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Structural vulnerability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231285/the-mother-s-autonomy-in-decision-making-madm-scale-patient-led-development-and-psychometric-testing-of-a-new-instrument-to-evaluate-experience-of-maternity-care
#1
Saraswathi Vedam, Kathrin Stoll, Kelsey Martin, Nicholas Rubashkin, Sarah Partridge, Dana Thordarson, Ganga Jolicoeur
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women's autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. DESIGN: Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230796/a-sensor-data-fusion-system-based-on-k-nearest-neighbor-pattern-classification-for-structural-health-monitoring-applications
#2
Jaime Vitola, Francesc Pozo, Diego A Tibaduiza, Maribel Anaya
Civil and military structures are susceptible and vulnerable to damage due to the environmental and operational conditions. Therefore, the implementation of technology to provide robust solutions in damage identification (by using signals acquired directly from the structure) is a requirement to reduce operational and maintenance costs. In this sense, the use of sensors permanently attached to the structures has demonstrated a great versatility and benefit since the inspection system can be automated. This automation is carried out with signal processing tasks with the aim of a pattern recognition analysis...
February 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230049/broad-scale-lake-expansion-and-flooding-inundates-essential-wood-bison-habitat
#3
Jennifer B Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, Michael F J Pisaric, Peter deMontigny, Joelle T Perreault, Jamylynn McDonald, Myrna J Simpson, Terry Armstrong, Steven V Kokelj, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
Understanding the interaction between the response of a complex ecosystem to climate change and the protection of vulnerable wildlife species is essential for conservation efforts. In the Northwest Territories (Canada), the recent movement of the Mackenzie wood bison herd (Bison bison athabascae) out of their designated territory has been postulated as a response to the loss of essential habitat following regional lake expansion. We show that the proportion of this landscape occupied by water doubled since 1986 and the timing of lake expansion corresponds to bison movements out of the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229161/high-levels-of-latent-antithrombin-in-plasma-from-patients-with-antithrombin-deficiency
#4
María de la Morena-Barrio, Edna Sandoval, Pilar Llamas, Ewa Wypasek, Mara Toderici, José Navarro-Fernández, Agustín Rodríguez-Alen, Nuria Revilla, Raquel López-Gálvez, Antonia Miñano, José Padilla, Belén de la Morena-Barrio, Jorge Cuesta, Javier Corral, Vincente Vincente
Antithrombin is an anticoagulant serpin that efficiently inhibits multiple procoagulant proteases. The cost for the structural flexibility required for this function is the vulnerability to mutations that impact its folding pathway. Most conformational mutations identified in serpins cause polymerisation. Only three mutations in SERPINC1 affecting two residues have been found to favour transformation to the latent conformation of antithrombin, another hyperstable non-anticoagulant form with strong antiangiogenic activity that constitutes 3 % of plasma antithrombin in healthy subjects...
February 23, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229107/translational-relevance-of-rodent-models-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-and-stressors-in-adolescence
#5
REVIEW
Cheryl M McCormick, Matthew R Green, Jonathan J Simone
Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229105/early-life-adversity-lasting-consequences-for-emotional-learning
#6
REVIEW
Harm J Krugers, J Marit Arp, Hui Xiong, Sofia Kanatsou, Sylvie L Lesuis, Aniko Korosi, Marian Joels, Paul J Lucassen
The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#7
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225822/a-reconfiguration-of-the-sex-trade-how-social-and-structural-changes-in-eastern-zimbabwe-left-women-involved-in-sex-work-and-transactional-sex-more-vulnerable
#8
Jocelyn Elmes, Morten Skovdal, Kundai Nhongo, Helen Ward, Catherine Campbell, Timothy B Hallett, Constance Nyamukapa, Peter J White, Simon Gregson
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225730/the-medical-legal-partnership-approach-to-teaching-social-determinants-of-health-and-structural-competency-in-residency-programs
#9
Edward G Paul, Mallory Curran, Elizabeth Tobin Tyler
Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) embed civil legal services lawyers into health care settings and interprofessional health care teams delivering care to low-income or otherwise vulnerable patients and communities. MLPs present the opportunity to instill in residents a practical understanding of the social determinants of health and provide them with concrete tools to address them. MLP training helps residents develop structural competency and build the skills necessary to address barriers to health at the patient, institutional, and population levels...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225578/detection-of-volume-alterations-in-hippocampal-subfields-of-rats-under-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-using-7t-mri-a-follow-up-study
#10
Yuefeng Li, Xiaolan Zhu, Shenghong Ju, Jinchuan Yan, Dongqing Wang, Yan Zhu, Fengchao Zang
PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal subfields volume loss in depression, which was simulated by a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. As different cellular and molecular characteristics in hippocampal subfields, these subfields are regarded as differentially vulnerable to processes associated with stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were exposed to various stressors until the model was successfully established. The effects of physical exercise on recovery of hippocampal volume in depressed rats were simulated using the wheel running test (WRT)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222133/maternal-psychological-stress-induced-developmental-disability-neonatal-mortality-and-stillbirth-in-the-offspring-of-wistar-albino-rats
#11
Sakthivel Govindaraj, Annadurai Shanmuganathan, Ravindran Rajan
