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Pham Thi Be Tu, Binh Cao Quan Nguyen, Shinkichi Tawata, Cheong-Yong Yun, Eung Gook Kim, Hiroshi Maruta
We previously demonstrated that the oncogenic kinase PAK4, which both melanomas and normal melanocytes express at a very high level, is essential for their melanogenesis. In the present study, using the highly sensitive "Macaroni-Western" (IP-ATP-Glo) kinase assay, we investigated the melanogenic potential of another oncogenic kinase PAK1, which melanoma (B16F10) cells express only at a very minute level. After transfecting melanoma cells with PAK1-shRNA for silencing PAK1 gene, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and kinase activity of PAK1 were compared between the wild-type and transfectants...
October 17, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Daijie Fu, Xifu Shang, Zhe Ni, Guoguang Shi
Shikonin has previously been shown to have antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and extensive pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to explore whether the protective effect of shikonin is mediated via the inhibition of inflammation and chondrocyte apoptosis, and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms in a rat model of osteoarthritis. A model of osteoarthritis was established in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats and 10 mg/kg/day shikonin was administered intraperitoneally for 4 days...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yu Jiang, Bo Yu, Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pritha Agarwalla, Rajkumar Banerjee
Recent study has shown that N-end rule pathway, an ubiquitin dependent proteolytic system, counteracts cell death by degrading many antisurvival protein fragments like BCLxL, BRCA1, RIPK1, etc. Inhibition of the N-end rule pathway can lead to metabolic stabilization of proapoptotic protein fragments like RIPK1, thereby sensitizing cells to programmed cell death. Receptor interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-1 (RIPK1) is one of the upstream regulators of programmed necrosis known as necroptosis. Necroptosis is particularly gaining attention of cancer biologists as it provides an alternate therapeutic modality to kill cancer cells, which often evolve multiple strategies to circumvent growth inhibition by apoptosis...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Jian-Ming He, Shi-Yue Zhang, Qing Mu
Counter-current Chromatography (CCC) has gradually become a popular method for preparative separation, especially in natural product isolation. As an effective separation method, one-dimensional (1D) CCC often results in insufficiently resolved peaks, due to limitations in the separation efficiency and peak capacity in an equipment. Therefore, two dimensional (2D)/multi-dimensional (multi-D) CCC strategies with recycling elution mode were developed to achieve successful separation of target compounds. However, the reported 2D or multi-D CCC approaches lead to experimental costs, complicated procedures, higher requirements for equipment, and increased time consumption...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zebin Liao, Yu Yan, Huaihuai Dong, Zhenyu Zhu, Yuanying Jiang, Yingying Cao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the antifungal activity of Shikonin (SK) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. The results showed that the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and L-arginine could enhance the antifungal activity of SK, whereas the NO production inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated antifungal action. Using the fluorescent dye 3-amino,4-aminomethyl-2', 7-difluorescein, diacetate (DAF-FM DA), we found that the accumulation of NO in C...
August 17, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kanade Tatsumi, Mariko Yano, Kenta Kaminade, Akifumi Sugiyama, Mayuko Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Takashi Aoyama, Fumihiko Sato, Kazufumi Yazaki
Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kimiko Kazumura, Lucia Satiko Yoshida, Akiko Hara, Hiroshi Tsuchiya, Naokazu Morishita, Hirokazu Kawagishi, Tomohito Kakegawa, Yasukatsu Yuda, Hiromi Takano-Ohmuro
Shikonin, an anti-inflammatory compound of "Shikon", inhibits the neutrophil superoxide (O2 (•-)) generation by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2); however, the mechanisms of how shikonin affects Nox2 activity remained unclear. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the inhibition of Nox2 activity and influences on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by shikonin. For this purpose, we used a simultaneous monitoring system for detecting changes in [Ca(2+)]i (by fluorescence) and O2 (•-) generation (by chemiluminescence) and evaluated the effects of shikonin on neutrophil-like HL-60 cells stimulated with N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLP)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Tingting Han, Guangping Zhang, Dong Yan, Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma, Zuguang Ye
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a key negative regulator of the fibrinolytic system. Elevated levels of PAI-1 are associated with thrombosis and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Inhibition of PAI-1 activity represents a new strategy for antithrombotic and antifibrinolysis therapies. In this study, we systematically investigated the inhibitory effect of shikonin on PAI-1 activity. In the chromogenic substrate-based urokinase (uPA)/PAI-1 assay, we found that shikonin inhibited human PAI-1 activity with IC50 values of 30...
September 2016: Fitoterapia
Jernej Zorman, Petra Sušjan, Iva Hafner-Bratkovič
Shikonin is a highly lipophilic naphtoquinone found in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon used for its pleiotropic effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Based on its reported antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether shikonin suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that serve as scaffolds for recruitment and activation of caspase-1, which, in turn, results in cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18...
2016: PloS One
Yun-Ji Jeung, Han-Gyeul Kim, Jiwon Ahn, Ho-Joon Lee, Sae-Bhom Lee, Misun Won, Cho-Rock Jung, Joo-Young Im, Bo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Kiel Park, Myung Jin Son, Kyung-Sook Chung
Shikonin derivatives exert powerful cytotoxic effects including induction of apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate the cytotoxic efficacy of shikonin in vivo in xenograft models, which did not affect body weight as well as its reduction of cell viability in vitro using several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. We found that inhibition of AKT by shikonin activated the forkhead box (FOX)O3a/early growth response protein (EGR)1 signaling cascade and enhanced the expression of the target gene Bim, leading to apoptosis in lung cancer cells...
