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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351477/mathematical-analysis-of-circadian-disruption-and-metabolic-re-entrainment-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-the-intertwining-entraining-roles-of-light-and-feeding
#1
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The circadian rhythms influence the metabolic activity from molecular level to tissue, organ, and host level. Disruption of the circadian rhythms manifest to the host's health as metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and elevated plasma glucose, eventually leading to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the mechanism behind the relationship between circadian rhythms and metabolism. To start answering this question, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model to study the effect of circadian disruption on hepatic gluconeogenesis in humans...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351325/impact-of-educational-interventions-on-adolescent-attitudes-and-knowledge-regarding-vaccination-a-pilot-study
#2
Kate Carolan, Joanna Verran, Matthew Crossley, James Redfern, Nicola Whitton, Martyn Amos
BACKGROUND: Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351262/imu-to-segment-assignment-and-orientation-alignment-for-the-lower-body-using-deep-learning
#3
Tobias Zimmermann, Bertram Taetz, Gabriele Bleser
Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation) and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S) assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351257/modifications-in-the-consumption-of-energy-sugar-and-saturated-fat-among-the-mexican-adult-population-simulation-of-the-effect-when-replacing-processed-foods-that-comply-with-a-front-of-package-labeling-system
#4
Rosario Mendoza, Lizbeth Tolentino-Mayo, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Claudia Nieto, Eric A Monterrubio-Flores, Simón Barquera
A Mexican Committee of Nutrition Experts (MCNE) from the National Institute of Public Health (INSP), free from conflict of interest, established food content standards to place the front-of-package (FOP) logo on foods that meet these nutrition criteria. The objectives were to simulate the effect on nutrient intake in the Mexican adult population (20-59 years old) after replacing commonly consumed processed foods with those that meet the FOP nutrition-labeling criteria. Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were collected from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 2164 adults)...
January 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351254/bridge-structure-deformation-prediction-based-on-gnss-data-using-kalman-arima-garch-model
#5
Jingzhou Xin, Jianting Zhou, Simon X Yang, Xiaoqing Li, Yu Wang
Bridges are an essential part of the ground transportation system. Health monitoring is fundamentally important for the safety and service life of bridges. A large amount of structural information is obtained from various sensors using sensing technology, and the data processing has become a challenging issue. To improve the prediction accuracy of bridge structure deformation based on data mining and to accurately evaluate the time-varying characteristics of bridge structure performance evolution, this paper proposes a new method for bridge structure deformation prediction, which integrates the Kalman filter, autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA), and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH)...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350974/use-of-simulation-based-training-to-aid-in-implementing-complex-health-technology
#6
Veffa Devers
Clinicians are adult learners in a complex environment that historically does not invest in training in a way that is conducive to these types of learners. Adult learners are independent, self-directed, and goal oriented. In today's fast-paced clinical setting, a practical need exists for nurses and clinicians to master the technology they use on a daily basis, especially as medical devices have become more interconnected and complex. As hospitals look to embrace new technologies, medical device companies must provide clinical end-user training...
January 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349801/evaluating-the-effects-of-rater-and-subject-factors-on-measures-of-association
#7
Kerrie P Nelson, Aya A Mitani, Don Edwards
Large-scale agreement studies are becoming increasingly common in medical settings to gain better insight into discrepancies often observed between experts' classifications. Ordered categorical scales are routinely used to classify subjects' disease and health conditions. Summary measures such as Cohen's weighted kappa are popular approaches for reporting levels of association for pairs of raters' ordinal classifications. However, in large-scale studies with many raters, assessing levels of association can be challenging due to dependencies between many raters each grading the same sample of subjects' results and the ordinal nature of the ratings...
January 19, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349708/cost-effectiveness-of-empagliflozin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-at-increased-cardiovascular-risk-in-greece
#8
George Gourzoulidis, Charalampos Tzanetakos, Ioannis Ioannidis, Apostolos Tsapas, Georgia Kourlaba, Giannis Papageorgiou, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently associated with co-morbidities that exacerbate cardiovascular (CV) risk. CV disease is the leading cause of death in people with diabetes across the world and accounts for approximately half the deaths in the T2DM population. Hence, the objective of present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of empagliflozin, in addition to standard of care (SoC), for the treatment of adult patients with T2DM and high CV risk in Greece...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349199/efficiency-or-equity-simulating-the-impact-of-high-risk-and-population-intervention-strategies-for-the-prevention-of-disease
#9
Jonathan M Platt, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea
Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347854/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-and-utility-estimation-methods-in-schizophrenia
#10
B Németh, A N Fasseeh, A Molnár, I Bitter, M Horváth, K Kóczián, Á Götze, B Nagy
There is a growing need for economic evaluations describing the disease course, as well as the costs and clinical outcomes related to the treatment of schizophrenia. Areas covered: A systematic review on studies describing health economic models in schizophrenia and a targeted literature review on utility mapping algorithms in schizophrenia were carried out. Models found in the review were collated and assessed in detail according to their type and various other attributes. Fifty-nine studies were included in the review...
January 19, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347394/linking-biological-and-physical-aging-dynamical-scaling-of-multicellular-regeneration
#11
Yuting Lou, Jufeng Xia, Wei Tang, Yu Chen
The fight against biological aging (bio-aging) is long-standing, with the focus of intense research aimed at maintaining high rates of tissue regeneration to promote health and longevity. Nevertheless, there are overwhelming complexities associated with the quantitative analysis of aging. In this study, we sought to quantify bio-aging based on physical aging, by mapping instances of multicellular regeneration to the relaxation of physical systems. An experiment of delayed wound healing assays was devised to obtain delay-dependent healing data...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346587/are-root-cause-analyses-recommendations-effective-and-sustainable-an-observational-study
#12
Peter D Hibbert, Matthew J W Thomas, Anita Deakin, William B Runciman, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Stephanie Lomax, Jonathan Prescott, Glenda Gorrie, Amy Szczygielski, Tanja Surwald, Catherine Fraser
Objective: To assess the strength of root cause analysis (RCA) recommendations and their perceived levels of effectiveness and sustainability. Design: All RCAs related to sentinel events (SEs) undertaken between the years 2010 and 2015 in the public health system in Victoria, Australia were analysed. The type and strength of each recommendation in the RCA reports were coded by an expert patient safety classifier using the US Department of Veteran Affairs type and strength criteria...
