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simulation and health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446903/simulating-intestinal-growth-conditions-enhances-toxin-production-of-enteropathogenic-bacillus-cereus
#1
Nadja Jeßberger, Corinna Rademacher, Viktoria M Krey, Richard Dietrich, Ann-Katrin Mohr, Maria-Elisabeth Böhm, Siegfried Scherer, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Erwin Märtlbauer
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen increasingly reported to be the causative agent of foodborne infections and intoxications. Since the enterotoxins linked to the diarrheal form of food poising are foremost produced in the human intestine, the toxic potential of enteropathogenic B. cereus strains is difficult to predict from studies carried out under routine cultivation procedures. In this study, toxigenic properties of a panel of strains (n = 19) of diverse origin were compared using cell culture medium pre-incubated with CaCo-2 cells to mimic intestinal growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446025/medicinal-plant-phytochemicals-and-their-inhibitory-activities-against-pancreatic-lipase-molecular-docking-combined-with-molecular-dynamics-simulation-approach
#2
Bilal Ahmed, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Usman Mirza
Obesity is the worst health risk worldwide, which is linked to a number of diseases. Pancreatic lipase is considered as an affective cause of obesity and can be a major target for controlling the obesity. The present study was designed to find out best phytochemicals against pancreatic lipase through molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. For this purpose, a total of 3770 phytochemicals were docked against pancreatic lipase and ranked them on the basis of binding affinity. Finally, 10 molecules (Kushenol K, Rosmarinic acid, Reserpic acid, Munjistin, Leachianone G, Cephamycin C, Arctigenin, 3-O-acetylpadmatin, Geniposide and Obtusin) were selected that showed strong bonding with the pancreatic lipase...
April 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445621/calm-to-chaos-engaging-undergraduate-nursing-students-with-the-complex-nature-of-interruptions-during-medication-administration
#3
Carolyn Hayes, Debra Jackson, Patricia M Davidson, John Daly, Tamara Power
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper describes undergraduate student nurse responses to a simulated role-play experience focussing on managing interruptions during medication administration. BACKGROUND: Improving patient safety requires that we find creative and innovative methods of teaching medication administration to undergraduate nurses in real-world conditions. Nurses are responsible for the majority of medication administrations in health care. Incidents and errors associated with medications are a significant patient safety issue and often occur as a result of interruptions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444241/cervical-spine-muscle-tendon-unit-length-differences-between-neutral-and-forward-head-postures-biomechanical-study-using-human-cadaveric-specimens
#4
Saeed Khayatzadeh, Olivia A Kalmanson, Dale Schuit, Robert M Havey, Leonard I Voronov, Alexander J Ghanayem, Avinash G Patwardhan
Background: Forward Head Posture (FHP) may be associated with neck pain and poor health-related quality of life. Literature describes only qualitative muscle length changes associated with FHP. Objective: To quantify how muscle-tendon unit lengths are altered when human cadaveric specimens are placed in alignments representing different severities of FHP. Design: Biomechanical study using 13 fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spine specimens (Occiput-T1, 54±15yrs)...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444224/pharmacodynamics-of-colistin-and-fosfomycin-a-treasure-trove-combination-combats-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Miao Zhao, Zackery P Bulman, Justin R Lenhard, Michael J Satlin, Barry N Kreiswirth, Thomas J Walsh, Amanda Marrocco, Phillip J Bergen, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Jing Zhang, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are an emerging public health problem around the globe. We defined the combinatorial pharmacodynamics and ability to suppress resistance of two 'old' antibiotics, fosfomycin and colistin, in time-kill experiments and hollow-fibre infection models (HFIM). Methods: Two KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were used: one susceptible to both colistin and fosfomycin (KPC 9A: MIC colistin 0.25 mg/L and MIC fosfomycin ≤8 mg/L) and the other resistant to colistin and susceptible to fosfomycin (KPC 5A: MIC colistin 64 mg/L and MIC fosfomycin 32 mg/L)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442961/integration-of-simulation-in-postgraduate-studies-in-saudi-arabia-the-current-practice-in-anesthesia-training-program
#6
REVIEW
Abeer Arab, Abdulaleem Alatassi, Elias Alattas, Usamah Alzoraigi, Zaki AlZaher, Abdulaziz Ahmad, Hesham Albabtain, Abdulaziz Boker
The educational programs in the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties are developing rapidly in the fields of technical development. Such development is witnessed, particularly in the scientific areas related to what is commonly known as evidence-based medicine. This review highlights the critical need and importance of integrating simulation into anesthesia training and assessment. Furthermore, it describes the current utilization of simulation in anesthesia and critical care assessment process.
