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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322323/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-shikonin-contribute-to-improved-early-stage-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Po-Lin Liao, Cheng-Hui Lin, Ching-Hao Li, Chi-Hao Tsai, Jau-Der Ho, George C Y Chiou, Jaw-Jou Kang, Yu-Wen Cheng
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major microvascular complication of diabetes, leads to retinal vascular leakage, neuronal dysfunction, and apoptosis within the retina. In this study, we combined STZ with whole-body hypoxia (10% O2) for quicker induction of early-stage retinopathy in C57BL/6 mice. We also compared the effects of a high glucose condition combined with hypoxia (1% O2) to a low glucose condition by using retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are a crucial component of the outer blood-retinal barrier and the damage is related to retinopathy...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322249/the-protective-effects-of-shikonin-on-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-are-mediated-by-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#2
Tong Liu, QingHui Zhang, Wenhui Mo, Qiang Yu, Shizan Xu, Jingjing Li, Sainan Li, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Xiya Lu, Rong Zhang, Linqiang Li, Keran Cheng, Yuqing Zhou, Shunfeng Zhou, Rui Kong, Fan Wang, Weiqi Dai, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Yan Zhao, Chuanyong Guo
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which can result in severe liver injury and dysfunction, occurs in a variety of conditions such as liver transplantation, shock, and trauma. Cell death in hepatic I/R injury has been linked to apoptosis and autophagy. Shikonin plays a significant protective role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of shikonin on hepatic I/R injury and explore the underlying mechanism. Mice were subjected to segmental (70%) hepatic warm ischemia to induce hepatic I/R injury...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303727/enhancement-of-nk-cells-proliferation-and-function-by-shikonin
#3
Yan Li, Hailin Lu, Yongchun Gu, Zhiqiang Ning, Tinghua Cao, Chao Chen, Chengru Hu, Min Tao
CONTEXT: Shikonin is a kind of naphthoquinone compound found mainly in Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb,et Zucc. Previous studies have shown that Shikonin has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and extensive pharmacological effects. According to new studies, Shikonin could also modulate the immune system function, but the effect to NK (nature killer) cells is yet unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of Shikonin on NK cells proliferation and cytotoxicity to colon cancer cell line (Caco-2)...
March 17, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265634/metabolic-profiling-study-of-shikonin-s-cytotoxic-activity-in-the-huh7-human-hepatoma-cell-line
#4
E D Spyrelli, A V Kyriazou, C Virgiliou, A Nakas, O Deda, V P Papageorgiou, A N Assimopoulou, H G Gika
Shikonin and its enantiomer alkannin, which are natural products, have been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo for, among others, their antitumor activity. The investigation of the molecular pathways involved in their action is of interest, since they are not yet clearly defined. Metabolic profiling in cells can provide a picture of a cell's phenotype upon intervention, assisting in the elucidation of the mechanism of action. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of shikonin on a human hepatocarcinoma cell line was studied...
March 7, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245783/advance-in-anti-tumor-mechanisms-of-shikonin-alkannin-and-their-derivatives
#5
Xu Zhang, Jia-Hua Cui, Qing-Qing Meng, Shao-Shun Li, Wen Zhou, Sui Xiao
Shikonin, alkannin and their derivatives, the main ingredient of Lithospermum erythrorhizon native to Inner Mongolian and Northwest of China, displayed good antitumor effects via multiple-target mechanisms. This review focus on their antitumor mechanisms from the direct reaction and the indirect reaction aspects, and expounded the death of tumor cells caused by shkionin, akannin and derivatives, which are involved in the ROS-mediated mechanisms and direct interaction with DNA and protein.
February 28, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230806/metabolic-profiling-and-identification-of-shikonins-in-root-periderm-of-two-invasive-echium-spp-weeds-in-australia
#6
Dominik Skoneczny, Paul A Weston, Xiaocheng Zhu, Geoff M Gurr, Ragan M Callaway, Russel A Barrow, Leslie A Weston
Metabolic profiling can be successfully implemented to analyse a living system's response to environmental conditions by providing critical information on an organism's physiological state at a particular point in time and allowing for both quantitative and qualitative assessment of a specific subset(s) of key metabolites. Shikonins are highly reactive chemicals that affect various cell signalling pathways and possess antifungal, antibacterial and allelopathic activity. Based on previous bioassay results, bioactive shikonins, are likely to play important roles in the regulation of rhizosphere interactions with neighbouring plants, microbes and herbivores...
