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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654688/modelled-health-benefits-of-a-sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax-across-different-socioeconomic-groups-in-australia-a-cost-effectiveness-and-equity-analysis
#1
Anita Lal, Ana Maria Mantilla-Herrera, Lennert Veerman, Kathryn Backholer, Gary Sacks, Marjory Moodie, Mohammad Siahpush, Rob Carter, Anna Peeters
BACKGROUND: A sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax in Mexico has been effective in reducing consumption of SSBs, with larger decreases for low-income households. The health and financial effects across socioeconomic groups are important considerations for policy-makers. From a societal perspective, we assessed the potential cost-effectiveness, health gains, and financial impacts by socioeconomic position (SEP) of a 20% SSB tax for Australia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Australia-specific price elasticities were used to predict decreases in SSB consumption for each Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653146/investigation-of-the-optimum-heel-pad-stiffness-a-modeling-study
#2
Che-Yu Lin, Hung-Jui Chuang, Daniel H Cortes
Due to the controversy regarding the criterion for diagnosing heel pad (HP) pathology based on evaluating the state of the heel pad stiffness (HPS), this paper intended to apply modeling to understand the influence of the HPS on the mechanical responses of the HP at heelstrike during locomotion, in an attempt to investigate the optimum HPS in terms of the health-related mechanical responses. Two different models, a finite element model and a classical mechanical model, were used to simulate the mechanical responses (force loading and deformation) experienced by the HP at heelstrike...
June 26, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652839/increasing-patient-safety-with-neonates-via-handoff-communication-during-delivery-a-call-for-interprofessional-health-care-team-training-across-gme-and-cme
#3
Allison A Vanderbilt, Scott M Pappada, Howard Stein, David Harper, Thomas J Papadimos
Hospitals have struggled for years regarding the handoff process of communicating patient information from one health care professional to another. Ineffective handoff communication is recognized as a serious patient safety risk within the health care community. It is essential to take communication into consideration when examining the safety of neonates who require immediate medical attention after birth; effective communication is vital for positive patient outcomes, especially with neonates in a delivery room setting...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652708/controlled-release-nanoencapsulating-microcapsules-to-combat-inflammatory-diseases
#4
Jong-Suep Baek, Eng Wan Yeo, Yin Hao Lee, Nguan Soon Tan, Say Chye Joachim Loo
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that globally 235 million people suffer from chronic and other inflammatory diseases. The short half-lives of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their notoriety in causing gastrointestinal discomforts, warrants these drugs to be released in a controlled and sustained manner. Although polymeric particles have been widely used for drug delivery, there are few reports that showcase their ability in encapsulating and sustaining the release of NSAIDs...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652069/facilitating-tough-conversations-using-an-innovative-simulation-primed-qualitative-inquiry-in-pediatric-research
#5
REVIEW
Ambrose H Wong, Gunjan K Tiyyagura, James M Dodington, Bonnie Hawkins, Denise Hersey, Marc A Auerbach
Deep exploration of a complex healthcare issue in pediatrics may be hindered by the sensitive or infrequent nature of a particular topic in pediatrics. Healthcare simulation builds on constructivist theories to guide individuals through an experiential cycle of action, self-reflection, and open discussion, but has traditionally been applied to the educational domain in health sciences. Leveraging the emotional activation of a simulated experience, investigators can prime participants to engage in open dialog for the purposes of qualitative research...
June 23, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651854/estimating-the-effect-of-differing-assumptions-on-the-population-health-impact-of-introducing-a-reduced-risk-tobacco-product-in-the-usa
#6
Peter N Lee, John S Fry, John F Hamling, Zheng Sponsiello-Wang, Gizelle Baker, Rolf Weitkunat
We use Population Health Impact Modelling to assess effects on tobacco prevalence and mortality of introducing a Reduced Risk Tobacco Product (RRP). Simulated samples start in 1990 with a US-representative smoking prevalence. Individual tobacco histories are updated annually until 2010 using estimated probabilities of switching between never/current/former smoking where the RRP is not introduced, with current users subdivided into cigarette/RRP/dual users where it is. RRP-related mortality reductions from lung cancer, IHD, stroke and COPD are derived from the histories and the assumed relative risks of the RRP...
