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Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Riti Sharan, Hee-Jeong Yang, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) utilizes substrates that are specific for enzymes present in target organisms of interest for imaging or detection by fluorescence or bioluminescence. We utilize BlaC, an enzyme expressed constitutively by all M. tuberculosis strains. REF allows rapid quantification of bacteria in lungs of infected mice. The same group of mice can be imaged at many time points, greatly reducing costs, enumerating bacteria more quickly, allowing novel observations in host-pathogen interactions, and increasing statistical power, since more animals per group are readily maintained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Smart Mbagwu, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Pierre-Yves Mantel
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with P. falciparum being the most prevalent on the African continent and responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. Several factors including parasite sequestration in tissues, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory responses influence the evolution of the disease in malaria-infected people. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing different kinds of cargo molecules that mediate pathogenesis and cellular communication between parasites and host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Calliandra Maria de-Souza-Silva, Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Marco Antônio de Oliveira, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Ildinete Silva-Pereira, Patrícia Albuquerque
Fungal infections have become an important medical condition in the last decades, but the number of available antifungal drugs is limited. In this scenario, the search for new antifungal drugs is necessary. The protocol reported here details a method to screen peptides for their antifungal properties. It is based on the broth microdilution susceptibility test from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 guidelines with modifications to suit the research of antimicrobial peptides as potential new antifungals...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mireille Laforge, Ricardo Silvestre, Vasco Rodrigues, Julie Garibal, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Shahul Mouhamad, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Alain Pruvost, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Bruno Hurtrel, Guido Silvestri, Anna Senik, Jérôme Estaquier
Apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for CD4+ T cell depletion and immune dysfunction during HIV infection. We demonstrated that Q-VD-OPH, a caspase inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous and activation-induced death of T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). When administered during the acute phase of infection, Q-VD-OPH was associated with (a) reduced levels of T cell death, (b) preservation of CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in lymphoid organs and in the gut, (c) maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells, and (d) increased specific CD4+ T cell response associated with the expression of cytotoxic molecules...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Shaden Jobran, Randa Kattan, Jamal Shamaa, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses have an important role in paediatric respiratory tract infections. They are estimated to cause 2-5% of the overall respiratory tract infections and 4-10% of all pneumonias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation and effect of adenoviral infection on the management of infected infants. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of patients infected with adenovirus and admitted to Caritas Baby Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Qusay Abdoh, Lubna Kharraz, Khubaib Ayoub, Jana Khraim, Wafaa Awad, Aysha Sbeah, Safaa Turman
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori antibiotic resistance at the An-Najah National University Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients older than 18 year who were admitted to the An-Najah National University Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Branimir Gjurašin, Snježana Židovec Lepej, Michelle J Cole, Rachel Pitt, Josip Begovac
We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shao-Chun Chen, Yue-Ping Yin, Xiang-Sheng Chen
Cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern. N. gonorrhoeae of multiantigen sequence type G1407 and multilocus sequence type 1901 is an internationally spreading cephalosporin-resistant clone. We detected 4 cases of infection with this clone in China and analyzed resistance determinants by using N. gonorrhoeae sequence typing for antimicrobial resistance.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Monica M Lahra, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Amy V Jennison, Ken-Ichi Lee, Shu-Ichi Nakayama, Brigitte Lefebvre, Jean Longtin, Alison Ward, Michael R Mulvey, Teodora Wi, Makoto Ohnishi, David Whiley
Ceftriaxone remains a first-line treatment for patients infected by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in most settings. We investigated the possible spread of a ceftriaxone-resistant FC428 N. gonorrhoeae clone in Japan after recent isolation of similar strains in Denmark (GK124) and Canada (47707). We report 2 instances of the FC428 clone in Australia in heterosexual men traveling from Asia. Our bioinformatic analyses included core single-nucleotide variation phylogeny and in silico molecular typing; phylogenetic analysis showed close genetic relatedness among all 5 isolates...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Adrien Koeltz, Stephane Lastere, Sylvain Jean-Baptiste
During the 2014-2015 chikungunya outbreak in French Polynesia, 64 patients with confirmed chikungunya virus infection were admitted into intensive care. Sixty-three were nonpregnant adults; 11 had an atypical form, 21 had severe sepsis or septic shock, and 18 died. These findings indicate that critical illness frequently complicates the course of chikungunya virus infection.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ashley Howard, John Visintine, Jaime Fergie, Miguel Deleon
Since 2007, Zika virus has spread through the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Beginning in 2016, women in Brownsville, Texas, USA, were identified as possibly being exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Two infants were evaluated for congenital Zika syndrome after identification of prenatal microcephaly. Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana Belkin, Zeala Gazit, Nathan Keller, Ronen Ben-Ami, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Ana Novikov, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
A patient transferred from South Africa to Israel acquired a Candida auris infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed resemblance of C. auris to isolates from South Africa but not Israel, suggesting travel-associated infection. C. auris infection occurred weeks later in another patient at the same hospital, suggesting prolonged environmental persistence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Chen Avni, Shmuel Stienlauf, Eyal Meltzer, Yechezkel Sidi, Eli Schwartz, Eyal Leshem
We characterized posttravel hospitalizations of citizens returning to Israel by summarizing the returning traveler hospitalization dataset of the national referral Center for Travel Medicine and Tropical Diseases at Sheba Medical Center in Israel. Of 722 hospitalizations, 181 (25%) infections were life-threatening; most would have been preventable by chemoprophylaxis and pretravel vaccination.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Seiya Yamayoshi, Maki Kiso, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Mutsumi Ito, Yuelong Shu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
To clarify the threat posed by emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N9) virus infection among humans, we characterized the viral polymerase complex. Polymerase basic 2-482R, polymerase basic 2-588V, and polymerase acidic-497R individually or additively enhanced virus polymerase activity, indicating that multiple replication-enhancing mutations in 1 isolate may contribute to virulence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Bich-Tram Huynh, Elsa Kermorvant-Duchemin, Perlinot Herindrainy, Michael Padget, Feno Manitra Jacob Rakotoarimanana, Herisoa Feno, Elisoa Hariniaina-Ratsima, Tanjona Raheliarivao, Awa Ndir, Sophie Goyet, Patrice Piola, Frederique Randrianirina, Benoit Garin, Jean-Marc Collard, Didier Guillemot, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
Severe bacterial infections are a leading cause of death among neonates in low-income countries, which harbor several factors leading to emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Low-income countries should prioritize interventions to decrease neonatal infections; however, data are scarce, specifically from the community. To assess incidence, etiologies, and antimicrobial drug-resistance patterns of neonatal infections, during 2012-2014, we conducted a community-based prospective investigation of 981 newborns in rural and urban areas of Madagascar...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
C Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino, Xin Chen, Eva Segelov, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Anthony Kelleher, Mohana Kunasekaran, John Michael Lane
We built a SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered) model of smallpox transmission for New York, New York, USA, and Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that accounted for age-specific population immunosuppression and residual vaccine immunity and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate the effect these parameters might have on smallpox reemergence. At least 19% of New York's and 17% of Sydney's population are immunosuppressed. The highest smallpox infection rates were in persons 0-19 years of age, but the highest death rates were in those >45 years of age...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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