February 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228400/inhibiting-aerobic-glycolysis-suppresses-renal-interstitial-fibroblasts-activation-and-renal-fibrosis
#7
Hao Ding, Lei Jiang, Jing Xu, Feng Bai, Yang Zhou, Qi Yuan, Jing Luo, Ke Zen, Junwei Yang
Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) generally lead to renal fibrosis. Despite great progresses have been made in identifying molecular mediators of fibrosis, the mechanism that governs renal fibrosis remains unclear and so far no effective therapeutic anti-fibrosis strategy is available. Here we demonstrated that a switch of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in renal fibroblasts was the primary feature of fibroblast activation during renal fibrosis, and that suppressing renal fibroblast aerobic glycolysis could significantly reduce renal fibrosis...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211616/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-chalcone-containing-shikonin-derivatives-as-inhibitors-of-tubulin-polymerization
#8
Han-Yue Qiu, Fang Wang, Xue Wang, Wen-Xue Sun, Jin-Liang Qi, Yan-Jun Pang, Rong-Wu Yang, Gui-Hua Lu, Xiao-Ming Wang, Yong-Hua Yang
The biological importance of microtubules in mitosis makes them an interesting target for the development of anticancer agents. In this study, a series of novel chalcone-containing shikonin derivatives was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for biological activities. Among them, derivative PMMB-259 [(R)-1-(5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)-4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl (E)-2-(4-(3-oxo-3-(3-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)prop-1-en-1-yl)phenoxy)acetate] was identified as a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization...
February 17, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140740/comparison-of-some-secondary-metabolite-content-in-the-seventeen-species-of-the-boraginaceae-family
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sławomir Dresler, Grażyna Szymczak, Małgorzata Wójcik
CONTEXT: The Boraginaceae family comprises plants that have important therapeutic and cosmetic applications. Their pharmacological effect is related to the presence of naphthaquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, or purine derivative - allantoin. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, comparison of some secondary metabolite content and phytochemical relationship between 17 species of the Boraginaceae family were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) was used to perform a chemometric analysis in the following Boraginaceae species: Anchusa azurea Mill...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108311/rip1-and-rip3-contribute-to-shikonin-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-glioma-cells-via-increase-of-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species
#10
Zijian Zhou, Bin Lu, Chen Wang, Zongqi Wang, Tianfei Luo, Meihua Piao, Fankai Meng, Guangfan Chi, Yinan Luo, Pengfei Ge
Shikonin has been reported to induce glioma cell death via necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis primarily mediated by RIP1 and RIP3. Although RIP1 and RIP3 are found to regulate some features of necrosis such as energy depletion and cellular membrane disruption, it remains unclear whether RIP1 and RIP3 could modulate DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which is a crucial event leading to chromatinolysis. In this study, we used glioma cell lines and mice model of xenograft glioma to investigate the roles of RIP1 and RIP3 in shikonin-induced DNA DSBs...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088387/sirt2-mediated-antitumor-effects-of-shikonin-on-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#11
Li-Li Zhang, Lin Zhan, Yong-Dong Jin, Zhen-Li Min, Can Wei, Qiang Wang, Ya-Jun Chen, Qing-Ming Wu, Xia-Min Hu, Qiong Yuan
SIRT2 is involved in the development of a variety of cancers. Shikonin is a natural compound that is known to have antitumor effects. This study aims to assess the effects of shikonin on the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) through regulation of SIRT2 expression and whether this effect is related to the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The results demonstrated that SIRT2 is downregulated in CRC biopsy samples (n=31) compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT, n=26)...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069896/anti-tumor-effects-of-shikonin-derivatives-on-human-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-cells
#12
Carina Hasenoehrl, Gert Schwach, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Robert Fuchs, Nadine Kretschmer, Rudolf Bauer, Roswitha Pfragner
New treatment options are needed for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a highly metastasizing neuroendocrine tumor that is resistant to standard radio- and chemotherapy. We show that the following shikonin derivatives inhibit cell proliferation and cell viability of the MTC cell line TT: acetylshikonin, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin, shikonin and a petroleum ether extract of the roots of Onosma paniculata containing several shikonin derivatives. The unsubstituted shikonin derivative was found to be the most effective compound with an IC50 of 1...
