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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821103/effect-of-dual-modification-by-annealing-and-ultrahigh-pressure-on-properties-of-starches-with-different-polymorphs
#1
Shujun Wang, Peng Guo, Fengjuan Xiang, Jinrong Wang, Jinglin Yu, Shuo Wang
The effects of dual modification by annealing (ANN) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) on properties of wheat, yam, and potato starches were investigated. Compared with the single UHP treatment (400MPa), ANN-UHP (400MPa) treatment did not alter significantly the ordered structures of wheat starch, indicating that ANN treatment enhanced the stability and resistance of starch granules to the subsequent UHP treatment. In contrast, UHP (400MPa)-ANN treatment resulted in more severe disruption of ordered structures of wheat starch than did the single UHP treatment, showing that UHP-treated starch was more vulnerable to the subsequent ANN treatment...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814538/implications-of-the-fmr1-premutation-for-children-adolescents-adults-and-their-families
#2
Anne Wheeler, Melissa Raspa, Randi Hagerman, Marsha Mailick, Catharine Riley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given the nature of FMR1 gene expansions, most biological mothers, and often multiple other family members of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), will have a premutation, which may increase individual and family vulnerabilities. This article summarizes important gaps in knowledge and notes potential implications for pediatric providers with regard to developmental and medical risks for children and adolescents with an FMR1 premutation, including possible implications into adulthood...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812616/legacy-effects-of-developmental-stages-determine-the-functional-role-of-predators
#3
Volker H W Rudolf, B G Van Allen
Predators are instrumental in structuring natural communities and ecosystem processes. The strong effects of predators are often attributed to their high trophic position in the food web. However, most predators have to grow and move up the food chain before reaching their final trophic position, and during this developmental process their traits, interactions and abundances change. Here, we show that this process of 'moving up' the food chain during development strongly determines the ecological role of a predator...
January 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812218/neural-correlates-of-emotional-valence-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-dysfunction-in-the-subcortex
#4
Peter T Bell, Moran Gilat, James M Shine, Katie L McMahon, Simon J G Lewis, David A Copland
Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently accompanied by cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms including impairments in affective processing. Despite this, mechanisms underlying vulnerability to deficits in affective processing remain unclear. In this study, we utilized functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and an Affective Go-NoGo paradigm, to examine the neural correlates of emotional valence processing in PD. Results suggest that PD is associated with aberrant processing of emotional valence in subcortical limbic structures...
August 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#6
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#7
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809587/severe-asthma-emergency-care-patient-driven-solutions
#8
Karen Newell, Chris Corrigan, Geoffrey Punshon, Alison Leary
Purpose Patients with severe asthma were choosing not to use the emergency department (ED) in extremis and were self-medicating when experiencing severe asthma, putting their lives at risk. This local issue reflected a nationwide situation. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the reasons behind patients' reluctance to attend ED and to consider practical solutions in a structured way. Design/methodology/approach Systems thinking (soft systems methodology) was used to examine the issues resulting in this reluctance to attend the ED...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808248/half-spaced-substrate-integrated-spoof-surface-plasmon-polaritons-based-transmission-line
#9
Jian Feng Zhu, Shao Wei Liao, Shu Fang Li, Quan Xue
In this paper, a new spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based transmission line (TL) with semi-open structure is proposed, which is implemented on a single-layer substrate with metallized via holes planted on a ground plane. The electromagnetic (EM) power propagates along it in the form of controlled slow surface wave, which is the same with its existing counterparts. The proposed TL can adjust the degree of EM energy confinement, and thus balance its performance in every characteristic, in particular attenuation and interference...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808044/germline-mutation-contribution-to-chromosomal-instability
#10
REVIEW
Sock Hoai Chan, Joanne Ngeow
Genomic instability is a feature of cancer that fuels oncogenesis through increased frequency of genetic disruption, leading to loss of genomic integrity and promoting clonal evolution as well as tumor transformation. A form of genomic instability prevalent across cancer types is chromosomal instability, which involves karyotypic changes including chromosome copy number alterations as well as gross structural abnormalities such as transversions and translocations. Defects in cellular mechanisms that are in place to govern fidelity of chromosomal segregation, DNA repair and ultimately genomic integrity are known to contribute to chromosomal instability...
September 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807519/lower-order-anxiety-sensitivity-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-dimensions-operate-as-specific-vulnerabilities-for-social-anxiety-and-depression-within-a-hierarchical-model
#11
Nicholas P Allan, Danielle Cooper, Mary E Oglesby, Nicole A Short, Kevin G Saulnier, Norman B Schmidt
Within a hierarchical framework for depressive and anxiety disorders, negative affect (NA) is posited to be indirectly related to social anxiety and depression through cognitive vulnerabilities, including intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). However, few prior studies have considered whether the lower-order dimensions of IU (i.e., prospective and inhibitory IU) and AS (i.e., physical, cognitive, and social concerns) better explain the indirect relation between NA and social anxiety and depression...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806863/influence-of-gender-working-field-and-psychosocial-factors-on-the-vulnerability-for-burnout-in-mental-hospital-staff-results-of-an-austrian-cross-sectional-study
#12
Petra Schadenhofer, Michael Kundi, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Harald Stummer, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
INTRODUCTION: According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff...