July 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rachana Trivedi, Gerhard A Müller, Manohar S Rathore, Durga P Mishra, Hassan Dihazi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ER-Stress and activation of unfolded protein response belong to the major factors involved in chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this study we investigated the effect of shikonin on the survival of acute myeloid leukemia cells and the role of ER-stress protein ERP57, a protein disulfide isomerase, in improvement of chemotherapy. METHODS: Using MTT assay we studied cytotoxic effects of shikonin on HL-60 cells. The flow cytometry was adopted to examine the shikonin induced mode of cell death in HL-60 cells...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Da Jeong Kim, Ji Hye Lee, Hae Ryoun Park, Young Whan Choi
OBJECTIVES: Recently, shikonin derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon have been suggested as potential chemotherapeutic agents against numerous types of cancers in addition to their traditional uses, e.g., as anti-inflammatory agents. Acetylshikonin, one of shikonin derivatives, has also been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, few studies of the effectiveness of acetylshikonin against cancer cells have been conducted, and there are no studies of oral cancers. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of acetylshikonin as a treatment regimen for oral cancers by observing the growth inhibitory function of acetylshikonin and the involved mechanisms...
June 18, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Yao Wei, Mingzhen Li, Shufang Cui, Dong Wang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Ke Zen, Limin Li
Shikonin is a naphthoquinone isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Lithospermum. It has been used in the treatment of various tumors. However, the effects of shikonin on such diseases have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we detected the exosome release of a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) with shikonin treatment and found a positive relationship between the level of secreted exosomes and cell proliferation. We next analyzed miRNA profiles in MCF-7 cells and exosomes and found that some miRNAs are specifically sorted and abundant in exosomes...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tong Liu, Yujing Xia, Jingjing Li, Sainan Li, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Rong Zhang, Shizan Xu, Keran Cheng, Yuqing Zhou, Shunfeng Zhou, Weiqi Dai, Kan Chen, Fan Wang, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Chuanyong Guo
OBJECTIVE: Shikonin possesses anti-inflammatory effects. However, its function in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury remains uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functions of shikonin and its mechanism of protection on ConA-induced acute liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balb/C mice were exposed to ConA (20 mg/kg) via tail vein injection to establish acute liver injury; shikonin (7.5 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 2 h before the ConA injection...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Tao Fang, Qianqian Wu, Shuai Mu, Liyu Yang, Shengye Liu, Qin Fu
Shikonin, the predominant naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is anti‑inflammatory, antiviral and exerts anticancer effects, amongst other biological activities. However, it is unknown whether shikonin affects bone formation. In the present study, the role of shikonin on cell proliferation was assessed via MTT assay, and shikonin was identified to markedly promote cell growth in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner in the MC3T3‑E1 cell line. In addition, flow cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of shikonin on the cell cycle, and it was observed that shikonin markedly increased the percentage of S‑phase MC3T3‑E1 cells to accelerate the G1/S transition...
August 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Preeti Katoch, Shalika Rana, Dinesh Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Shashi Bhushan
Naphthoquinones are important class of molecules found as a natural red color pigments in roots of Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don) L M. Johnston. The aim of present investigation is to develop and validates a simple, cost-effective and reliable method for quantification of these compounds. Therefore, a normal phase-high performance thin-layer chromatography (NP-HPTLC) method for concurrent determination of shikonin and β,β-dimethylacryl shikonin in A. benthamii was established. Method development of naphthoquinones in the methanol extract was done using hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol (40:7...
September 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Hyeonseok Ko, Sun-Joong Kim, So Hee Shim, HyoIhl Chang, Chang Hoon Ha
Shikonin, which derives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been traditionally used against a variety of diseases, including cancer, in Eastern Asia. Here we determined that shikonin inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. Shikonin's biological activity was validated by observing cell viability, caspase 3 activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptotic marker expressions in AGS stomach cancer cells. The concentration range of shikonin was 35-250 nM with the incubation time of 6 h...
September 1, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Atsushi Koike, Makio Shibano, Hideya Mori, Kiyoko Kohama, Ko Fujimori, Fumio Amano
Macrophages play pivotal roles in inflammatory responses. Previous studies showed that various natural products exert antiinflammatory effects by regulating macrophage activation. Recent studies have shown that shikonin (SHK) and its derivatives (β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, acetylshikonin, and isobutylshikonin), which are 1,4-naphthoquinone pigments extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, have various pharmacological, including antiinflammatory and antitumor, effects. Even though there have been many studies on the antiinflammatory activities of SHK derivatives, only a few have described their direct effects on macrophages...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shu-Yi Yin, Thomas Efferth, Feng-Yin Jian, Yung-Hsiang Chen, Chia-I Liu, Andrew H J Wang, Yet-Ran Chen, Pei-Wen Hsiao, Ning-Sun Yang
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) of tumor cells occurs via various pathways that activate immune cell systems against cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that shikonin (SK), a plant secondary metabolite, can confer strong pharmacological activities that activate ICD and strong immunogenicity of tumor cells. However, the exact hierarchical regulatory mechanisms including the molecular targets of SK-activated immunogenicity are still unknown. Here, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) was revealed to serve as a specific protein target for SK...
May 27, 2016: Oncotarget
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