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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926354/the-experience-of-women-carriers-of-brca-mutations-following-risk-reducing-surgery-a-cultural-perspective
#1
Chaya Possick, Michal Mahat-Shamir
In this qualitative study we examine the experience of 13 Jewish Israeli women carriers of BRCA mutations following risk-reducing surgery. Thematic analysis of in-depth, semi-structured interview texts yielded three themes: 1. dialectic of vulnerability and control, 2. presentation of self as a "normal" woman, and 3. genetic chain of negative life events and guilt. Aspects of Israeli culture impacting participants' experiences are: personal and collective responsibility, the shift towards consumerism and pro-natal ideology...
December 7, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923740/parvalbumin-neurons-and-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive functions, memory, and attention. Alterations in parvalbumin interneurons (PV neurons) and perineuronal nets (PNNs) within the PFC have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder pathology. However, it remains unclear why PV neurons and PNNs in the PFC are selectively impaired. Here we aimed to clarify if PV neurons and PNNs in the PFC have region-specific features. We found that PV neurons and PNNs were increased in a region-specific manner in the PFC during postnatal development...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917974/the-chinese-perspective-on-pastoral-resource-economics-a-vision-of-the-future-in-a-context-of-socio-ecological-vulnerability
#3
L Yu, K N Farrell
This paper reviews institutional changes in pastureland use in China over the last 30 years and discusses their impacts on pastoral communities, drawing evidence from case studies of two agro-pastoralist and two pastoralist communities. Those who rely directly on pastureland for their livelihood are vulnerable to the joint effects of pastureland degradation and climate change. The authors argue that a 'top-down' governance structure with no participation from local communities and a 'one size fits all' institutional solution are a poor fit for pastoralism management...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917115/switching-adolescent-high-fat-diet-to-adult-control-diet-restores-neurocognitive-alterations
#4
Chloé Boitard, Shauna L Parkes, Amandine Cavaroc, Frédéric Tantot, Nathalie Castanon, Sophie Layé, Sophie Tronel, Gustavo Pacheco-Lopez, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
In addition to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, obesity is associated with adverse cognitive and emotional outcomes. Its growing prevalence in adolescents is particularly alarming since this is a period of ongoing maturation for brain structures (including the hippocampus and amygdala) and for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis, which is required for cognitive and emotional processing. We recently demonstrated that adolescent, but not adult, high-fat diet (HF) exposure leads to impaired hippocampal function and enhanced amygdala function through HPA axis alteration (Boitard et al...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#5
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912852/old-age-and-vulnerability-between-first-second-and-third-person-perspectives-ethnographic-explorations-of-aging-in-contemporary-denmark
#6
Lone Grøn
This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912006/cascading-effects-of-predation-risk-determine-how-marine-predators-become-terrestrial-prey-on-an-oceanic-island
#7
Sarah K Thomsen, David J Green
Apex predators can suppress the foraging activity of mesopredators, which may then result in cascading benefits for the prey of those mesopredators. We studied the interactions between a top predator, the Barn Owl (Tyto alba), and their primary prey, an island endemic deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus elusus), which in turn consumes the eggs of seabirds nesting on Santa Barbara Island in California. Scripps's Murrelets (Synthliboramphus scrippsi), a threatened nocturnal seabird, arrive annually to breed on this island, and whose first egg is particularly vulnerable to predation by mice...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910160/the-experiences-of-fathers-when-their-partners-are-admitted-with-their-infants-to-a-psychiatric-mother-and-baby-unit
#8
Holly Reid, Angelika Wieck, Andrew Matrunola, Anja Wittkowski
: Mothers with severe post-natal mental illness can be admitted with their infant to a psychiatric mother and baby unit (MBU) in the UK. MBUs provide specialist assessment, management and support. Partners of women admitted to MBUs are integral to their recovery but may show reduced wellbeing themselves, yet their support needs have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify how fathers experience the MBU and how they felt supported. A qualitative design was adopted by using a purposive sample of 17 fathers, recruited from a MBU during their partner's admission...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#9
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#10
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909390/child-welfare-involved-parents-and-pathways-triple-p-perceptions-of-program-acceptability-and-appropriateness
#11
Ericka M Lewis, Megan Feely, Kristen D Seay, Nicole Fedoravicis, Patricia L Kohl
Nearly half of children in the child welfare system have clinically significant behavior problems and are at risk of developing disruptive behavioral disorders. Yet, behavioral parent training interventions, which are the most effective way to treat these problems, are rarely provided to child welfare involved families. As a result, little is known about the acceptability and appropriateness of these parent training interventions with these families. This qualitative study explored implementation outcomes of an evidenced-based parenting intervention, Pathways Triple P, with families in the child welfare system...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908007/the-interplay-of-network-structure-and-dispatch-solutions-in-power-grid-cascading-failures
#12
Jose M Reynolds-Barredo, David E Newman, Benjamin A Carreras, Ian Dobson
