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Clinical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091443/molecular-characterization-of-exon-28-of-von-willebrand-s-factor-gene-in-nigerian-population
#1
E D Ezigbo, E O Ukaejiofo, T U Nwagha
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene are an important contributor to the expression of VWF gene and differences in ethnic distribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exists. AIMS: Our objective was to molecularly characterize the exon 28 of the VWF gene in the three major ethnic groups of Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 90 subjects, 45 had a history of bleeding. Questions included those used in the Zimmerman Program for the Molecular and Clinical Biology of von Willebrand disease (VWD), and the bleeding scores were calculated using the Molecular and Clinical Markers for the Diagnosis and Management of type 1 VWD scoring system...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088572/bcs-class-iv-drugs-highly-notorious-candidates-for-formulation-development
#2
REVIEW
Rohan Ghadi, Neha Dand
BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087075/cellular-transcriptional-response-to-zirconia-based-implant-materials
#3
Brigitte Altmann, Kerstin Rabel, Ralf J Kohal, Susanne Proksch, Pascal Tomakidi, Erik Adolfsson, Falk Bernsmann, Paola Palmero, Tobias Fürderer, Thorsten Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: To adequately address clinically important issues such as osseointegration and soft tissue integration, we screened for the direct biological cell response by culturing human osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts on novel zirconia-based dental implant biomaterials and subjecting them to transcriptional analysis. METHODS: Biomaterials used for osteoblasts involved micro-roughened surfaces made of a new type of ceria-stabilized zirconia composite with two different topographies, zirconium dioxide, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (control)...
January 10, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081532/cardiovascular-events-in-moderately-to-severely-obese-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-on-positive-airway-pressure-therapy
#4
Anna Maria Marotta, Jean-Christian Borel, Louis M Galerneau, Renaud Tamisier, Maria R Bonsignore, Jean Louis Pépin
BACKGROUND: In moderately to severely obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the effects of long-term positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk are poorly defined. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on the occurrence of cardiovascular events in obese OSA patients. METHODS: We performed a noninterventional observational study in obese OSA patients recruited between 2007 and 2010 at the Sleep Center, University of Grenoble, treated with CPAP or NIV, and followed for 5...
January 13, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078991/vegetable-organosulfur-compounds-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#5
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Francesco Di Gioia, Georgia Ntatsi
BACKGROUND: Trends in modern pharmaceutical science show an increase in demand for new drugs and diet supplements derived from natural products, while during the last decades, great research is conducted regarding the natural compounds and their medicinal and bioactive properties. Organosulfur compounds are present in many plants and their bioactive properties have been used in folk and traditional medicine throughout the centuries. Not until recently, modern science confirmed and revealed the chemical compounds that are responsible for these properties, the chemistry involved in their biosynthesis and the main mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075527/recent-development-of-the-second-and-third-generation-irreversible-egfr-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Weiwei Han, Yongli Du
Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who carrying non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with activating mutations in EGFR initially respond well to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, which were located the active site of the EGFR kinase and designed to act as competitive inhibitors of combining with the ATP...
