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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340309/analytical-techniques-in-lipidomics-state-of-the-art
#1
Kamil Jurowski, Kamila Kochan, Justyna Walczak, Małgorzata Barańska, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Bogusław Buszewski
Current studies related to lipid identification and determination, or lipidomics in biological samples, are one of the most important issues in modern bioanalytical chemistry. There are many articles dedicated to specific analytical strategies used in lipidomics in various kinds of biological samples. However, in such literature, there is lack of articles dedicated to a comprehensive review of the actual analytical methodologies used in lipidomics. The aim of this article is to characterize the lipidomics methods used in modern bioanalysis according to the methodological point of view: 1) chromatography/separation methods, 2) spectroscopic methods and 3) mass spectrometry and also hyphenated methods...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340222/success-in-implementation-of-a-resident-in-service-examination-review-series
#2
Jessica A Forcucci, J Madison Hyer, Evelyn T Bruner, David N Lewin, Nicholas I Batalis
Objectives: Primary pathology board certification has been correlated with senior resident in-service examination (RISE) performance. We describe our success with an annual, month-long review series. Methods: Aggregate program RISE performance data were gathered for 3 years prior to and 3 years following initiation of the review series. In addition, mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 Clinical Knowledge scores for residents participating in each RISE examination were obtained to control for incoming knowledge and test-taking ability...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340007/moving-averages-real-time-data-monitoring-in-the-clinical-chemistry-laboratory
#3
Thomas Durant, Wade Schulz, Joe El-Khoury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339902/a-systematic-and-practical-approach-to-designing-the-onboard-and-clinical-reportable-ranges-of-chemistry-and-immunoassay-analytes
#4
Sheng Ying, Dina Greene
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337854/silk-fibroin-biomaterial-shows-safe-and-effective-wound-healing-in-animal-models-and-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Wei Zhang, Longkun Chen, Jialin Chen, Lingshuang Wang, Xuexian Gui, Jisheng Ran, Guowei Xu, Hongshi Zhao, Mengfeng Zeng, Junfeng Ji, Li Qian, Jianda Zhou, Hongwei Ouyang, Xiaohui Zou
Due to its excellent biological and mechanical properties, silk fibroin has been intensively explored for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, lack of translational evidence has hampered its clinical application for tissue repair. Here a silk fibroin film is developed and its translational potential is investigated for skin repair by performing comprehensive preclinical and clinical studies to fully evaluate its safety and effectiveness. The silk fibroin film fabricated using all green chemistry approaches demonstrates remarkable characteristics, including transmittance, fluid handling capacity, moisture vapor permeability, waterproofness, bacterial barrier properties, and biocompatibility...
March 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336392/diagnostic-laboratories-in-asia-pacific-region-investigation-on-quality-characteristics-and-time-of-reporting
#6
Tony C Badrick, Anton Gutscher, Nakako Sakamoto, Daniel Chin
This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333661/does-your-drug-expertise-include-clinical-pharmaceutics
#7
David W Newton
Whose job is it to protect patients from harm from drug instabilities and incompatibilities and other aspects of clinical pharmaceutics? Pharmacists are better educated via multiple required general and organic chemistry prerequisite and professional curricula medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics courses. Therefore, no healthcare professional other than pharmacists are nicknamed drug experts or are better formally educated to master drug chemistry in the bottle (i.e., injection stability and compatibility/incompatibility clinical pharmaceutics) as a prerequisite for drug administration to cause safe and effective drug chemistry in the body (i...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330726/provision-of-physiological-data-and-reference-values-in-awake-and-anaesthetized-female-sheep-aged-6-12-months
#8
Tim Kampmeier, Philip Arnemann, Michael Heßler, Sebastian Rehberg, Andrea Morelli, Martin Westphal, Matthias Lange, Hugo Van Aken, Christian Ertmer
OBJECTIVE: To provide physiological data and reference values in awake and anaesthetized sheep aged 6-12 months. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. ANIMALS: Data from 260 female sheep of the species Ovis orientalis aries aged 6-12 months were extracted from 10 experimental trials. METHODS: Data from pulmonary arterial thermodilution in awake (cohort 1; n = 109) and anaesthetized animals (cohort 2; n = 81), and transpulmonary thermodilution in anaesthetized animals (cohort 3; n = 70) were analysed...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328191/enhancing-tumor-penetration-of-nanomedicines
#9
Qingxue Sun, Tarun Ojha, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers, Yang Shi
Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially due to the inefficient tumor penetration caused by tumor microenvironment (high density of cells and extracellular matrix, increased interstitial fluid pressure). Furthermore, tumor penetration of nanomedicines is significantly influenced by physicochemical characteristics such as size, surface chemistry and shape...
