, full-day MDAC involves trainees and staff from all provider groups who participate in airway management...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Piotr Sleczkowski, Ye Zhou, Supitchaya Iamsaard, Juan J de Pablo, Nathalie Katsonis, Emmanuelle Lacaze
Cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplets exhibit nontrivial topological features, which are controlled by the ratio between the cholesteric pitch and the droplet radius. The radial spherical structure (RSS) is of particular interest, as it reveals an onion-like concentric organization of the cholesteric helices, leading to the expression of spherical Bragg microcavities. Using an overcrowded alkene-based unidirectional molecular motor as a dopant, we show that the topological defect structure in the droplet can be activated by illumination...
April 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Paul A Roberts, Eamonn A Gaffney, Jonathan P Whiteley, Philip J Luthert, Alexander J E Foss, Helen M Byrne
Purpose: To determine whether the oxygen toxicity hypothesis can explain the distinctive spatio-temporal patterns of retinal degeneration associated with human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to predict the effects of antioxidant and trophic factor treatments under this hypothesis. Methods: Three mathematical models were derived to describe the evolution of the retinal oxygen concentration and photoreceptor density over time. The first model considers only hyperoxia-induced degeneration, while the second and third models include mutation-induced rod and cone loss respectively...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Michael Zimmermann, Thomas Norbert Gerhard Meier, Florian Dirnberger, Attila Kákay, Martin Decker, Sebastian Wintz, Simone Finizio, Elisabeth Josten, Jörg Raabe, Matthias Kronseder, Dominique Bougeard, Jürgen Lindner, Christian Horst Back
We present a detailed study on the static magnetic properties of individual permalloy (Py) nanotubes (NTs) with hexagonal cross sections. Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) are used to investigate their magnetic ground states and its stability. We find, that the magnetization in zero applied magnetic field is in a very stable vortex state. Its origin is attributed to a strong growth induced anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the long axis of the tubes...
April 5, 2018: Nano Letters
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