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Interoception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#1
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889892/effects-of-mental-stress-induction-on-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#2
Katja Petrowski, Susann Wichmann, Timo Siepmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Martin Siepmann
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) constitutes a widely used marker of cardiac autonomic inflexibility which has been linked to disorders such as panic disorder (PD). To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby panic leads to attenuated HRV are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PD patients show pathological reactivity both in response to interoceptive and psychosocial stress in comparison to healthy individuals. We performed a controlled study on 38 patients diagnosed with PD [20 males and 18 females aged 35...
November 26, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887860/modeling-the-development-of-panic-disorder-with-interoceptive-conditioning
#3
Klara De Cort, Mathias Schroijen, Rene Hurlemann, Suzanne Claassen, Jojanneke Hoogenhout, Omer Van den Bergh, Liesbet Goossens, Ilse Van Diest, Koen Schruers
Panic disorder is characterized by the paroxysmal occurrence and fear of bodily symptoms. In recent years it has been proposed that patients "learn" to fear cardiorespiratory sensations through interoceptive conditioning. This study sought to model the initial stage of this process in healthy volunteers (N=44) using mild cardiac sensations. An additional aim was to explore whether anxiety sensitivity - a known risk factor for panic disorder - modulates such interoceptive learning. Infusions of pentagastrin and saline were used to manipulate the presence versus absence of cardiac sensations, respectively, and served as conditioned stimuli in a differential interoceptive conditioning paradigm...
November 22, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880880/heartfelt-embodiment-changes-in-body-ownership-and-self-identification-produce-distinct-changes-in-interoceptive-accuracy
#4
Maria L Filippetti, Manos Tsakiris
Interoceptive and exteroceptive information are both essential for the construction and update of self-awareness. Whereas several studies have shown how interoceptive accuracy or cardiac feedback influences body-awareness, no studies have looked at the reverse effect, namely how exteroceptively-driven changes in body-ownership and self-identification can influence individuals' ability to detect internal bodily signals. We exposed participants to the Rubber Hand Illusion (Experiment 1) and to the Enfacement Illusion (Experiment 2), and tested how this change in the sense of body-ownership and self-identification affected their interoceptive accuracy (IAcc)...
November 20, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871020/altered-functional-connectivity-of-interoception-in-illness-anxiety-disorder
#5
Dario Grossi, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Quarantelli, Elena Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere, Paolofabrizio De Luca, Luigi Trojano, Marco Aiello
Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867351/advice-taking-from-humans-and-machines-an-fmri-and-effective-connectivity-study
#6
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866989/do-interoceptive-awareness-and-interoceptive-responsiveness-mediate-the-relationship-between-body-appreciation-and-intuitive-eating-in-young-women
#7
Alana Oswald, Janine Chapman, Carlene Wilson
The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: 'interoceptive awareness' (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and 'interoceptive responsiveness' (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: 'unconditional permission to eat'; 'reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues', and 'eating for physical rather than emotional reasons'...
November 17, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866005/interoception-and-gender-what-aspects-should-we-pay-attention-to
#8
Aida Grabauskaitė, Mindaugas Baranauskas, Inga Griškova-Bulanova
Interoception is involved in both somatic and mental disorders with different prevalence between genders; however, gender differences are often neglected. To examine the potential gender differences in interoceptive awareness, we recruited 376 healthy subjects (51% males, aged 17-30years), to fill in the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). Of that sample, in a subgroup of 40 subjects (50% males), interoceptive accuracy was assessed by heartbeat counting task (HCT). The results on interroceptive awareness suggest that females tendto notice bodily sensations more often, better understand relations between bodily sensations and emotional states, worry or experience more emotional distress with sensations of pain or discomfort and see body as less safe...
November 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-over-excitation
#9
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864080/alterations-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-the-brain-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-users
#10
Victor M Vergara, Jingyu Liu, Eric D Claus, Kent Hutchison, Vince Calhoun
Alcohol and nicotine intake result in neurological alterations at the circuit level. Resting state functional connectivity has shown great potential in identifying these alterations. However, current studies focus on specific seeds and leave out many brain regions where effects might exist. The present study uses a data driven technique for brain segmentation covering the whole brain. Functional magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 188 subjects: 51 non-substance consumption controls (CTR), 36 smoking-and-drinking subjects (SAD), 28 drinkers (DRN), and 73 smokers (SMK)...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862643/the-moderating-effects-of-sex-on-insula-subdivision-structure-in-youth-with-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#11
Megan Klabunde, Carl F Weems, Mira Raman, Victor G Carrion
BACKGROUND: The insula is involved in interoceptive processing, emotion awareness, and attention to salient stimuli. Research suggests that these functions are specific-albeit overlapping-within insula subdivisions. Additional studies also imply that sexual dimorphism and different rates of development occur within these subdivisions in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine potential insula subdivision structure differences in youth with PTSD symptoms as compared to controls and test sex as a moderator of these differences...
