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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749625/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Lara Zibners, Pradip Chaudhari
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749614/dissecting-the-dynamics-of-trans-generational-immune-priming
#2
Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
The transfer of immunity from mother to offspring is a central way to endow the offspring with increased protection against pathogens. This phenomenon is not only found within the vertebrate domain: in some circumstances, invertebrate mothers can also give their offspring an immune kick-start, which is termed trans-generational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP has been uncovered for a number of invertebrate species, but it is not ubiquitously evident. The reasons for which are not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Tate, Andolfatto, Demuth, and Graham () probe the molecular underpinnings of TGIP in concert with the temporal dynamics of the response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, infected with the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Figure )...
August 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749595/morbidity-and-mortality-in-infant-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-a-46-year-retrospective-review
#3
James M Hassell, Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J Lowenstine
Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749577/prevalence-and-determinants-of-antibiotic-exposure-in-infants-a-population-derived-australian-birth-cohort-study
#4
Hayley Anderson, Peter Vuillermin, Kim Jachno, Katrina J Allen, Mimi Lk Tang, Fiona Collier, Andrew Kemp, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, David Burgner
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic exposure in Australian infants during the first year of life, focusing on antibiotic class, indication, risk factors associated with exposure and comparison with international counterparts. METHODS: The Barwon Infant Study is a birth cohort study (n = 1074) with an unselected antenatal sampling frame from a large regional centre in Victoria, Australia. Longitudinal data on infection and medication were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months by parental questionnaire and from general practitioner and hospital records...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749570/hepatocyte-derived-exosomes-promote-t-follicular-regulatory-cell-expansion-during-hcv-infection
#5
Dustin A Cobb, Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen, Young S Hahn
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern that can cause severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Control of HCV requires vigorous T cell responses, yet CD4(+) T cells in chronic HCV patients are dysfunctional. T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a subset of regulatory T cells that suppress T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and the generation of high affinity antibody-producing B cells. In this study, we examined the accumulation of Tfr cells in the liver compartment during chronic HCV infection and defined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749564/impact-of-sustained-virologic-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-on-mortality-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#6
Lisa I Backus, Pamela S Belperio, Troy A Shahoumian, Larry A Mole
The impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) on mortality after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment is not well documented. This study evaluated the impact of DAA-induced SVR on all-cause mortality and on incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 15,059 HCV-infected patients with advanced liver disease defined by a FIB-4 >3.25. Overall, 1,067 patients did not achieve SVR (No SVR) and 13,992 patients achieved SVR. In a mean follow-up period of approximately 1.6 years, 195 No SVR patients and 598 SVR patients died...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749559/recombinant-cccdna-of-hepatitis-b-virus-induces-long-term-viral-persistence-with-chronic-hepatitis-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Gaiyun Li, Yuanfei Zhu, Dianhui Shao, Hao Chang, Xiaoming Zhang, Dongming Zhou, Yueqiu Gao, Ke Lan, Qiang Deng
Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant (r) cccDNA of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV anigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis by which to reproduce (r)cccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749529/effect-and-acceptance-of-silver-diamine-fluoride-treatment-on-dental-caries-in-primary-teeth
#8
Jennifer Clemens, Jaana Gold, Jeffrey Chaffin
OBJECTIVES: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment has been identified as a potential solution to address the dental public health issues of untreated dental caries and insufficient access to care. The current study assessed the effectiveness of 38 percent SDF in arresting active dental caries lesions and in reducing or preventing associated dental pain and infections in young, at-risk children. METHODS: We enrolled 32 children aged 2-5 years with 118 active caries lesions in primary teeth from a community dental clinic in Oregon...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749527/relationship-between-alcohol-consumption-whether-linked-to-other-substance-use-or-not-and-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-in-hiv-patients
#9
Sara González-Álvarez, Agustín Madoz-Gúrpide, Carlos Parro-Torres, Daniel Hernández-Huerta, Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado
Hazardous alcohol consumption is a common diagnosis among people living with HIV infection. The relationship between alcohol consumption and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy has been highlighted in different studies, yet few of them performed a parallel analysis of other substance use. In Spain, alcohol consumption is frequently associated with other substance use, mainly cannabis and cocaine. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of hazardous alcohol consumption both combined with other substances (cocaine, heroin, methadone and/or cannabis) or alone on antiretroviral therapy adherence in our social environment...
