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Clinical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912126/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-effect-of-triton-x-100-on-ebola-virus-infectivity
#1
Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909986/toxicity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile-for-single-dose-injection-of-aby-029-a-fluorescent-anti-egfr-synthetic-affibody-molecule-for-human-use
#2
Kimberley S Samkoe, Jason R Gunn, Kayla Marra, Sally M Hull, Karen L Moodie, Joachim Feldwisch, Theresa V Strong, Daniel R Draney, P Jack Hoopes, David W Roberts, Keith Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
PURPOSE: ABY-029, a synthetic Affibody peptide, Z03115-Cys, labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye® 800CW, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been produced under good manufacturing practices for a US Food and Drug Administration-approved first-in-use human study during surgical resection of glioma, as well as other tumors. Here, the pharmacology, phototoxicity, receptor activity, and biodistribution studies of ABY-029 were completed in rats, prior to the intended human use...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907978/comparison-of-the-single-dose-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-safety-of-two-novel-oral-formulations-of-dimethandrolone-undecanoate-dmau-a-potential-oral-male-contraceptive
#3
R Ayoub, S T Page, R S Swerdloff, P Y Liu, J K Amory, A Leung, L Hull, D Blithe, A Christy, J H Chao, W J Bremner, C Wang
Dimethandrolone (DMA, 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone) has both androgenic and progestational activities, ideal properties for a male hormonal contraceptive. In vivo, dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU) is hydrolyzed to DMA. We showed previously that single oral doses of DMAU powder in capsule taken with food are well tolerated and effective at suppressing both LH and testosterone (T), but absorption was low. We compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two new formulations of DMAU, in castor oil and in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), with the previously tested powder formulation...
December 1, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905492/high-fidelity-computational-simulation-of-thrombus-formation-in-thoratec-heartmate-ii-continuous-flow-ventricular-assist-device
#4
Wei-Tao Wu, Fang Yang, Jingchun Wu, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) provide a life-saving therapy for severe heart failure. However, in recent years, the incidence of device-related thrombosis (resulting in stroke, device-exchange surgery or premature death) has been increasing dramatically, which has alarmed both the medical community and the FDA. The objective of this study was to gain improved understanding of the initiation and progression of thrombosis in one of the most commonly used cfVADs, the Thoratec HeartMate II...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904243/a-systematic-approach-to-patients-with-jaundice
#5
REVIEW
Bilal Gondal, Andrew Aronsohn
Jaundice is a clinical manifestation of disorders of underlying bilirubin metabolism, hepatocellular dysfunction, or biliary obstruction. As clinical presentations of yellowing of eyes or skin can be somewhat nonspecific for the underlying etiology of disease, a stepwise approach to evaluation is necessary for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment plan. In this review, we discuss underlying mechanisms of cholestasis and jaundice as well as laboratory and imaging modalities needed to evaluate a patient presenting with hyperbilirubinemia...
