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Soon-Ung Park, In-Hye Lee, Seung Jin Joo, Jae-Won Ju
Site specific radionuclide dispersion databases were archived for the emergency response to the hypothetical releases of (137)Cs from the Uljin nuclear power plant in Korea. These databases were obtained with the horizontal resolution of 1.5 km in the local domain centered the power plant site by simulations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the Unified Model (UM)-Local Data Assimilation Prediction System (LDAPS). The Eulerian Dispersion Model-East Asia (EDM-EA) with the UM-Global Data Assimilation Prediction System (UM-GDAPS) meteorological models was used to get dispersion databases in the regional domain...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Paolo Ferrari, Monia Vadrucci, Alessandro Ampollini, Lorenzo Campani, Luigi Picardi, Concetta Ronsivalle, Francesca Mariotti
The TOP-IMPLART, a new proton therapy facility, is under development in Frascati ENEA Laboratories, near Rome. The project is centered on a medium-energy proton accelerator designed as a sequence of modular linear accelerators (the final energy will be 230 MeV). Being not a commercial product, measurements and simulation are fundamental to characterize the system and the radiation field, even during its construction. In this work some preliminary evaluations of the neutron contamination have been tried. The simulations were validated through some measurements obtaining a satisfactory agreement...
October 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Jérémie Mortier, Julien R C Prévost, Dominique Sydow, Sabine Teuchert, Christian Omieczynski, Marcel Bermudez, Raphaël Frédérick, Gerhard Wolber
Metalloenzyme arginase is a therapeutically relevant target associated with tumor growth. To fight cancer immunosuppression, arginase activity can be modulated by small chemical inhibitors binding to its catalytic center. To better understand molecular mechanisms of arginase inhibition, a careful computer-aided mechanistic structural investigation of this enzyme was conducted. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the microsecond range, key regions of the protein active site were identified and their flexibility was evaluated and compared...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Katelyn A Grayson-Sneed, Robert C Smith
OBJECTIVE: Develop a reliable coding method of a Behavioral Health Treatment Model for patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms (BHTM-MUS). METHODS: Two undergraduates trained for 30h coded videotaped interviews from 161 resident-simulated patient (SP) interactions. Trained on 45 videotapes, coders coded 33 (20%) of 161 study set tapes for the BHTM-MUS. Guetzkow's U, Cohen's Kappa, and percent of agreement were used to measure coders' reliability in unitizing and coding residents' skills for eliciting: education and informing (4 yes/no items), motivating (2), treatment statements (5), commitment and goals (2), negotiates plan (8), non-emotion patient-centered skills (4), and patient-centered emotional skills (8)...
October 12, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
Ram P Sharma, Zdeněk Vacek, Stanislav Vacek, Vilém Podrázský, Václav Jansa
Height to crown base (HCB) of a tree is an important variable often included as a predictor in various forest models that serve as the fundamental tools for decision-making in forestry. We developed spatially explicit and spatially inexplicit mixed-effects HCB models using measurements from a total 19,404 trees of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) on the permanent sample plots that are located across the Czech Republic. Variables describing site quality, stand density or competition, and species mixing effects were included into the HCB model with use of dominant height (HDOM), basal area of trees larger in diameters than a subject tree (BAL- spatially inexplicit measure) or Hegyi's competition index (HCI-spatially explicit measure), and basal area proportion of a species of interest (BAPOR), respectively...
2017: PloS One
Oyetunji E Ogundijo, Xiaodong Wang
High-throughput gene expression data are often obtained from pure or complex (heterogeneous) biological samples. In the latter case, data obtained are a mixture of different cell types and the heterogeneity imposes some difficulties in the analysis of such data. In order to make conclusions on gene expresssion data obtained from heterogeneous samples, methods such as microdissection and flow cytometry have been employed to physically separate the constituting cell types. However, these manual approaches are time consuming when measuring the responses of multiple cell types simultaneously...
2017: PloS One
Maik Rahlves, Bernhard Roth, Eduard Reithmeier
Confocal microscopy is one of the dominating measurement techniques in surface metrology, with an enhanced lateral resolution compared to alternative optical methods. However, the axial resolution in confocal microscopy is strongly dependent on the accuracy of signal evaluation algorithms, which are limited by random noise. Here, we discuss the influence of various noise sources on confocal intensity signal evaluating algorithms, including center-of-mass, parabolic least-square fit, and cross-correlation-based methods...
July 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Fujun Sun, Zhongyuan Fu, Chunhong Wang, Zhaoxiang Ding, Chao Wang, Huiping Tian
We propose and investigate an ultra-compact air-mode photonic crystal nanobeam cavity (PCNC) with an ultra-high quality factor-to-mode volume ratio (Q/V) by quadratically tapering the lattice space of the rectangular holes from the center to both ends while other parameters remain unchanged. By using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method, an optimized geometry yields a Q of 7.2×10(6) and a V∼1.095(λ/nSi)(3) in simulations, resulting in an ultra-high Q/V ratio of about 6.5×10(6)(λ/nSi)(-3)...