July 14, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749483/surgical-site-infections-in-neonates-are-independently-associated-with-longer-hospitalizations
#10
E A Gilje, M J Hossain, C D Vinocur, L Berman
OBJECTIVE: There is limited data characterizing the risk and impact of surgical site infection (SSI) in neonates; this makes it difficult to identify factors that increase neonatal SSI risk and to determine how SSI affects outcomes in this special population. STUDY DESIGN: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Improvement Program Pediatric (NSQIP-P) collected data on children undergoing surgery at children's hospitals from 2012 to 2014. Neonates undergoing general surgical procedures were characterized with regard to demographic characteristics and comorbidities...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749434/unsolved-puzzles-surrounding-hcv-immunity-heterologous-immunity-adds-another-dimension
#11
REVIEW
Babita Agrawal, Shakti Singh, Nancy Gupta, Wen Li, Satish Vedi, Rakesh Kumar
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 3% of the world's population and can lead to serious and late-stage liver diseases. Developing a vaccine for HCV is challenging because the correlates of protection are uncertain and traditional vaccine approaches do not work. Studies of natural immunity to HCV in humans have resulted in many enigmas. Human beings are not immunologically naïve because they are continually exposed to various environmental microbes and antigens, creating large populations of memory T cells...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749410/awareness-of-the-risk-of-exposure-to-infectious-material-and-the-behaviors-of-polish-paramedics-with-respect-to-the-hazards-from-blood-borne-pathogens-a-nationwide-study
#12
Anna Garus-Pakowska, Mariusz Górajski, Franciszek Szatko
(1) Background: To determine paramedics' frequency of contact with blood and other body fluids, as well as the analysis of knowledge of paramedics about blood-borne infections, their attitudes to patients infected with blood-borne viruses, and the post-exposure procedures implemented by paramedics; (2) Methods: An anonymous questionnaire among 190 paramedics working in various health care facilities in Poland (adjusted response rate, 76.3%); (3) Results: 78% of paramedics had contact with potentially infectious material at least several times a week...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749409/host-response-comparison-of-h1n1-and-h5n1-infected-mice-identifies-two-potential-death-mechanisms
#13
Olivier Leymarie, Léa Meyer, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Bruno Da Costa, Bernard Delmas, Christophe Chevalier, Ronan Le Goffic
Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV) infections represent a serious threat to humans due to their considerable morbidity and mortality capacities. A good understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the acute lung injury observed during this kind of infection is essential to design adapted therapies. In the current study, using an unbiased transcriptomic approach, we compared the host-responses of mice infected with two different subtypes of IAV: H1N1 vs. H5N1. The host-response comparison demonstrated a clear difference between the transcriptomic profiles of H1N1- and H5N1-infected mice despite identical survival kinetics and similar viral replications...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749403/hiv-malaria-interactions-in-north-east-india-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Pradhyumn K Mohapatra, Elsa Pachuau, Chandra Kumar, Biswajit Borkakoty, Eric Zomawia, Achouba Singh, Kamini Walia, Rashmi Arora, Jagdish Mahanta, Sarala K Subbarao
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The interactions between HIV and malaria co-infection have been shown to influence each other in their clinical outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out in the two States of north east India endemic for both HIV and malaria infections, to study the interactions between the two diseases in the HIV-infected population. METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of 333 HIV-infected individuals were followed up for a period of 6-18 months in Mizoram and Manipur during 2010-2011...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749392/evaluation-of-evidence-for-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-based-dose-optimization-of-antimicrobials-for-treating-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates
#15
REVIEW
Nusrat Shafiq, Samir Malhotra, Vikas Gautam, Harpreet Kaur, Pravin Kumar, Sourabh Dutta, Pallab Ray, Nilima A Kshirsagar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Neonates present a special subgroup of population in whom optimization of antimicrobial dosing can be particularly challenging. Gram-negative infections are common in neonates, and inpatient treatment along with critical care is needed for the management of these infections. Dosing recommendations are often extrapolated from evidence generated in older patient populations. This systematic review was done to identify the knowledge gaps in the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD)-based optimized dosing schedule for parenteral antimicrobials for Gram-negative neonatal infections...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749330/in-vitro-activity-of-bedaquiline-against-rapidly-growing-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#16
Diana A Aguilar-Ayala, Margo Cnockaert, Emmanuel André, Koen Andries, Jorge A Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, Peter Vandamme, Juan Carlos Palomino, Anandi Martin
Bedaquiline (BDQ) has been proven to be effective in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We hypothesized that BDQ could be a potential agent to treat nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of BDQ against rapidly growing mycobacteria by assessing the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against 18 NTM strains. For MIC determination we performed the resazurin microtitre assay broth dilution, and for the MBC the c...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749329/in-vitro-efficacy-of-16-antimicrobial-drugs-against-a-large-collection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-isolates-of-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-from-dogs-and-cats
#17
Takae Shimizu, Kazuki Harada, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Shingo Hatoya, Yoshiaki Hikasa
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of candidate antimicrobials against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from companion animals. METHODOLOGY: A total of 90 ESBL-producing ExPEC isolates from dogs and cats were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials with the agar dilution method. We also identified the ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases of these isolates with PCR and DNA sequencing...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749327/novel-adenoviruses-detected-in-british-mustelids-including-a-unique-aviadenovirus-in-the-tissues-of-pine-martens-martes-martes
#18
David Walker, William F Gregory, Dylan Turnbull, Mara Rocchi, Anna L Meredith, Adrian W Philbey, Colin P Sharp
Several adenoviruses are known to cause severe disease in veterinary species. Recent evidence suggests that canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) persists in the tissues of healthy red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which may be a source of infection for susceptible species. It was hypothesized that mustelids native to the UK, including pine martens (Martes martes) and Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), may also be persistently infected with adenoviruses. Based on high-throughput sequencing and additional Sanger sequencing, a novel Aviadenovirus, tentatively named marten adenovirus type 1 (MAdV-1), was detected in pine marten tissues...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749325/central-and-peripheral-reservoirs-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-in-cats-a-review
#19
Chrissy D Eckstrand, Ellen E Sparger, Brian G Murphy
Infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), results in lifelong viral persistence and progressive immunopathology in the cat. FIV has the ability to infect and produce infectious virus in a number of different cell types. FIV provirus can also be maintained in a replication-competent but transcriptionally quiescent state, facilitating viral persistence over time. Immediately after the initial infection, FIV infection quickly disseminates to many anatomical compartments within the host including lymphoid organs, gastrointestinal tract and brain...
July 28, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749324/investigation-of-the-fim1-putative-pilus-locus-of-streptococcus-equi-subspecies-equi
#20
Karen Frances Steward, Carl Robinson, Duncan J Maskell, Chiara Nenci, Andrew Stephen Waller
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, among the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Genome analysis of S. equi strain 4047 (Se4047) identified a putative operon, Fim1, with similarity to the pilus loci of other Gram-positive bacteria. The Fim1 locus was present in all strains of S. equi and its close relative S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) that have been studied to date. In this study we provide evidence that the putative structural pilus proteins, SEQ_0936 and CNE, are produced on the cell surface during in vitro growth and in vivo infection...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology
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