BACKGROUND: Stress is an inevitable part of life, and maternal stress during the gestational period has dramatic effects in the early programming of the physiology and behavior of offspring. The developmental period is crucial for the well-being of the offspring. Prenatal stress influences the developmental outcomes of the fetus, in part because the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to stress. The etiology of birth defects of the offspring is reported to be 30-40% genetic and 7-10% multifactorial, with the remaining 50% still unknown and also there is no clear cause for neonatal mortality and still-birth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#12
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219487/evidence-for-the-risks-and-consequences-of-adolescent-cannabis-exposure
#13
REVIEW
Amir Levine, Kelly Clemenza, Moira Rynn, Jeffrey Lieberman
OBJECTIVE: This review of the scientific literature examines the potential adult sequelae of exposure to cannabis and related synthetic cannabinoids in adolescence. We examine the four neuropsychiatric outcomes that are likely most vulnerable to alteration by early cannabinoid use, as identified within both the clinical and preclinical research: cognition, emotional functioning, risk for psychosis, and addiction. METHOD: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar with no publication date restrictions...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216767/mental-health-and-the-law-an-overview-and-need-to-develop-and-strengthen-the-discipline-of-forensic-psychiatry-in-india
#14
REVIEW
Pratima Murthy, B C Malathesh, C Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math
Human rights and mental health care of vulnerable population need supportive legislations and policies. Both "hard" and "soft" laws relevant to mental health care have been devised internationally and locally. Amendments in laws and the formulation of new laws are often required and have been seen to occur in the area of mental health care in India. So far, reform in mental health care has largely been reactive, but newer legislations and policies carry the hope of proactive reform. The lack of trained human resources is one of the biggest problems in effective mental health care delivery in India...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215922/early-postdischarge-stop-hf-clinic-reduces-30-day-readmissions-in-old-and-frail-patients-with-heart-failure
#15
Cristina Pacho, Mar Domingo, Raquel Núñez, Josep Lupón, Pedro Moliner, Marta de Antonio, Beatriz González, Javier Santesmases, Emili Vela, Jordi Tor, Antoni Bayes-Genis
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high rate of readmissions within 30 days postdischarge. Strategies to lower readmission rates generally show modest results. To reduce readmission rates, we developed a STructured multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for Old and frail Postdischarge patients hospitalized for HF (STOP-HF-Clinic). METHODS: This prospective all-comers study enrolled patients discharged from internal medicine or geriatric wards after HF hospitalization...
February 16, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215356/the-financial-burden-of-prescription-drugs-for-neurological-conditions-in-canada-results-from-the-national-population-health-study-of-neurological-conditions
#16
Sara Guilcher, Sarah Munce, James Conklin, Tanya Packer, Molly Verrier, Connie Marras, Tarik Bereket, Joan Versnel, Richard Riopelle, Susan Jaglal
This paper describes the current situation in Canada concerning the availability and use of prescription drugs for neurological conditions. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with health care providers, administrators, community organization representatives, opinion leaders and policy makers. The analysis revealed three primary themes related to the availability of and access to prescription drugs to treat neurological conditions. First, we learned that across Canada there is significant vulnerability and a need for advocacy on behalf of people living with these conditions...
February 4, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215249/altered-sleep-architecture-during-the-first-months-of-life-in-infants-born-to-depressed-mothers
#17
Flora Bat-Pitault, Gianluca Sesso, Christine Deruelle, Sophie Flori, Véronique Porcher-Guinet, Camille Stagnara, Aurore Guyon, Sabine Plancoulaine, Joëlle Adrien, David Da Fonseca, Hugues Patural, Patricia Franco
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated sleep architecture in newborn and six-month-old infants who were born to depressed mothers. METHOD: Sixty-four healthy full-term infants (32 males and 32 females) participated in the study. Of these, 32 were high-risk infants who were born to mothers diagnosed with depression, and 32 were low-risk infants born to mothers without a personal history of depression. 24-hour polysomnography was recorded at zero and six months of age (M0 and M6)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212910/-to-see-with-my-own-eyes-experiences-of-family-visits-during-phase-1-recovery
#18
M Cecilia Wendler, Katherine Smith, Wanda Ellenburg, Rita Gill, Lea Anderson, Kim Spiegel-Thayer
PURPOSE: Long separations are a characteristic of the day of surgery, keeping patients and their family members waiting and apart. At a time of high vulnerability, these separations can cause anxiety and worry. The purpose of this study was to identify the outcomes and experiences of patients and family members who engaged in a 5- to 10-minute supervised family visit during phase I postanesthesia recovery. DESIGN: This was a descriptive, single-group, mixed-methods study...
February 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212425/job-satisfaction-and-determinant-factors-among-midwives-working-at-health-facilities-in-addis-ababa-city-ethiopia
#19
Eyasu Tamru Bekru, Amsale Cherie, Antehun Alemayehu Anjulo
BACKGROUND: Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006-2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. METHODOLOGY: Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208659/developmental-origins-of-chronic-kidney-disease-should-we-focus-on-early-life
#20
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Chien-Ning Hsu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called "developmental programming" or "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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