August 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803135/effects-of-aging-on-basement-membrane-of-the-soleus-muscle-during-recovery-following-disuse-atrophy-in-rats
#13
Yuji Kanazawa, Keisuke Ikegami, Mitsugu Sujino, Satoshi Koinuma, Mamoru Nagano, Yuki Oi, Tomoya Onishi, Shinichi Sugiyo, Isao Takeda, Hiroshi Kaji, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
Aging is known to lead to the impaired recovery of muscle after disuse as well as the increased susceptibility of the muscle to damage. Here, we show that, in the older rats, reloading after disuse atrophy, causes the damage of the muscle fibers and the basement membrane (BM) that structurally support the muscle fibers. Male Wistar rats of 3-(young) and 20-(older) months of age were subjected to hindlimb-unloading for 2weeks followed by reloading for a week. In the older rats, the soleus muscles showed necrosis and central nuclei fiber indicating the regeneration of muscle fibers...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799462/a-typology-of-female-sex-work-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-santiago-chile
#14
Julieta Belmar, Valeria Stuardo, Cinta Folch, Bielka Carvajal, Maria José Clunes, Alexandra Montoliu, Jordi Casabona
In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile...
August 11, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796773/predictors-of-medical-student-remediation-and-their-underlying-causes-early-lessons-from-a-curriculum-change-in-the-university-of-auckland-medical-programme
#15
Brian Grainger, Jill Yielder, Papaarangi Reid, Warwick Bagg
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of remediation in a medical programme and assess the underlying causes and the quality of remediation provided within the context of a recent curriculum change. METHODS: A mixed methods study incorporating a retrospective cohort analysis of demographic predictors of remediation during 2013 and 2014, combined with thematic qualitative analysis of educator perspectives derived by interview on factors underlying remediation and the quality of that currently provided by the faculty...
August 11, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796117/spouse-criticism-and-hostility-during-marital-interaction-effects-on-pain-intensity-and-behaviors-among-individuals-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#16
John W Burns, Kristina M Post, David A Smith, Laura S Porter, Asokumar Buvanendran, Anne Marie Fras, Francis J Keefe
Individuals with chronic pain may experience negative responses from spouse, family and friends. Responses such as overt criticism and hostility may be associated with worsening pain and function for chronic pain sufferers. We used a laboratory procedure to evaluate whether variability in spouse criticism/hostility exhibited toward chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients during a conflictual discussion predicted variability in patient pain and function during a subsequent pain-induction task. CLBP patients (n=71) and their spouses (n=71) participated in a 10-minute discussion followed by the patient undergoing a 10-minute structured pain behavior task (SPBT)...
August 8, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795977/strategies-for-supporting-physician-scientists-in-faculty-roles-a-narrative-review-with-key-informant-consultations
#17
Lorelei Lingard, Peter Zhang, Michael Strong, Margaret Steele, John Yoo, James Lewis
PURPOSE: Physician-scientists are a population in decline globally. Solutions to reverse this decline often have focused on the training pipeline. Less attention has been paid to reducing attrition post training, when physician-scientists take up faculty roles. However, this period is a known time of vulnerability because of the pressures of clinical duties and the long timeline to securing independent research funding. This narrative review explored existing knowledge regarding how best to support physician-scientists for success in their faculty roles...
August 8, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795247/german-translation-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-diagnostic-test-accuracy-of-three-frailty-screening-tools-prisma-7-frail-scale-and-groningen-frailty-indicator
#18
Tobias Braun, Christian Grüneberg, Christian Thiel
BACKGROUND: Routine screening for frailty could be used to timely identify older people with increased vulnerability und corresponding medical needs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PRISMA-7 questionnaire, the FRAIL scale and the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) into the German language as well as a preliminary analysis of the diagnostic test accuracy of these instruments used to screen for frailty. METHODS: A diagnostic cross-sectional study was performed...
August 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793807/-stuck-in-a-loop-of-fear-a-phenomenological-exploration-of-carers-experiences-supporting-a-spouse-with-acquired-brain-injury
#19
Benjamin J Lond, Iain R Williamson
PURPOSE: Family caregivers are important to facilitating the rehabilitation of individuals with brain injury. However, research shows spousal carers often reporting poorer health and well-being with psychosocial challenges including increased marital dissatisfaction. This study explores the accounts of participants caring for a spouse with brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study used semi-structured interviewing and interpretative phenomenological analysis...
August 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792656/amygdala-and-regional-volumes-in-treatment-resistant-versus-nontreatment-resistant-depression-patients
#20
Anca-Larisa Sandu, Eric Artiges, André Galinowski, Thierry Gallarda, Frank Bellivier, Hervé Lemaitre, Bernard Granger, Damien Ringuenet, Eleni T Tzavara, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot
BACKGROUND: Although treatment-resistant and nontreatment-resistant depressed patients show structural brain anomalies relative to healthy controls, the difference in regional volumetry between these two groups remains undocumented. METHODS: A whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional volumes was performed in 125 participants' magnetic resonance images obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner; 41 had treatment-resistant depression (TRD), 40 nontreatment-resistant depression (non-TRD), and 44 were healthy controls...
August 9, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
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