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Interoception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142226/people-with-higher-interoceptive-sensitivity-are-more-altruistic-but-improving-interoception-does-not-increase-altruism
#1
Richard M Piech, Daniela Strelchuk, Jake Knights, Jonathan V Hjälmheden, Jonas K Olofsson, Jane E Aspell
People consistently show preferences and behaviors that benefit others at a cost to themselves, a phenomenon termed altruism. We investigated if perception of one's body signals - interoception - may be underlying such behaviors. We tested if participants' sensitivity to their own heartbeat predicted their decision on a choice between self-interest and altruism, and if improving this sensitivity through training would make participants more altruistic. Across these two experiments, interoceptive sensitivity predicted altruism measured through monetary generosity...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139302/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-interoception-abnormalities-in-global-integration
#2
Timothy R Hatfield, Rhonda F Brown, Melita J Giummarra, Bigna Lenggenhager
Research over the past three decades has seen a revived interest in the way the human body-and the way in which it is perceived-interacts with aspects of our experience. Consequently, interoception (i.e. the perception of physiological feedback from the body) has recently been shown to be associated with a wide range of cognitive, emotional, and affective functions, making it broadly relevant to the study of autism spectrum disorder. Although limited qualitative accounts and empirical studies suggest that individuals with autism spectrum disorder encounter abnormalities when perceiving and integrating physiological feedback from their bodies, other studies have suggested that people with/without autism spectrum disorder do not differ in interoceptive ability after accounting for alexithymia...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108463/td-the-case-of-diogenes-syndrome-deficit-or-denial
#3
Fiona Ashworth, Anita Rose, Barbara A Wilson
Diogenes Syndrome (DS) is characterised by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, hoarding, social withdrawal, and lack of concern and shame for the individual's residential situation. This paper describes TD who was unable to identify emotional expressions of disgust and was borderline-impaired for facial recognition associated with perceptual difficulties. Problems interpreting expressions of disgust were interesting as TD was living in squalor, neglecting himself, and lacked concern for his circumstances...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107871/an-appetite-for-life-brain-regulation-of-hunger-and-satiety
#4
REVIEW
Lora K Heisler, Daniel D Lam
Obesity results from the consumption of food in excess of bodily energy requirements, with the excess energy stored as adipose tissue. Sequelae of obesity, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, consistently rank among the top causes of death worldwide. The global prevalence of obesity highlights the urgency of understanding the mechanisms regulating hunger and satiety. Appetite, defined as the motivational drive to obtain food, is regulated by a complex neurocircuitry which integrates a variety of interoceptive signals to gauge nutritional state and guide appropriate levels of food-seeking...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104106/the-effect-of-mindful-eating-on-subsequent-intake-of-a-high-calorie-snack
#5
Lana Seguias, Katy Tapper
This study examined the effects of applying a mindful eating strategy during lunch on subsequent intake of a palatable snack. It also looked at whether this effect occurred due to improved memory for lunch and whether effects varied with participant gender, level of interoceptive awareness or sensitivity to reward. Participants (n = 51) completed a heartbeat perception task to assess interoceptive awareness. They were then provided with a lunch of 825 calories. Participants in the experimental group ate lunch while listening to an audio clip encouraging them to focus on the sensory properties of the food (e...
November 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094768/how-do-self-assessment-of-alexithymia-and-sensitivity-to-bodily-sensations-relate-to-alcohol-consumption
#6
Sophie Betka, Gaby Pfeifer, Sarah Garfinkel, Hielke Prins, Rod Bond, Henrique Sequeira, Theodora Duka, Hugo Critchley
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia describes an abnormality of emotional experience that is commonly expressed among individuals with addiction and alcohol abuse disorders. Alexithymic individuals are characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing their emotions. This impairment is linked to the development and maintenance of addiction. Moreover, an emergent theory suggests alexithymia is itself secondary to a failure of interoception (sensitivity to internal bodily signals, including physiological arousal states)...
November 2, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093486/cardio-audio-synchronization-drives-neural-surprise-response
#7
Christian Pfeiffer, Marzia De Lucia
Successful prediction of future events depends on the brain's capacity to extract temporal regularities from sensory inputs. Neuroimaging studies mainly investigated regularity processing for exteroceptive sensory inputs (i.e. from outside the body). Here we investigated whether interoceptive signals (i.e. from inside the body) can mediate auditory regularity processing. Human participants passively listened to sound sequences presented in synchrony or asynchrony to their heartbeat while concomitant electroencephalography was recorded...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080021/plasticity-in-the-interoceptive-system
#8
Fernando Torrealba, Carlos Madrid, Marco Contreras, Karina Gómez
The most outstanding manifestations of the plastic capacities of brain circuits and their neuronal and synaptic components in the adult CNS are learning and memory. A reduced number of basic plastic mechanisms underlie learning capacities at many levels and regions of the brain. The interoceptive system is no exception, and some of the most studied behavioral changes that involve learning and memory engage the interoceptive pathways at many levels of their anatomical and functional organization.In this chapter, we will review four examples of learning, mostly in rats, where the interoceptive system has a role...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076530/a-12-week-integrative-exercise-program-improves-self-reported-mindfulness-and-interoceptive-awareness-in-war-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#9
Wolf E Mehling, Margaret A Chesney, Thomas J Metzler, Lizabeth A Goldstein, Shira Maguen, Chris Geronimo, Gary Agcaoili, Deborah E Barnes, Jennifer A Hlavin, Thomas C Neylan
OBJECTIVE: Innovative approaches to the treatment of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are needed. We report on secondary psychological outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of integrative exercise (IE) using aerobic and resistance exercise with mindfulness-based principles and yoga. We expected-in parallel to observed improvements in PTSD intensity and quality of life-improvements in mindfulness, interoceptive bodily awareness, and positive states of mind. METHOD: A total of 47 war veterans with PTSD were randomized to 12-week IE versus waitlist...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046154/neural-network-alterations-across-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-fmri-studies
#10
Trevor Steward, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided insight on how neural abnormalities are related to the symptomatology of the eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). More specifically, an increasingly growing number of brain imaging studies has shed light on how functionally connected brain networks contribute not only to disturbed eating behavior, but also to transdiagnostic alterations in body/interoceptive perception, reward processing and executive functions...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#11
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039756/creative-arts-therapies-as-temporary-home-for-refugees-insights-from-literature-and-practice
#12
Rebekka Dieterich-Hartwell, Sabine C Koch
One of the frequently overlooked psychosocial problems of refugees is the phenomenon of homesickness. Being forced into exile and unable to return home may cause natural feelings of nostalgia but may also result in emotional, cognitive, behavioral and physical adversities. According to the literature, the creative arts therapies with their attention to preverbal language-music, imagery, dance, role play, and movement-are able to reach individuals through the senses and promote successive integration, which can lead to transformation and therapeutic change...