December 2016: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902658/understanding-negative-predictive-value-of-diagnostic-tests-used-in-clinical-practice
#6
Reba A Umberger, Linda A Hatfield, Patricia M Speck
Nurses review, evaluate, and use diagnostic test results on a routine basis. However, the skills necessary to evaluate a particular test using statistical outcome measures is often lacking. The purpose of this article is to examine and interpret the underlying principles for use of the statistical outcomes of diagnostic screening tests (sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, with a discussion about use of SpPIn [Specificity, Positive test = rule in], and SnNOut [Sensitivity, Negative test = rule out]) in advanced nursing clinical practice...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899562/the-chembl-database-in-2017
#7
Anna Gaulton, Anne Hersey, Michał Nowotka, A Patrícia Bento, Jon Chambers, David Mendez, Prudence Mutowo, Francis Atkinson, Louisa J Bellis, Elena Cibrián-Uhalte, Mark Davies, Nathan Dedman, Anneli Karlsson, María Paula Magariños, John P Overington, George Papadatos, Ines Smit, Andrew R Leach
ChEMBL is an open large-scale bioactivity database (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl), previously described in the 2012 and 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issues. Since then, alongside the continued extraction of data from the medicinal chemistry literature, new sources of bioactivity data have also been added to the database. These include: deposited data sets from neglected disease screening; crop protection data; drug metabolism and disposition data and bioactivity data from patents. A number of improvements and new features have also been incorporated...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899463/clinical-chemistry-s-invited-reviewers-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898735/cognitive-dysfunction-and-malnutrition-are-independent-predictor-of-dysphagia-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-congestive-heart-failure
#9
Junichi Yokota, Yoshiko Ogawa, Shinsuke Yamanaka, Yoshimi Takahashi, Hiroshi Fujita, Nobuhiro Yamaguchi, Noriko Onoue, Takeshi Ishizuka, Tsuyoshi Shinozaki, Masahiro Kohzuki
Early detection and intervention for dysphagia is important in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, previous studies have focused on how many patients with dysphagia develop CHF. Studies focusing on the comorbidity of dysphagia in patients with CHF are rare. Additionally, risk factors for dysphagia in patients with CHF are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF. A total of 105 patients, who were admitted with acute exacerbation of CHF, were enrolled...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896656/pancreatitis-after-pancreatoduodenectomy-predicts-clinically-relevant-postoperative-pancreatic-fistula
#10
C M Kühlbrey, N Samiei, O Sick, F Makowiec, U T Hopt, U A Wittel
BACKGROUND: Morbidity after pancreas resection is still high with postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) being the most frequent complication. However, exocrine insufficiency seems to protect from POPF. In clinical practice, patients showing increased postoperative systemic amylase concentrations appear to frequently develop POPF. We therefore retrospectively examined the occurrence of systemic amylase increase after pancreas resections and its association with the clinical course. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Perioperative data from 739 consecutive pancreas resections were assessed in a prospectively maintained SPSS database...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895517/influence-of-curcumin-on-the-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-of-gliclazide-in-animal-models
#11
Leela Krishna Vatsavai, Eswar Kumar Kilari
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from obesity-related diseases use multiple prescription drugs to control their condition, and it is therefore essential to determine the safety and efficacy of any combination. Gliclazide is one of the most commonly used drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, and curcumin is a widely used herbal supplement to counter obesity condition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of curcumin on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in rats and rabbits to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this combination...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893646/acute-right-heart-failure-after-hemorrhagic-shock-and-trauma-pneumonectomy-a-management-approach-a-blinded-randomized-controlled-animal-trial-using-inhaled-nitric-oxide
#12
Andrea L Lubitz, Lars O Sjoholm, Amy Goldberg, Abhijit Pathak, Thomas Santora, Thomas E Sharp, Markus Wallner, Remus M Berretta, Lauren A Poole, Jichuan Wu, Marla R Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy causes an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The increase in PVR and right ventricular (RV) afterload leads to acute RV failure, thus reducing left ventricular (LV) preload and output. iNO lowers PVR by relaxing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle without remarkable systemic vascular effects. We hypothesized that with hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy, iNO can be used to decrease PVR and mitigate right heart failure. METHODS: A hemorrhagic shock and pneumonectomy model was developed using sheep...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884478/vaccine-provision-delivering-sustained-widespread-use
#13
Scott Preiss, Nathalie Garçon, Anthony L Cunningham, Richard Strugnell, Leonard R Friedland
The administration of a vaccine to a recipient is the final step in a development and production process that may have begun several decades earlier. Here we describe the scale and complexity of the processes that brings a candidate vaccine through clinical development to the recipient. These challenges include ensuring vaccine quality (between 100 and 500 different Quality Control tests are performed during production to continually assess safety, potency and purity); making decisions about optimal vaccine presentation (pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials) that affect capacity and supply; and the importance of maintaining the vaccine cold chain (most vaccines have stringent storage temperature requirements necessary to maintain activity and potency)...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882633/tailoring-renal-clearance-and-tumor-targeting-of-ultrasmall-metal-nanoparticles-with-particle-density
#14
Shaoheng Tang, Chuanqi Peng, Jing Xu, Bujie Du, Qingxiao Wang, Rodrigo D Vinluan, Mengxiao Yu, Moon J Kim, Jie Zheng
Identifying key factors that govern the in vivo behavior of nanomaterials is critical to the clinical translation of nanomedicines. Overshadowed by size-, shape-, and surface-chemistry effects, the impact of the particle core density on clearance and tumor targeting of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) remains largely unknown. By utilizing a class of ultrasmall metal NPs with the same size and surface chemistry but different densities, we found that the renal-clearance efficiency exponentially increased in the early elimination phase while passive tumor targeting linearly decreased with a decrease in particle density...