June 23, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651391/-prevalence-of-myopia-and-increase-trend-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-7-18-years-in-han-ethnic-group-in-china-2005-2014
#7
Y H Dong, H B Liu, Z H Wang, Z P Yang, R B Xu, Z G Yang, J Ma
Objective: To understand and evaluate the prevalence of myopia and its trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China from 2005 to 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of myopia. Methods: The data of 2005, 2010 and 2014 Chinese National Students Constitution and Health Surveys were collected. The children and adolescents with complete detection data of binoculus were selected as study subjects. The sample size of three studies were 233 108, 215 319 and 212 743, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651376/comparison-of-sampling-strategies-for-tobacco-retailer-inspections-to-maximize-coverage-in-vulnerable-areas-and-minimize-cost
#8
Joseph G L Lee, Bonnie E Shook-Sa, J Michael Bowling, Kurt M Ribisl
Introduction: In the United States, tens of thousands of inspections of tobacco retailers are conducted each year. Various sampling choices can reduce travel costs, emphasize enforcement in areas with greater non-compliance, and allow for comparability between states and over time. We sought to develop a model sampling strategy for state tobacco retailer inspections. Methods: Using a 2014 list of 10,161 North Carolina tobacco retailers, we compared results from simple random sampling; stratified, clustered at the ZIP code sampling; and, stratified, clustered at the census tract sampling...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650820/terahertz-channel-model-and-link-budget-analysis-for-intrabody-nanoscale-communication
#9
Hadeel Elayan, Raed M Shubair, Josep M Jornet, Pedram Johari
Nanosized devices operating inside the human body open up new prospects in the healthcare domain. In vivo wireless nanosensor networks (iWNSNs) will result in a plethora of applications ranging from intrabody health-monitoring to drug- delivery systems. With the development of miniature plasmonic signal sources, antennas and detectors, wireless communications among intrabody nanodevices will expectedly be enabled at both the Terahertz Band (0.1-10 THz) as well as optical frequencies (400-750 THz). This result motivates the analysis of the phenomena affecting the propagation of electromagnetic signals inside the human body...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650715/transfer-of-bacteriophage-ms2-and-fluorescein-from-n95-filtering-facepiece-respirators-to-hands-measuring-fomite-potential
#10
Tyler M Brady, Amanda L Strauch, Claudia M Almaguer, George Niezgoda, Ronald E Shaffer, Patrick L Yorio, Edward M Fisher
Contact transmission of pathogens from personal protective equipment is a concern within the healthcare industry. During public health emergency outbreaks, resources become constrained and the reuse of personal protective equipment, such as N95 filtering facepiece respirators, may be needed. This study was designed to characterize the transfer of bacteriophage MS2 and fluorescein between filtering facepiece respirators and the wearer's hands during three simulated use scenarios. Filtering facepiece respirators were contaminated with MS2 and fluorescein in droplets or droplet nuclei...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650562/the-economic-value-of-hybrid-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-with-computed-tomography-imaging-in-pulmonary-embolism-diagnosis
#11
Lauren K Toney, Richard D Kim, Swetha R Palli
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the potential economic value of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with computed tomography (CT; SPECT/CT) versus CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) planar scintigraphy and V/Q SPECT imaging modalities for diagnosing suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) patients in an emergency setting. METHODS: An Excel-based simulation model was developed to compare SPECT/CT versus the alternate scanning technologies from a payer's perspective...
June 26, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#12
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648321/cost-utility-analysis-of-single-fraction-versus-multiple-fraction-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-painful-bone-metastases-an-iranian-patient-s-perspective-study
#13
Yahya Bayazidi, Ali Keshtkaran, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Mansour Ansari, Mehdi Javanbakht, Amir Hashemi Meshkini, Shokoufeh Nikfar, Pardis Zaboli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate two of the various treatment strategies of bone metastasis- single-fraction radiotherapy and multiple-fraction radiotherapy. METHODS: A multistage Markov decision model was applied to assess the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of single fraction against multiple fractions. The model had a monthly cycle length over a lifetime horizon with 1000 hypothetical cohort samples. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire was used to estimate the health-related quality of life in patients...