October 17, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037338/-the-many-faces-of-orbitofrontal-syndrome
#13
Jose Fernando Muñoz Zúñiga
Orbitofrontal syndrome is a neuropsychiatric syndrome composed of cognitive, affective and behavioural symptoms, disrupting some of the traits that define us as a species, like cognitive flexibility and affective regulation. In order to effectively treat the condition, the clinician needs to be familiar with both the functional neuroanatomy and the neuropsychiatric semiology of the syndrome. A review of the literature is presented, emphasising the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of the syndrome, together with three clinical vignettes showing the many faces of the syndrome...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031472/catching-on-it-early-bodily-and-brain-anticipatory-mechanisms-for-excellence-in-sport
#14
Ana M Abreu, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore M Aglioti
Programming and executing a subsequent move is inherently linked to the ability to anticipate the actions of others when interacting. Such fundamental social ability is particularly important in sport. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms behind the highly sophisticated anticipation skills that characterize experts. We contend that prediction in sports might rely on a finely tuned perceptual system that endows experts with a fast, partially unconscious, pickup of relevant cues. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the multimodal, perceptuomotor, multiple-duty cells (mirror neurons) that play an important function in action anticipation by means of an inner motor simulation process...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030901/disrupted-integration-of-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-signaling-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Jean-Paul Noel, Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T Wallace
In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory-based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or "window" within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs)...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021956/grey-and-white-matter-differences-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#16
Andreas Finkelmeyer, Jiabao He, Laura Maclachlan, Stuart Watson, Peter Gallagher, Julia L Newton, Andrew M Blamire
OBJECTIVE: Investigate global and regional grey and white matter volumes in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and recent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods. METHODS: Forty-two patients with CFS and thirty healthy volunteers were scanned on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner. Anatomical MRI scans were segmented, normalized and submitted to a VBM analysis using randomisation methods. Group differences were identified in overall segment volumes and voxel-wise in spatially normalized grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) segments...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020067/interoception-and-sexual-response-in-women-with-low-sexual-desire
#17
Julia Velten, Lori A Brotto
Sexual concordance is defined as the association between genital response and self-reported sexual arousal. Though one might predict a strong association between sexual concordance and awareness of other internal physiological sensations (termed interoception), past research on sexually healthy women has not found these different domains to be related. The aim of the present study was to test the association between interoception and sexual concordance in a clinical sample of women with Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985155/exploring-the-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-body-image-body-satisfaction-and-body-competence
#18
Alek Krumm, F Richard Ferraro, Brita Ingvalson
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to bodily disorders (anorexia nervosa, obesity), and individuals with ASD are known to experience unique bodily states (e.g., exaggerated interoceptive sensitivity). Though there is evidence to suggest body variables may significantly impact quality of life in those with ASD, research has yet to examine the potential relationship between ASD and body image variables, that is, the evaluation of one's body. The present study examined 80 healthy college students (40 male, 40 female) who completed an online set of questionnaires regarding body image and satisfaction, body competency, depression, anxiety, and autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient, or AQ) (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001 )...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983518/evidence-for-a-large-scale-brain-system-supporting-allostasis-and-interoception-in-humans
#19
Ian R Kleckner, Jiahe Zhang, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Lorena Chanes, Chenjie Xia, W Kyle Simmons, Karen S Quigley, Bradford C Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Large-scale intrinsic brain systems have been identified for exteroceptive senses (e.g., sight, hearing, touch). We introduce an analogous system for representing sensations from within the body, called interoception, and demonstrate its relation to regulating peripheral systems in the body, called allostasis. Employing the recently introduced Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding (EPIC) model, we used tract-tracing studies of macaque monkeys, followed by two intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging samples (N = 280 and N = 270) to evaluate the existence of an intrinsic allostatic/interoceptive system in the human brain...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983508/specific-reduction-in-cortisol-stress-reactivity-after-social-but-not-attention-based-mental-training
#20
Veronika Engert, Bethany E Kok, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, Tania Singer
Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress-induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction...
October 2017: Science Advances
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