November 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882193/expanding-the-reach-of-antibody-drug-conjugates
#15
EDITORIAL
Ravi V J Chari
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an emerging new paradigm in cancer therapy. The approval of two ADCs has spurred considerable interest in this area of research, and over 55 ADCs are currently in clinical testing. In order to improve the clinical success rate of ADC therapy, all three components of the ADC: the antibody, linker, and payload have to be optimized. While considerable improvements have been made in antibody properties and target selection, medicinal chemistry efforts have lagged behind, and there is a significant need for innovation in linker design and payloads...
November 10, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881580/disruption-of-autophagic-degradation-with-roc-325-antagonizes-renal-cell-carcinoma-pathogenesis
#16
Jennifer S Carew, Claudia M Espitia, Weiguo Zhao, Yingchun Han, Valeria Visconte, James G Phillips, Steffan T Nawrocki
PURPOSE: Although autophagy plays important roles in malignant pathogenesis and drug resistance, there are few clinical agents that disrupt this pathway and the potential therapeutic benefit of autophagy inhibition remains undetermined. We used medicinal chemistry approaches to generate a series of novel agents that inhibit autophagic degradation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ROC-325 was selected as a lead compound for further evaluation. Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the selectivity, tolerability, and efficacy of ROC-325 in preclinical models of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with HCQ serving as a comparator...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878643/the-evolution-of-drug-design-at-merck-research-laboratories
#17
Frank K Brown, Edward C Sherer, Scott A Johnson, M Katharine Holloway, Bradley S Sherborne
On October 5, 1981, Fortune magazine published a cover article entitled the "Next Industrial Revolution: Designing Drugs by Computer at Merck". With a 40+ year investment, we have been in the drug design business longer than most. During its history, the Merck drug design group has had several names, but it has always been in the "design" business, with the ultimate goal to provide an actionable hypothesis that could be tested experimentally. Often the result was a small molecule but it could just as easily be a peptide, biologic, predictive model, reaction, process, etc...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877041/nanomedicine-strategy-for-optimizing-delivery-to-outer-hair-cells-by-surface-modified-poly-lactic-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-with-hydrophilic-molecules
#18
Xingxing Wen, Shan Ding, Hui Cai, Junyi Wang, Lu Wen, Fan Yang, Gang Chen
Targeted drug delivery to outer hair cells (OHCs) in the cochlea by nanomedicine strategies forms an effective therapeutic approach for treating hearing loss. Surface chemistry plays a deciding role in nanoparticle (NP) biodistribution, but its influence on such distribution in the cochlea remains largely unknown. Herein, we report the first systematic comparison of poly(lactic/glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) with or without surface modification of hydrophilic molecules for optimizing the delivery to OHCs both in vitro and in vivo...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876608/the-achievements-of-clinical-chemistry-testing-1967-2017
#19
Joris R Delanghe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875310/extending-halogen-based-medicinal-chemistry-to-proteins-iodo-insulin-as-a-case-study
#20
Krystel El Hage, Vijay Pandyarajan, Nelson B Phillips, Brian J Smith, John G Menting, Jonathan Whittaker, Michael C Lawrence, Markus Meuwly, Michael A Weiss
Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr(B26)) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomic-level simulations of 3-I-Tyr(B26)-insulin to predict its structural features and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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