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441509/patient-safety-and-quality-improvement-in-otolaryngology-education-a-systematic-review
#7
John D Gettelfinger, P Barrett Paulk, Cecelia E Schmalbach
Objective The breadth and depth of patient safety/quality improvement (PS/QI) research dedicated to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) education remains unknown. This systematic review aims to define this scope and to identify knowledge gaps as well as potential areas of future study to improved PS/QI education and training in OHNS. Data Sources A computerized Ovid/Medline database search was conducted (January 1, 1965, to May 15, 2015). Similar computerized searches were conducted using Cochrane Database, PubMed, and Google Scholar...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441139/empirical-likelihood-in-nonignorable-covariate-missing-data-problems
#8
Yanmei Xie, Biao Zhang
Missing covariate data occurs often in regression analysis, which frequently arises in the health and social sciences as well as in survey sampling. We study methods for the analysis of a nonignorable covariate-missing data problem in an assumed conditional mean function when some covariates are completely observed but other covariates are missing for some subjects. We adopt the semiparametric perspective of Bartlett et al. (Improving upon the efficiency of complete case analysis when covariates are MNAR. Biostatistics 2014;15:719-30) on regression analyses with nonignorable missing covariates, in which they have introduced the use of two working models, the working probability model of missingness and the working conditional score model...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439448/spatial-determinants-of-ebola-virus-disease-risk-for-the-west-african-epidemic
#9
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, Aman Verma, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target limited public health resources during an EVD outbreak. We examined several environmental and population-level demographic predictors of EVD risk from the West African epidemic...
March 31, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438217/a-powerful-microbiome-based-association-test-and-a-microbial-taxa-discovery-framework-for-comprehensive-association-mapping
#10
Hyunwook Koh, Martin J Blaser, Huilin Li
BACKGROUND: The role of the microbiota in human health and disease has been increasingly studied, gathering momentum through the use of high-throughput technologies. Further identification of the roles of specific microbes is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in diseases related to microbiome perturbations. METHODS: Here, we introduce a new microbiome-based group association testing method, optimal microbiome-based association test (OMiAT). OMiAT is a data-driven testing method which takes an optimal test throughout different tests from the sum of powered score tests (SPU) and microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT)...
April 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#11
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437561/semiparametric-probit-models-with-univariate-and-bivariate-current-status-data
#12
Hao Liu, Jing Qin
Multivariate current-status data are frequently encountered in biomedical and public health studies. Semiparametric regression models have been extensively studied for univariate current-status data, but most existing estimation procedures are computationally intensive, involving either penalization or smoothing techniques. It becomes more challenging for the analysis of multivariate current-status data. In this article, we study the maximum likelihood estimations for univariate and bivariate current-status data under the semiparametric probit regression models...
