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Tingting Liu, Randall J F Bruins, Matthew T Heberling
Best management practices (BMPs) for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution are widely available. However, agriculture remains a major global contributor to degradation of waters because farmers often do not adopt BMPs. To improve water quality, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence BMP adoption by farmers. We review the findings of BMP adoption studies from both developed and developing countries, published after (or otherwise not included in) two major literature reviews from 2007 and 2008...
2018: Sustainability
Rachel Anderson de Cuevas, Lotta Nylén, Bo Burström, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research. OBJECTIVES: To explore what difference public and stakeholder involvement made to the interpretation of findings from an evaluation of a natural policy experiment to influence the wider social determinants of health: 'Flexicurity'. SETTING: Stockholm County, Sweden...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Mary Barker, Stephan U Dombrowski, Tim Colbourn, Caroline H D Fall, Natasha M Kriznik, Wendy T Lawrence, Shane A Norris, Gloria Ngaiza, Dilisha Patel, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Falko F Sniehotta, Régine Steegers-Theunissen, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods-Townsend, Judith Stephenson
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
Subha Ramanathan, Guy Faulkner, Tanya Berry, Sameer Deshpande, Amy E Latimer-Cheung, Ryan E Rhodes, John C Spence, Mark S Tremblay
INTRODUCTION: ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate organizational capacity for physical activity promotion among Canadian organizations, and the influence of ParticipACTION on capacity five years after relaunch. METHODS: Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 44 key informants representing national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity...
April 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Guy Faulkner, Subha Ramanathan, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Tanya Berry, Sameer Deshpande, Amy E Latimer-Cheung, Ryan E Rhodes, Mark S Tremblay, John C Spence
INTRODUCTION: ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization relaunched in 2007. This study assesses the capacity of Canadian organizations to adopt, implement, and promote physical activity initiatives. The four objectives were to compare findings from baseline (2008) and follow-up (2013) with respect to: (1) awareness of ParticipACTION; (2) organizational capacity to adopt, implement and promote physical activity initiatives; (3) potential differences in capacity based on organizational size, sector, and mandate; and (4) assess perceptions of ParticipACTION five years after relaunch...
April 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Guy Faulkner, Lira Yun, Mark S Tremblay, John C Spence
ParticipACTION is the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization first launched in the fall of 1971 and then ceased operations in 2001. ParticipACTION was relaunched in 2007. Framed as a public health natural experiment, evidence was collected from a population-based survey of knowledge, awareness, understanding of physical activity, and physical activity levels among Canadians (individual level), and key informant surveys and interviews examining capacity, readiness and advocacy for physical activity promotion among physical activity organizations (organizational level)...
April 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Pablo L Gutierrez, Debra J Johnson
Plastic surgeons have evolved their methods of reaching potential patients by using various forms of social media. Such platforms can educate, inform, and, for some, entertain. Social media now allows consumers to compare themselves to a much wider, if not global, set of peers that might further exacerbate their anxiety regarding their appearance. Plastic surgeons should ensure that use of patient images does not violate privacy or create unreasonable expectations about the results that can be obtained; nor should plastic surgeons' marketing objectify women...
April 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Carly P Smith, Daniel George
Advertising a plastic surgery practice on social media is fraught with both practical and ethical challenges. We use an institutional betrayal framework to explore the range of potential harms to patient well-being while also considering the pitfalls of social media activity, especially marketing, for practitioners. We also give consideration to the relative benefits that such online patient-clinician relationships can provide. In our analysis, we draw on specific examples of plastic surgery procedures prominently featured on social media, including the Vampire Facelift® ...
April 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Ross C Phillips, Denise Gorse
Cryptocurrencies have experienced recent surges in interest and price. It has been discovered that there are time intervals where cryptocurrency prices and certain online and social media factors appear related. In addition it has been noted that cryptocurrencies are prone to experience intervals of bubble-like price growth. The hypothesis investigated here is that relationships between online factors and price are dependent on market regime. In this paper, wavelet coherence is used to study co-movement between a cryptocurrency price and its related factors, for a number of examples...
2018: PloS One
Amy Saxe-Custack, Heather Claire Lofton, Mona Hanna-Attisha, Colleen Victor, Gwendolyn Reyes, Tiffany Ceja, Jenny LaChance
OBJECTIVE: The physical and social environments that surround children should support good health. However, challenges with food security and access prevent many children from consuming a healthy diet, which is critical to proper growth and development. The present study sought to gain a better understanding of primary care initiatives to address these issues in a low-income setting. DESIGN: Following the relocation of a paediatric clinic to a farmers' market building and the implementation of a fruit and vegetable prescription programme, researchers conducted thirty-two semi-structured interviews with caregivers...