January 16, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346509/a-distance-based-approach-for-testing-the-mediation-effect-of-the-human-microbiome
#13
Jie Zhang, Zhi Wei, Jun Chen
Motivation: Recent studies have revealed a complex interplay between environment, the human microbiome, and health and disease. Mediation analysis of the human microbiome in these complex relationships could potentially provide insights into the role of the microbiome in the etiology of disease and, more importantly, lead to novel clinical interventions by modulating the microbiome. However, due to the high dimensionality, sparsity, non-normality and phylogenetic structure of microbiome data, none of the existing methods are suitable for testing such clinically important mediation effect...
January 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346295/peri-elastodynamic-simulations-of-guided-ultrasonic-waves-in-plate-like-structure-with-surface-mounted-pzt
#14
Subir Patra, Hossain Ahmed, Sourav Banerjee
Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346226/preparing-physiotherapy-students-for-clinical-placement-student-perceptions-of-low-cost-peer-simulation-a-mixed-methods-study
#15
Narelle Dalwood, Stephen Maloney, Narelle Cox, Prue Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Simulation is increasingly used in health care education, yet the organizational and financial costs can be prohibitive. This study aimed to investigate whether peer simulation is perceived by third-year undergraduate physiotherapy students as valuable for clinical placement preparation. METHODS: Third-year undergraduate physiotherapy students participated in a 9-week peer simulation program, using each other as patients, and were invited to complete two surveys evaluating perceptions of the program...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345999/cost-effectiveness-of-capping-freeways-for-use-as-parks-the-new-york-cross-bronx-expressway-case-study
#16
Sooyoung Kim, Zafar Zafari, Martine Bellanger, Peter Alexander Muennig
OBJECTIVES: To examine health benefits and cost-effectiveness of implementing a freeway deck park to increase urban green space. METHODS: Using the Cross-Bronx Expressway in New York City as a case study, we explored the cost-effectiveness of implementing deck parks. We built a microsimulation model that included increased exercise, fewer accidents, and less pollution as well as the cost of implementation and maintenance of the park. We estimated both the quality-adjusted life years gained and the societal costs for 2017...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345931/umbrella-sampling-and-x-ray-crystallographic-analysis-unveil-an-arg-asp-gate-facilitating-inhibitor-binding-inside-phosphopantetheine-adenylyltransferase-allosteric-cleft
#17
Abhisek Mondal, Rakesh Chatterjee, Saumen Datta
Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) is a rate limiting enzyme essential for biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) which in turn is responsible to regulate the secretion of exotoxins via type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing severe health concerns ranging from nosocomial infections to respiratory failure. Acetyl Coenzyme A (AcCoA) is a newly reported inhibitor of PPAT, believed to regulate the cellular levels of CoA and thereby the pathogenesis. Very little is known so far regarding the mechanistic details of AcCoA binding inside PPAT binding cleft...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344794/ticagrelor-for-secondary-prevention-of-atherothrombotic-events-after-myocardial-infarction-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#18
REVIEW
Xavier G L V Pouwels, Robert Wolff, Bram L T Ramaekers, Anoukh Van Giessen, Shona Lang, Steve Ryder, Gill Worthy, Steven Duffy, Nigel Armstrong, Jos Kleijnen, Manuela A Joore
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited AstraZeneca, the manufacturer of ticagrelor (Brilique®), to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor 60 mg twice daily (BID) in combination with low-dose aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] compared with ASA only for secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) and who are at increased risk of atherothrombotic events. Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Centre+, was commissioned as the evidence review group (ERG)...
January 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343977/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-six-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-due-to-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#19
James C Ulchaker, Melissa S Martinson
Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis from payers' perspectives of six treatments for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to examine positioning of these modalities in the marketplace for the best use of health care funds and quality-of-life benefits for patients. Methods: The economic analysis was conducted with a Markov model to compare combination prescription drug therapy (ComboRx), minimally invasive therapies (MITs) including convective radiofrequency (RF) water vapor thermal therapy (Rezūm®), conductive RF thermal therapy (Prostiva®), and prostatic urethral lift (UroLift®), and invasive surgical procedures including photovaporization of the prostate (Greenlight® PVP) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343662/cost-benefit-performance-simulation-of-robot-assisted-thoracic-surgery-as-required-for-financiall-viability-under-the-2016-revised-reimbursement-paradigm-of-the-japanese-national-health-insurance-system
#20
Naohiro Kajiwara, Yasufumi Kato, Masaru Hagiwara, Masatoshi Kakihana, Tatsuo Ohira, Norihiko Kawate, Norihiko Ikeda
PURPOSE: To discuss the cost-benefit performance (CBP) and establish a medical fee system for robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) under the Japanese National Health Insurance System (JNHIS), which is a system not yet firmly established. METHODS: All management steps for RATS are identical, such as preoperative and postoperative management. This study examines the CBP based on medical fees of RATS under the JNHIS introduced in 2016. RESULTS: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) and robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) now receive insurance reimbursement under the category of use of support devices for endoscopic surgery ($5420 and $3485, respectively)...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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