April 24, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436907/reliability-of-lagged-poincar%C3%A3-plot-parameters-in-ultra-short-heart-rate-variability-series-application-on-affective-sounds
#13
Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Juan Bolea, Gaetano Valenza, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Raquel Bailon
The number of studies about ultra-short cardiovascular time series is increasing because of the demand for mobile applications in telemedicine and e-health monitoring. However, the current literature still needs a proper validation of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics assessment from ultra-short time series. This paper reports on the reliability of the Lagged Poincaré Plot (LPP) parameters - calculated from ultra-short cardiovascular time series. Reliability is studied on simulated as well as on real RR series...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436821/hydrological-modeling-of-fecal-indicator-bacteria-in-a-tropical-mountain-catchment
#14
Minjeong Kim, Laurie Boithias, Kyung Hwa Cho, Norbert Silvera, Chanthamousone Thammahacksa, Keooudone Latsachack, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Alain Pierret, Yakov A Pachepsky, Olivier Ribolzi
The occurrence of pathogen bacteria in surface waters is a threat to public health worldwide. In particular, inadequate sanitation resulting in high contamination of surface water with pathogens of fecal origin is a serious issue in developing countries such as Lao P.D.R. Despite the health implications of the consumption of contaminated surface water, the environmental fate and transport of pathogens of fecal origin and their indicators (Fecal Indicator Bacteria or FIB) are still poorly known in tropical areas...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436158/collaborating-on-medication-errors-in-nursing
#15
Marketa Marvanova, Paul J Henkel
BACKGROUND: Nurse educators are faced with changing roles and expanding responsibilities for medication administration and monitoring in pursuit of improved patient safety. The aims of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate clinical simulation experiences that included, along with nursing faculty members, a pharmacist educator for the teaching of preventable medication errors in undergraduate nursing education. METHODS: Four clinical simulation scenarios using high-fidelity patient simulators were developed focusing on select medication problems in nursing practice...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435826/climate-change-and-simulation-of-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-a-case-study-of-mashhad-iran
#16
Mohammad Baaghideh, Fatemeh Mayvaneh
BACKGROUND: Weather and climate play a significant role in human health. We are accustomed to affects the weather conditions. By increasing or decreasing the environment temperature or change of seasons, some diseases become prevalent or remove. This study investigated the role of temperature in cardiovascular disease mortality of city of Mashhad in the current decade and its simulation in the future decades under conditions of climate change. METHODS: Cardiovascular disease mortality data and the daily temperatures data were used during (2004-2013) period...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435013/modeling-chagas-disease-in-chile-from-vector-to-congenital-transmission
#17
Mauricio Canals, Dante Cáceres, Sergio Alvarado, Andrea Canals, Pedro E Cattan
Chagaś disease is a human health problem in Latin America. It is highly prevalent in northern Chile between the Arica-Parinacota and Coquimbo regions, with reported incidence of 3-11/100000 inhabitants and mortality of 0.3-0.4/100000. The interruption of vector transmission was reported in 1999 by means of the elimination of the primary vector, Triatoma infestans, from human dwellings, thus the epidemiologic dynamics of this disease should be modified. Here we model the dynamics of Chagaś disease based on previous models for vector and congenital transmission, propose a model that includes both transmission forms and perform simulations...
April 20, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434459/becoming-parent-and-nurse-high-fidelity-simulation-in-teaching-ambulatory-central-line-infection-prevention-to-parents-of-children-with-cancer
#18
Carol E Heiser Rosenberg, Mary F Terhaar, Judith A Ascenzi, Anna Walbert, K Michelle Kokoszka, Julianne S Perretta, Marlene R Miller
BACKGROUND: Ambulatory central-line infections in children with cancer are life-threatening. Infections are two to three times more frequent in outpatients than inpatients, for whom evidence-based bundles have decreased morbidity. Most cancer care now takes place at home, where parents perform many of the same tasks as nurses. However, parents often feel stressed and unprepared. To address this, high-fidelity simulation, which has been effective for teaching novice nurses, was evaluated for parent central-line education...
May 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434387/cost-utility-of-biological-treatment-sequences-for-luminal-crohn-s-disease-in-europe
#19
Fanni Rencz, László Gulácsi, Márta Péntek, Krisztina B Gecse, Axel Dignass, Jonas Halfvarson, Fernando Gomollón, Petra Baji, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Péter L Lakatos, Valentin Brodszky
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences with available biologics, including adalimumab (ADA), biosimilar infliximab (bsIFX), originator infliximab (IFX) and vedolizumab (VEDO) for luminal Crohn's disease in nine European countries. METHODS: A Markov-model was constructed to simulate five-year medical costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on clinical efficacy were obtained from randomised controlled trials. Country-specific unit costs, discount rates and a third-party payer perspective were applied...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434056/beyond-the-primary-endpoint-paradigm-a-test-of-intervention-effect-in-hiv-behavioral-intervention-trials-with-numerous-correlated-outcomes
#20
Jessica M Harwood, Robert E Weiss, W Scott Comulada
Behavioral interventions are increasingly based on holistic approaches to health with an understanding that health-related behaviors are linked. A motivating example is provided by the Philani study, an intervention trial conducted to improve the health of South African mothers and their children. Inter-related health problems around maternal alcohol use, malnutrition, and HIV were addressed; multiple endpoints were targeted. The traditional hypothesis testing paradigm that tests significance on one primary outcome did not suffice...
April 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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