April 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Meredith Vanstone, Alexandra Cernat, Jeff Nisker, Lisa Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) is a technology which provides information about fetal genetic characteristics (including sex) very early in pregnancy by examining fetal DNA obtained from a sample of maternal blood. NIPT is a morally complex technology that has advanced quickly to market with a strong push from industry developers, leaving many areas of uncertainty still to be resolved, and creating a strong need for health policy that reflects women's social and ethical values...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Darcy A Freedman, Eunlye Lee, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Erika Trapl, Elaine Borawski, Kimberly Bess, Susan Flocke
Promoting use of farmers' markets (FMs) is a promising community-level strategy to increase access to nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables. Yet, FM shopping among people with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits remains low. This research examined predictors of FM shopping among SNAP recipients living within 1 mile of a FM. A cross-sectional survey of SNAP participants (N = 270) was conducted in 2015 in Cleveland and East Cleveland, OH, USA. Multinomial regression and zero-truncated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with FM shopping...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Catherine Le Galès
Putting an end to an innovation crisis, the reality of which is the subject of debate, recent pharmaceutical innovations, the result of a combination of scientific, industrial, financial, political and economic reasons, lead to a diversification of products and to a strong interest of pharmaceutical companies for the so-called "niche" products (targeted therapies, rare diseases, etc.). These new molecules are put on the market at much higher prices than in the past. In the absence of reliable information on the costs borne by manufacturers, and knowing that high levels of margins have been observed, these prices raise legitimate questions...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Danya E Keene, Alana Rosenberg, Penelope Schlesinger, Monica Guo, Kim M Blankenship
An emerging literature has documented the challenges that formerly incarcerated individuals face in securing stable housing. Given the increasingly unaffordable rental market, rental subsidies represent an important and understudied source of stable housing for this population. The existing literature has described substantial discretion and a varied policy landscape that determine former prisoners' access to housing subsidies, or subsidized housing spaces that are leased to members of their social and family networks...
2018: Housing Policy Debate
Jennifer Norman, Bridget Kelly, Anne-T McMahon, Emma Boyland, Louise A Baur, Kathy Chapman, Lesley King, Clare Hughes, Adrian Bauman
BACKGROUND: Policies restricting children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing have been impeded by the lack of evidence showing a direct link between food advertising exposure and children's energy intake and body weight. Food advertising exposure increases children's immediate food consumption, but whether this increased intake is compensated for at later eating occasions is not known; consequently the sustained effect on diets remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counterbalanced study across four, six-day holiday camps in New South Wales, Australia between April 2016 and January 2017...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Carlo Lallo, Michele Raitano
BACKGROUND: Life expectancy considerably increased in most developed countries during the twentieth century. However, the increase in longevity is neither uniform nor random across individuals belonging to various socioeconomic groups. From an economic policy perspective, the difference in mortality by socioeconomic conditions challenges the fairness of the social security systems. We focus on the case of Italy and aim at measuring differences in longevity at older ages by individuals belonging to different socioeconomic groups, also in order to assess the effective fairness of the Italian public pension system, which is based on a notional defined contribution (NDC) benefit computation formula, whose rules do not take into account individual heterogeneity in expected longevity...
April 12, 2018: Population Health Metrics
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Charlotte Aitken, Boyd Swinburn
AIM: To analyse extent, nature and potential impact of marketing by food and beverage brands popular in New Zealand on Facebook and YouTube. METHOD: Popular food and beverage brands in New Zealand were selected from Socialbakers. Posts on Facebook pages of 45 packaged food, beverage and fast food companies over two months and YouTube channels of 15 companies over two years were analysed for nutritional quality and use of activities, promotional strategies (eg, cartoons) and premium offers (eg, competitions)...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Antonia C Lyons, Timothy McCreanor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Angela M Rose, Rachel A Williams, Brooke Rengers, Julie A Kennel, Carolyn Gunther
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Taina Leinonen, Eira Viikari-Juntura, Kirsti Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Svetlana Solovieva
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide previously unestablished information on population-based differences in cause-specific sickness absence trends between occupational classes and further between four large industrial sectors within the different occupational classes while controlling for other socioeconomic factors and employment patterns. We focused on the period 2005-2013, during which the labour market underwent large economic and structural changes in many countries. DESIGN: Register-based panel data study...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
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