May 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648222/improving-care-teams-functioning-recommendations-from-team-science
#14
Kevin Fiscella, Larry Mauksch, Thomas Bodenheimer, Eduardo Salas
BACKGROUND: Team science has been applied to many sectors including health care. Yet there has been relatively little attention paid to the application of team science to developing and sustaining primary care teams. Application of team science to primary care requires adaptation of core team elements to different types of primary care teams. CORE TEAM ELEMENTS: Six elements of teams are particularly relevant to primary care: practice conditions that support or hinder effective teamwork; team cognition, including shared understanding of team goals, roles, and how members will work together as a team; leadership and coaching, including mutual feedback among members that promotes teamwork and moves the team closer to achieving its goals; cooperation supported by an emotionally safe climate that supports expression and resolution of conflict and builds team trust and cohesion; coordination, including adoption of processes that optimize efficient performance of interdependent activities among team members; and communication, particularly regular, recursive team cycles involving planning, action, and debriefing...
July 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647254/quantifying-public-health-benefits-of-environmental-strategy-of-pm2-5-air-quality-management-in-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-china
#15
Li Chen, Mengshuang Shi, Suhuan Li, Shuang Gao, Hui Zhang, Yanling Sun, Jian Mao, Zhipeng Bai, Zhongliang Wang, Jiang Zhou
In 2013, China issued "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (Action Plan)" to improve air quality. To assess the benefits of this program in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, where the density of population and emissions vary greatly, we simulated the air quality benefit based on BenMAP to satisfy the Action Plan. In this study, we estimate PM2.5 concentration using Voronoi spatial interpolation method on a grid with a spatial resolution of 1×1km(2). Combined with the exposure-response function between PM2...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647226/inhalation-of-nanoplatelets-theoretical-deposition-simulations
#16
Robert Sturm
Primary objective of the contribution was the theoretical prediction of nanoplatelet deposition in the human respiratory tract. Modeling was founded on the hypothetical inhalation of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) measuring 0.01 and 0.1μm in thickness and adopting a projected area diameter of 1-30μm. Particle uptake was assumed to take place with inhalation flow rates of 250, 500, 750, and 1000cm(3)s(-1), respectively. For an appropriate description of pulmonary particle behavior, transport of GNP in a stochastic lung structure and deposition formulae based on analytical and numerical studies were presupposed...
June 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646374/item-usage-in-a-multidimensional-computerized-adaptive-test-mcat-measuring-health-related-quality-of-life
#17
Muirne C S Paap, Karel A Kroeze, Caroline B Terwee, Job van der Palen, Bernard P Veldkamp
PURPOSE: Examining item usage is an important step in evaluating the performance of a computerized adaptive test (CAT). We study item usage for a newly developed multidimensional CAT which draws items from three PROMIS domains, as well as a disease-specific one. METHODS: The multidimensional item bank used in the current study contained 194 items from four domains: the PROMIS domains fatigue, physical function, and ability to participate in social roles and activities, and a disease-specific domain (the COPD-SIB)...
June 23, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645319/architectural-frameworks-defining-the-structures-for-implementing-learning-health-systems
#18
Lysanne Lessard, Wojtek Michalowski, Michael Fung-Kee-Fung, Lori Jones, Agnes Grudniewicz
BACKGROUND: The vision of transforming health systems into learning health systems (LHSs) that rapidly and continuously transform knowledge into improved health outcomes at lower cost is generating increased interest in government agencies, health organizations, and health research communities. While existing initiatives demonstrate that different approaches can succeed in making the LHS vision a reality, they are too varied in their goals, focus, and scale to be reproduced without undue effort...
June 23, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644920/genome-scale-metabolic-models-applied-to-human-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Daniel J Cook, Jens Nielsen
Advances in genome sequencing, high throughput measurement of gene and protein expression levels, data accessibility, and computational power have allowed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to become a useful tool for understanding metabolic alterations associated with many different diseases. Despite the proven utility of GEMs, researchers confront multiple challenges in the use of GEMs, their application to human health and disease, and their construction and simulation in an organ-specific and disease-specific manner...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643607/diabetes-self-management-training-in-a-virtual-environment
#20
Louise Reagan, Katherine Pereira, Vanessa Jefferson, Kathryn Evans Kreider, Susan Totten, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Constance Johnson, Allison Vorderstrasse
Diabetes self-management training (DSMT) improves diabetes health outcomes. However, low numbers of patients receive DSMT. Using virtual environments (VEs) for DSMT is an innovative approach to removing barriers for patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of health professionals and diabetes educators establishing and teaching DSMT in a VE, Diabetes LIVE© (Learning in Virtual Environments), and the implications for future use of VEs in DSMT. It was found that providing DSMT in a VE preserves real-time interaction between patients and educators...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
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