January 11, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074668/in-vivo-evidence-of-nephrotoxicity-and-altered-hepatic-function-in-rats-following-administration-of-diglycolic-acid-a-metabolite-of-diethylene-glycol
#7
Corie N Robinson, Brian Latimer, Fleurette Abreo, Kiera Broussard, Kenneth E McMartin
CONTEXT: Diglycolic acid (DGA) is one of the two primary metabolites of diethylene glycol (DEG). DEG is an industrial solvent that has been implicated in mass poisonings resulting from product misuse in the United States and worldwide, with the hallmark toxicity being acute kidney injury, hepatotoxicity, encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Our laboratory has generated in-vitro evidence suggesting that DGA is the metabolite responsible for the proximal tubule necrosis and decreased kidney function observed following DEG ingestion...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074653/the-essential-medicinal-chemistry-of-curcumin
#8
Kathryn M Nelson, Jayme L Dahlin, Jonathan Bisson, James Graham, Guido F Pauli, Michael A Walters
Curcumin is a constituent (up to ∼5%) of the traditional medicine known as turmeric. Interest in the therapeutic use of turmeric and the relative ease of isolation of curcuminoids has led to their extensive investigation. Curcumin has recently been classified as both a PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) and an IMPS (invalid metabolic panaceas) candidate. The likely false activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo has resulted in >120 clinical trials of curcuminoids against several diseases. No double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial of curcumin has been successful...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073572/routine-preoperative-laboratory-testing-in-elective-pediatric-cardiothoracic-surgery-is-largely-unnecessary
#9
R Michael Nieto, Luis E De León, Daniel Trujillo Diaz, Kimberly A Krauklis, Charles D Fraser
OBJECTIVE: Routine preoperative laboratory testing (RLT) is common practice in pediatric cardiothoracic surgery and is associated with significant cost burden to patients and families. We sought to examine the value of RLT in patients undergoing elective pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all scheduled elective pediatric cardiothoracic surgery at our institution from 2012 to 2014. Inpatients were excluded. Patient charts were reviewed to obtain preoperative laboratory values and determine relationship to case cancellation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072712/seniorlab-a-prospective-observational-study-investigating-laboratory-parameters-and-their-reference-intervals-in-the-elderly
#10
Martin Risch, Urs Nydegger, Lorenz Risch
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, laboratory results are often important for making diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. Interpreting individual results relies on accurate reference intervals and decision limits. Despite the considerable amount of resources in clinical medicine spent on elderly patients, accurate reference intervals for the elderly are rarely available. The SENIORLAB study set out to determine reference intervals in the elderly by investigating a large variety of laboratory parameters in clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunology...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070712/microdialysis-monitoring-in-clinical-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-role-in-neuroprotective-drug-development
#11
Eric Peter Thelin, Keri L H Carpenter, Peter J Hutchinson, Adel Helmy
Injuries to the central nervous system continue to be vast contributors to morbidity and mortality; specifically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death during the first four decades of life. Several modalities are used to monitor patients suffering from TBI in order to prevent detrimental secondary injuries. The microdialysis (MD) technique, introduced during the 1990s, presents the treating physician with a robust monitoring tool for brain chemistry in addition to conventional intracranial pressure monitoring...
January 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070107/effects-of-reduced-food-intake-for-4-weeks-on-physiological-parameters-in-toxicity-studies-in-dogs
#12
Junya Morita, Tomoko Izumi, Bunichiro Ogawa, Yoshiki Ban, Hironori Takagi, Minoru Sasaki, Shunsuke Tsutsumi
This study sought to clarify the effects of reduced feeding on physiological parameters in dogs to enable appropriate evaluations of the safety and toxicity of test compounds. We measured alkaline phosphatase isozymes and the circulating blood volume, as well as clinical signs, body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, organ weight, and histopathology, in male beagle dogs fed a diet consisting of 300 g/day or 150 g/day for 4 weeks. There were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the dogs...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068069/re-engineering-extracellular-vesicles-as-smart-nanoscale-therapeutics
#13
James P K Armstrong, Margaret N Holme, Molly M Stevens
In the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a key cell-free strategy for the treatment of a range of pathologies, including cancer, myocardial infarction, and inflammatory diseases. Indeed, the field is rapidly transitioning from promising in vitro reports toward in vivo animal models and early clinical studies. These investigations exploit the high physicochemical stability and biocompatibility of EVs as well as their innate capacity to communicate with cells via signal transduction and membrane fusion...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#14
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067791/ligands-of-therapeutic-utility-for-the-liver-x-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Rajesh Komati, Dominick Spadoni, Shilong Zheng, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Kevin E Riley, Guangdi Wang
Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target to treat pathological conditions ranging from vascular and metabolic diseases, neurological degeneration, to cancers that are driven by lipid metabolism. Amidst intensifying efforts to discover ligands that act through LXRs to achieve the sought-after pharmacological outcomes, several lead compounds are already being tested in clinical trials for a variety of disease interventions. While more potent and selective LXR ligands continue to emerge from screening of small molecule libraries, rational design, and empirical medicinal chemistry approaches, challenges remain in minimizing undesirable effects of LXR activation on lipid metabolism...