November 11, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853532/alexithymia-a-general-deficit-of-interoception
#12
Rebecca Brewer, Richard Cook, Geoffrey Bird
Alexithymia is a sub-clinical construct, traditionally characterized by difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotions. Despite the clear need for interoception (interpreting physical signals from the body) when identifying one's own emotions, little research has focused on the selectivity of this impairment. While it was originally assumed that the interoceptive deficit in alexithymia is specific to emotion, recent evidence suggests that alexithymia may also be associated with difficulties perceiving some non-affective interoceptive signals, such as one's heart rate...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852337/eating-problems-in-adolescents-and-youths-explanatory-variables
#13
Carmen Maganto, Maite Garaigordobil, Lorea Kortabarria
This study had the following goals: (1) to analyze the differences between participants with and without risk of eating disorders (ED) in self-esteem, happiness, depression, anxiety, anger, and psychological variables related to ED; (2) to determine possible differences in the group at risk of ED on these variables as a function of sex; and (3) to determine which variables explain the risk of ED. Eight assessment instruments were administered to 1.075 participants (74.6% without risk of ED and 25.4% at risk)...
November 17, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826271/why-harmless-sensations-might-hurt-in-individuals-with-chronic-pain-about-heightened-prediction-and-perception-of-pain-in-the-mind
#14
Tanja Hechler, Dominik Endres, Anna Thorwart
In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain [prior probability p(pain)], which results in heightened pain perception [posterior probability p(pain|sensation)] due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation [p(sensation|pain)]...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819476/interoception-in-pathological-health-anxiety
#15
Susann Krautwurst, Alexander L Gerlach, Michael Witthöft
According to cognitive-behavioral models, pathological health anxiety is triggered and maintained by the perception of mostly mild and benign bodily sensations that are misinterpreted as signs of illness. Arguably, abnormalities in interoception may account for this misguided preoccupation with somatic sensations. Using a multimethod approach, the current study investigated possible abnormalities in interoception in patients with pathological health anxiety (PHA; n = 51) and healthy participants (n = 56). Different types of interoception were assessed with a heartbeat-tracking task and a signal-detection task for nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs task)...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814859/the-biomechanical-model-in-manual-therapy-is-there-an-ongoing-crisis-or-just-the-need-to-revise-the-underlying-concept-and-application
#16
Christian Lunghi, Paolo Tozzi, Giampiero Fusco
Different approaches to body biomechanics are based on the classical concept of "ideal posture" which is regarded as the state where body mass is distributed in such a way that ligamentous tensions neutralize the force of gravity and muscles retain their normal tone, as result of the integration of somatic components related to posture and balance mechanisms. When compromised, optimal posture can be restored through the balanced and effective use of musculoskeletal components; however, various research findings and the opinion of experts in this field suggest a move away from the dogmas that have characterized the idea of health dependent on ideal posture, to promote instead dynamic approaches based on the interdependency of the body systems as well as on the full participation of the person in the healing process...
October 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811193/the-psychophysiological-mechanisms-of-alexithymia-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Sebastian B Gaigg, Anna Sf Cornell, Geoffrey Bird
Accumulating evidence indicates that co-occurring alexithymia underlies several facets of the social-emotional difficulties common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The mechanisms involved, however, remain poorly understood because measuring alexithymia relies heavily on self-report. To address this issue, carefully matched groups of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and comparison participants rated 70 emotion-inducing pictures on subjectively experienced arousal while skin conductance responses were monitored objectively...
November 2, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803653/probing-intrinsic-resting-state-networks-in-the-infant-rat-brain
#18
Dusica Bajic, Michael M Craig, David Borsook, Lino Becerra
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798257/the-theory-of-constructed-emotion-an-active-inference-account-of-interoception-and-categorization
#19
Lisa Feldman Barrett
The science of emotion has been using folk psychology categories derived from philosophy to search for the brain basis of emotion. The last two decades of neuroscience research have brought us to the brink of a paradigm shift in understanding the workings of the brain, however, setting the stage to revolutionize our understanding of what emotions are and how they work. In this paper, we begin with the structure and function of the brain, and from there deduce what the biological basis of emotions might be. The answer is a brain-based, computational account called the theory of constructed emotion...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789208/interoceptive-awareness-moderates-the-relationship-between-perceived-and-physiological-genital-arousal-in-women
#20
Ariel B Handy, Cindy M Meston
INTRODUCTION: In general, laboratory studies have shown low correlations between subjective (ie, self-report) and physiologic (ie, vaginal pulse amplitude) measurements of sexual arousal in women. One explanation for this presumed low concordance is that women might not be attending to their genital responses and/or might be unable to accurately perceive their genital responses. AIM: To examine the extent to which women can perceive their genital arousal sensations, the role that interoceptive awareness plays in this ability, and whether interoceptive awareness influences sexual concordance in women...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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