May 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Lien T Vu, Chao-Chang A Chen, Patrick Joi-Tsang Shum
This paper aims to develop and analyze the design method of multifocal contact lenses to obtain curvature continuity in the optical surfaces with the high addition (Add) powers by adjusting non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves. The paper has developed mathematical formulae to generate the optical power distributions in which the powers continuously change from either near or distant center to the opposite focal length in the periphery of the optical region with different change rates and Add power values...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Raphael Mansmann, Thomas Dreier, Christof Schulz
Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are widely used as detectors for laser-induced incandescence (LII), a diagnostics method for gas-borne particles that requires signal detection over a large dynamic range with nanosecond time resolution around the signal peak. Especially when more than one PMT is used (i.e., for pyrometric temperature measurements) even small deviations from the linear detector response can lead to significant errors. Reasons for non-linearity observed in other PMT measurement techniques are summarized and strategies to identify non-linear PMT operation in LII are outlined...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Ruishan Chen, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Yong Zhou, Hai Ming, Anting Wang, Qiwen Zhan
We demonstrate a new method to detect the vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum by a sectorial screen. When the sectorial screen is illuminated by optical vortex beams, the far-field diffraction pattern can be used to visually determine the modulus and sign of topological charges. We also prove that center alignment is not strictly required. The experimental results agree well with the simulated results.
June 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Yuyang Zhuang, Heming Chen, Ke Ji
We propose a structure of a cascaded chirped narrow bandpass filter with a flat-top based on two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs). The filter discussed here consists of three filter units, each with a resonator and two reflectors. Coupled mode theory and transfer matrix method are methodologies applied in the analysis of the features. The calculations show that the bandwidth of the filter can be adjusted by changing the distances between resonators and reflectors, and based on this, a flat-top response can be achieved by chirped-cascading the filter units...
May 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Mauro Ursino, Andrea Crisafulli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Magosso, Cristiano Cuppini
The brain integrates information from different sensory modalities to generate a coherent and accurate percept of external events. Several experimental studies suggest that this integration follows the principle of Bayesian estimate. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its development in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. We recently presented a neural network model of audio-visual integration (Neural Computation, 2017) to investigate how a Bayesian estimator can spontaneously develop from the statistics of external stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Chaeyeong Lee, Sangmin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee, Hankyeol Song, Dae-Hyun Kim, Sungkoo Cho, Kwanghyun Jo, Youngyih Han, Yong Hyun Chung, Jin Sung Kim
Proton therapy is a rapidly progressing field for cancer treatment. Globally, many proton therapy facilities are being commissioned or under construction. Secondary neutrons are an important issue during the commissioning process of a proton therapy facility. The purpose of this study is to model and validate scanning nozzles of proton therapy at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) by Monte Carlo simulation for beam commissioning. After the commissioning, a secondary neutron ambient dose from proton scanning nozzle (Gantry 1) was simulated and measured...
2017: PloS One
Peter D Dahlberg, Po-Chieh Ting, Sara C Massey, Marco A Allodi, Elizabeth C Martin, C Neil Hunter, Gregory S Engel
Photosynthesis transfers energy efficiently through a series of antenna complexes to the reaction center where charge separation occurs. Energy transfer in vivo is primarily monitored by measuring fluorescence signals from the small fraction of excitations that fail to result in charge separation. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to follow the entire energy transfer process in a thriving culture of the purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. By removing contributions from scattered light, we extract the dynamics of energy transfer through the dense network of antenna complexes and into the reaction center...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Gong-Hong Lin, Yi-Jing Huang, Shih-Chieh Lee, Sheau-Ling Huang, Ching-Lin Hsieh
OBJECTIVE: To develop a computerized adaptive testing system of the Functional Assessment of Stroke (CAT-FAS) to assess upper- and lower-extremity (UE/LE) motor function, postural control, and basic activities of daily living (BADL) with optimal efficiency and without sacrificing psychometric properties in patients with stroke. DESIGN: Simulation study using the data from a previous study. Participants were assessed with the UE/LE subscales of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UE-FM/LE-FM), Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke patients (PASS), and Barthel Index (BI) at 14- and 30-day after stroke...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Fusun Ozer, Andrew Naden, Volkan Turp, Francis Mante, Deniz Sen, Markus B Blatz
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: A recommended minimum thickness for monolithic zirconia restorations has not been reported. Assessing a proper thickness that has the necessary load-bearing capacity but also conserves dental hard tissues is essential. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of thickness and surface modifications on monolithic zirconia after simulated masticatory stresses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Monolithic zirconia disks (10 mm in diameter) were fabricated with 1...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Matthew F Toerper, Gabor D Kelen, Lauren M Sauer, Jamil D Bayram, Christina Catlett, Scott Levin
The National Center for the Study of Preparedness and Catastrophic Event Response (PACER) has created a publicly available simulation tool called Surge (accessible at to estimate surge capacity for user-defined hospitals. Based on user input, a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm forecasts available hospital bed capacity over a 7-day period and iteratively assesses the ability to accommodate disaster patients. Currently, the tool can simulate bed capacity for acute mass casualty events (such as explosions) only and does not specifically simulate staff and supply inventory...
October 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Dian Wang, Xiaosong Zhu, Xi Liu, Liang Li, Xiaofan Zhang, Pengfei Lan, Peixiang Lu
Axial chiral molecules, whose stereogenic element is an axis rather than a chiral center, have attracted widespread interest due to their important application, such as asymmetric synthesis and chirality transfer. We investigate high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules with bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields. High harmonic generation from three typical molecules: (Sa)-3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol, propadiene, and (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene is simulated with time-dependent density-functional theory and strong field approximation...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Zhiqiang Yan, Xingpeng Yan, Xiaoyu Jiang, Lingyu Ai
A novel method to computationally reconstruct perspective and orthographic view images with full resolution of a recording device from a single integral photograph is proposed. Firstly, a group of image slices that contain full yet redundant information to reconstruct the view image are generated, and the object surface is divided into pieces by the points that correspond to the centers of image slices. Secondly, the image slices that contribute to the pieces are extracted and redundant information embedded in them are figured out by common patches analysis...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
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