For a given minimum cost of the electricity dispatch, multiple equivalent dispatch solutions may exist. We explore the sensitivity of networks to these dispatch solutions and their impact on the vulnerability of the network to cascading failure blackouts. It is shown that, depending on the heterogeneity of the network structure, the blackout statistics can be sensitive to the dispatch solution chosen, with the clustering coefficient of the network being a key ingredient. We also investigate mechanisms or configurations that decrease discrepancies that can occur between the different dispatch solutions...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907833/development-of-a-scale-to-evaluate-young-children-s-responses-to-uncertainty-and-low-environmental-structure
#13
Amanda L Sanchez, Danielle Cornacchio, Tommy Chou, Ovsanna Leyfer, Stefany Coxe, Donna Pincus, Jonathan S Comer
Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), defined as the dispositional interpretation of uncertain or ambiguous events as stressful and problematic, has been linked to excessive worry and other anxiety-related problems in adults and youth. IU has been conceptualized as a vulnerability factor for excessive worry and anxiety, but the historical absence of a supported measure of IU in young children has hampered longitudinal research needed to evaluate temporal relationships between IU and anxiety and the differential developmental pathways of IU leading to different anxiety disorders and depression...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906026/plasma-hiv-1-rna-viral-load-rebound-among-people-who-inject-drugs-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-a-canadian-setting-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#14
Will Small, M J Milloy, Ryan McNeil, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905938/the-impact-of-epidemics-on-labor-market-identifying-victims-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-the-korean-labor-market
#15
Ayoung Lee, Joonmo Cho
BACKGROUND: The vulnerability approach suggests that disasters such as epidemics have different effects according not only to physical vulnerability but also to economic class (status). This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market to investigate whether vulnerable groups become more vulnerable due to an interaction between the socio-economic structure and physical risk. METHODS: This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market by considering unemployment status, job status, working hours, reason for unemployment and underemployment status...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904225/the-inferior-medial-genicular-artery-and-its-vascularization-of-the-pes-anserinus-superficialis-a-cadaveric-study
#16
Lena Hirtler, Manuel Ederer, Mike Faber, Patrick Weninger
BACKGROUND: A common method for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is it's replacement by a free avascular graft, using the gracilis and/or semitendinosus tendons. These grafts pass a vulnerable phase in the ligamentization-process during the 1(st) year after reconstruction. The aims of this study were first to evaluate the vascularization of the pes anserinus superficialis (PAS) by the inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) and second to develop a pedunculated surgical technique for ACL reconstruction, to preserve a maximal amount of natural vascularization of the tendons inserting at the PAS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903187/stereotactic-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-for-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#17
Cormac G Gavin, H Ian Sabin
OBJECTIVE The integration of modern neuroimaging into treatment planning has increased the therapeutic potential and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery. The authors report their method of integrating stereotactic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography into conventional treatment planning for Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and to address some of the technical limitations of previously reported techniques. METHODS Twenty patients who underwent GKRS composed the study cohort...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903059/identifying-counties-vulnerable-to-diabetes-from-obesity-prevalence-in-the-united-states-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#18
Xiao Li, Amanda Staudt, Lung-Chang Chien
Clinical and epidemiological research has reported a strong association between diabetes and obesity. However, whether increased diabetes prevalence is more likely to appear in areas with increased obesity prevalence has not been thoroughly investigated in the United States (US). The Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to identify whether counties with higher obesity prevalence are more likely clustered in specific regions in 48 contiguous US states. Prevalence data adopted the small area estimate from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897197/on-site-rapid-diagnosis-of-intracranial-hematoma-using-portable-multi-slice-microwave-imaging-system
#19
Ahmed Toaha Mobashsher, A M Abbosh
Rapid, on-the-spot diagnostic and monitoring systems are vital for the survival of patients with intracranial hematoma, as their conditions drastically deteriorate with time. To address the limited accessibility, high costs and static structure of currently used MRI and CT scanners, a portable non-invasive multi-slice microwave imaging system is presented for accurate 3D localization of hematoma inside human head. This diagnostic system provides fast data acquisition and imaging compared to the existing systems by means of a compact array of low-profile, unidirectional antennas with wideband operation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896573/greater-decline-in-memory-and-global-neurocognitive-function-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-co-infected-than-in-hepatitis-c-mono-infected-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin
#20
Theodore R Miller, Jeffrey J Weiss, Norbert Bräu, Douglas T Dieterich, Alicia Stivala, Monica Rivera-Mindt
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the treatment of HCV with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (IFN/RBV) have been associated with neurocognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. The goal of this research was to prospectively evaluate neurocognitive functioning among a group of HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients during the first 24 weeks of IFN/RBV treatment while accounting for practice effects, normal variations in change over time, and variations in IFN/RBV treatment exposure...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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