March 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328012/free-fatty-acid-receptor-1-ffar1-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-recent-progress-and-prevailing-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Zheng Li, Xue Xu, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) amplifies glucose-dependent insulin secretion; therefore, it has attracted widespread attention as a promising antidiabetic target. Current clinical proof of concept also indicates that FFAR1 agonists achieve the initially therapeutic endpoint for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without the hypoglycemic risk. Thus, many pharmaceutical companies and academic institutes are competing to develop FFAR1 agonists. However, several candidates have been discontinued in clinical trials, often without reporting the underlying reasons...
March 22, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326839/entinostat-a-promising-treatment-option-for-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer
#11
Roisin M Connolly, Michelle A Rudek, Richard Piekarz
Entinostat is a synthetic benzamide derivative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which potently and selectively inhibits class I and IV HDAC enzymes. This action promotes histone hyperacetylation and transcriptional activation of specific genes, with subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis. This oral HDAC inhibitor has been evaluated in Phase I and II trials in patients with advanced malignancies, and is in general well tolerated. Entinostat does not currently have regulatory approval for clinical use; however promising preclinical and clinical data exist in hormone-resistant breast cancer...
March 9, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325476/erectile-dysfunction-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Reem Ezzat Mahdy, Ali Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Mahran, Ahmed Serag Mahmoud Safwat, Asmaa Omar Mohamed, Sherif Mohamed Abdel-Aal
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There is a lack of studies on erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ED in patients with NAFLD and to determine the independent predictors of ED in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based study of 192 consecutive male patients with NAFLD. All patients underwent clinical evaluation; abdominal ultrasonography; test for viral hepatitis markers; and estimation of liver chemistry panel, complete blood count, prothrombin time, serum lipids panel, serum testosterone, and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide...
March 16, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322893/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-evaluation-of-nephure%C3%A2
#13
Helena Cowley, Qin Yan, Lee Koetzner, Laurie Dolan, Erik Nordwald, Aaron B Cowley
Nephure™ is a proprietary oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) enzyme being developed as a food ingredient. In this study, the safety of Nephure™ was evaluated in a bacterial mutagenicity assay and in a sub-chronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats. Nephure™ did not show any mutagenic properties in the mutagenicity assay. In the 13-week sub-chronic oral toxicity study in which 10 Sprague Dawley rats per sex were administered 0, 118, 235 and 475 mg/kg bw/day (8260, 16450 and 33,250 Units/kg bw/day, respectively) of Nephure™ by gavage, male and female rats did not show any test article-related clinical observations or effects on body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, ophthalmology, functional observational battery parameters or motor activity...
March 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322729/standardisation-and-use-of-the-alcohol-biomarker-carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin-cdt
#14
Anders Helander, Jos Wielders, Raymond Anton, Torsten Arndt, Vincenza Bianchi, Jean Deenmamode, Jan-Olof Jeppsson, John B Whitfield, Cas Weykamp, François Schellenberg
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a glycoform profile of serum transferrin that increases in response to sustained high alcohol intake and over the last decades has become an important alcohol biomarker with clinical and forensic applications. However, the wide range of CDT measurement procedures has resulted in lack of uniform results and reference limits, and hampered comparison of results. In 2005, the IFCC therefore founded a special working group (WG) aiming for standardisation of CDT measurement...