January 9, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040409/antifungal-effects-of-phytocompounds-on-candida-species-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole
#13
REVIEW
Mengjiao Lu, Tao Li, Jianjian Wan, Xiuyun Li, Lei Yuan, Shujuan Sun
Invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. remain the most predominant nosocomial fungal infections. Owing to the increased use of antifungal agents, resistance of Candida spp. to antimycotics has emerged frequently, especially to fluconazole (FLC). To cope with this issue, new efforts have been dedicated to discovering novel antimycotics or new agents that can enhance the susceptibility of Candida spp. to existing antimycotics. The secondary metabolites of plants represent a large library of compounds that are important sources for new drugs or compounds suitable for further modification...
February 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006752/regulation-of-mirnas-by-herbal-medicine-an-emerging-field-in-cancer-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs' expression profiles have recently gained major attention as far as cancer research is concerned. MicroRNAs are able to inhibit target gene expression via binding to the 3' UTR of target mRNA, resulting in target mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs play significant parts in a myriad of biological processes; studies have proven, on the other hand, that aberrant microRNA expression is, more often than not, associated with the growth and progression of cancers. MicroRNAs could act as oncogenes (oncomir) or tumor suppressors and can also be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer therapy...
February 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990691/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-new-naphthalene-and-naphthoquinone-derivatives-as-anticancer-agents
#15
Giovanni L Beretta, Giovanni Ribaudo, Ileana Menegazzo, Rosanna Supino, Giovanni Capranico, Franco Zunino, Giuseppe Zagotto
DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors, both synthetic and of natural origin, are receiving increasing consideration primarily as drugs against refractory tumors. Alkannin and shikonin, two enantiomeric dyes from Alkanna tinctoria and Lithospermum erythrorhizon, have been known over many centuries as dyestuff, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antitumor substances. Although multiple mechanisms appear to be implicated, their potency is associated with the inhibition of topoisomerase I and with the redox properties of the naphthazarin scaffold...
December 19, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976094/shikonin-reduces-the-tumour-formation-and-il-17-in-a-model-of-colorectal-cancer-associated-to-chronic-colitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
J L Ríos, E Giner, R M Giner, S Máñez, M C Recio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975397/metabolic-profiling-study-of-shikonin-s-inhibitory-effect-on-cancer-cell-lines
#17
E D Spyrelli, C Virgiliou, A E Koletti, H Gika, G Mossialos, V P Papageorgiou, A N Assimopoulou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943122/shikonin-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-production-through-suppressing-pkc-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-decrease-of-il-10-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-like-cell-model
#18
Wen-Xiao Sun, Yan Liu, Wei Zhou, He-Wei Li, Jian Yang, Zhen-Bing Chen
Shikonin, a major effective component in the Chinese herbal medicine Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb., exhibits an anti-inflammatory property towards rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the potential mechanism is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the mechanism of shikonin on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fibroblast-like synoviocyte (LiFLS) inflammation model. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were treated with 200 μg/ml of LPS for 24 h to establish the RA-like model, LiFLS. FLSs were pretreated with shikonin (0...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905569/shikonin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-enhances-chemotherapeutic-sensitivity-of-gastric-cancer-through-reactive-oxygen-species
#19
Wenquan Liang, Aizhen Cai, Guozhu Chen, Hongqing Xi, Xiaosong Wu, Jianxin Cui, Kecheng Zhang, Xudong Zhao, Jiyun Yu, Bo Wei, Lin Chen
The prognosis of gastric cancer remains poor due to clinical drug resistance. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin (SHK), a natural naphthoquinone, has been reported to trigger cell death and overcome drug resistance in anti-tumour therapy. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and molecular mechanisms of SHK in treatment with gastric cancer. In vitro, SHK suppresses proliferation and triggers cell death of gastric cancer cells but leads minor damage to gastric epithelial cells. SHK induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), depolarizes the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ultimately triggers mitochondria-mediated apoptosis...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903739/homocysteine-activates-b-cells-via-regulating-pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#20
Jiacheng Deng, Silin Lü, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Juan Feng, Xian Wang
The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates B cell proliferation and Ab secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain largely unknown. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for lymphocyte activation and effector function. In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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