January 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065454/the-prevalence-association-and-clinical-outcomes-of-frailty-in-maintenance-dialysis-patients
#16
So-Young Lee, Dong Ho Yang, Eunah Hwang, Seock Hui Kang, Sun-Hee Park, Tae Woo Kim, Duk Hyun Lee, Kisoo Park, Jun Chul Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical implications of frailty in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and chronic peritoneal dialysis. DESIGN: In this prospective study, all of the participants completed the Short Form of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life questionnaire, Korean version, to determine their frailty phenotype. We also obtained blood chemistry and demographic data at enrollment. Data regarding the history of hospitalization and death were collected during the follow-up period...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065395/serial-retrograde-instillations-of-sustained-release-formulation-of-mitomycin-c-to-the-upper-urinary-tract-of-the-yorkshire-swine-using-a-thermosensitive-polymer-safety-and-feasibility
#17
Nicholas M Donin, Dalit Strauss-Ayali, Yael Agmon-Gerstein, Nadav Malchi, Andrew T Lenis, Stuart Holden, Allan J Pantuck, Arie S Belldegrun, Karim Chamie
BACKGROUND: MitoGel is a novel drug formulation intended for the treatment of upper tract urothelial cancer with proven feasibility and safety in an animal model. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, toxicokinetics, and histologic changes associated with serial retrograde MitoGel instillations to the upper urinary tract in a swine model. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 27 Yorkshire swine underwent 6 once-weekly unilateral retrograde instillations of MitoGel...
January 3, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063356/nanoparticles-for-radiooncology-mission-vision-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Leoni A Kunz-Schughart, Anna Dubrovska, Claudia Peitzsch, Alexander Ewe, Achim Aigner, Samuel Schellenburg, Michael H Muders, Silke Hampel, Giuseppe Cirillo, Francesca Iemma, Rainer Tietze, Christoph Alexiou, Holger Stephan, Kristof Zarschler, Orazio Vittorio, Maria Kavallaris, Wolfgang J Parak, Lutz Mädler, Suman Pokhrel
Cancer is one of the leading non-communicable diseases with highest mortality rates worldwide. About half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment in the course of their disease. However, treatment outcome and curative potential of radiotherapy is often impeded by genetically and/or environmentally driven mechanisms of tumor radioresistance and normal tissue radiotoxicity. While nanomedicine-based tools for imaging, dosimetry and treatment are potential keys to the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects, radiotherapy is an established technique to eradicate the tumor cells...
December 14, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062708/establishment-of-the-in-vivo-efficacy-of-pretargeted-radioimmunotherapy-utilizing-inverse-electron-demand-diels-alder-click-chemistry
#19
Jacob L Houghton, Rosemery Membreno, Dalya Abdel-Atti, Kristen M Cunanan, Sean Carlin, Wolfgang W Scholz, Pat B Zanzonico, Jason S Lewis, Brian M Zeglis
The pretargeting system based on the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) between trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and tetrazine (Tz) combines the favorable pharmacokinetic properties of radiolabeled small molecules with the affinity and specificity of antibodies. This strategy has proven to be an efficient method for the molecularly targeted delivery of pharmaceuticals, including isotopes for radiological imaging. Despite encouraging results from in vivo PET imaging studies, this promising system has yet to be thoroughly evaluated for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT)...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060268/a-facile-and-efficient-approach-for-the-production-of-reversible-disulfide-cross-linked-micelles
#20
Yuanpei Li, Gaurav Bharadwaj, Joyce S Lee
Nanomedicine is an emerging form of therapy that harnesses the unique properties of particles that are nanometers in scale for biomedical application. Improving drug delivery to maximize therapeutic outcomes and to reduce drug-associated side effects are some of the cornerstones of present-day nanomedicine. Nanoparticles in particular have found a wide application in cancer treatment. Nanoparticles that offer a high degree of flexibility in design, application, and production based on the tumor microenvironment are projected to be more effective with rapid translation into clinical practice...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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