March 18, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322061/potential-biomarkers-for-monitoring-the-toxicity-of-long-term-exposure-to-atrazine-in-rat-by-metabonomic-analysis
#15
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Chong-Hua Zhang, Jing Zheng, Long-Xue Li, Tian-Qi Geng, Yang Zhang
1. Herbicide atrazine (ATR) poses harmful effects on human health. The purpose of this study is to study potential biomarkers used for monitoring the toxic effects after chronic exposure to ATR by studying urine metabolites. 2. Rats were assigned into clinical chemistry and metabonomics arms, and each arm was divided into low-dose, high-dose and control groups. ATR was administered to rats along with their feed. At the end of 16, 20 and 24 weeks, clinical parameters and histopathologic changes was assessed to monitor the toxic effects...
March 21, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318752/cystathionine-gamma-lyase-deficient-mice-are-protected-against-the-development-of-multiorgan-failure-and-exhibit-reduced-inflammatory-response-during-burn
#16
Akbar Ahmad, Nadiya Druzhyna, Csaba Szabo
Considering the role of H2S in critical illness, the aim of this study was to compare the outcome of burn in wild-type mice and in mice deficient in CSE, one of the principal mammalian H2S-generating enzymes. Animals were subjected to scald burn. Outcome variables included indices of organ injury, clinical chemistry parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Plasma levels of H2S significantly increased in response to burn in wild-type mice, but remained unchanged in CSE(-/-) mice. Expression of the three H2S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS and 3-MST) in the lung and liver, and the capacity of tissue homogenates to produce H2S, however, was not affected by burn...
March 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314411/small-molecule-inhibition-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-4-irak4
#17
N E Genung, K M Guckian
In recent years, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, IRAK4, has become an attractive target for many medicinal chemistry programmes. Target inhibition is of potential therapeutic value in areas including autoimmune disorders, cancer, inflammatory diseases, and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Results from high-throughput screening efforts have led, in conjunction with structure-based drug design, to the identification of highly potent and selective small molecule IRAK4 inhibitors from many diverse chemical series...
2017: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303026/strategies-and-challenges-for-the-next-generation-of-antibody-drug-conjugates
#18
REVIEW
Alain Beck, Liliane Goetsch, Charles Dumontet, Nathalie Corvaïa
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are one of the fastest growing classes of oncology therapeutics. After half a century of research, the approvals of brentuximab vedotin (in 2011) and trastuzumab emtansine (in 2013) have paved the way for ongoing clinical trials that are evaluating more than 60 further ADC candidates. The limited success of first-generation ADCs (developed in the early 2000s) informed strategies to bring second-generation ADCs to the market, which have higher levels of cytotoxic drug conjugation, lower levels of naked antibodies and more-stable linkers between the drug and the antibody...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301753/identification-and-quantitation-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#19
Siddarth Rawal, Yu-Ping Yang, Richard Cote, Ashutosh Agarwal
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed from the primary tumor into the circulatory system and act as seeds that initiate cancer metastasis to distant sites. CTC enumeration has been shown to have a significant prognostic value as a surrogate marker in various cancers. The widespread clinical utility of CTC tests, however, is still limited due to the inherent rarity and heterogeneity of CTCs, which necessitate robust techniques for their efficient enrichment and detection. Significant recent advances have resulted in technologies with the ability to improve yield and purity of CTC enrichment as well as detection sensitivity...
March 6, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301742/microbial-rhodopsins-diversity-mechanisms-and-optogenetic-applications
#20
Elena G Govorunova, Oleg A Sineshchekov, Hai Li, John L Spudich
Microbial rhodopsins are a family of photoactive retinylidene proteins widespread throughout the microbial world. They are notable for their diversity of function, using variations of a shared seven-transmembrane helix design and similar photochemical reactions to carry out distinctly different light-driven energy and sensory transduction processes. Their study has contributed to our understanding of how evolution modifies protein scaffolds to create new protein chemistry, and their use as tools to control membrane potential with light is fundamental to optogenetics for research and clinical applications...
March 9, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
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