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Pediatric Movement Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937639/sleep-disorders-in-childhood-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Abdullah Tolaymat, Zhao Liu
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes...
September 22, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#2
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895457/polysomnography-in-pediatric-otolaryngology-if-not-obstructive-sleep-apnea-what-is-it
#3
Christine H Heubi, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Sally R Shott, David F Smith, And Stacey L Ishman
Objective To determine common polysomnographic (PSG) diagnoses for children referred by otolaryngologists. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Single tertiary pediatric hospital (2010-2015). Subjects and Methods Review of the medical records of 1258 patients undergoing PSG by otolaryngology referral. Patients who underwent previous otolaryngologic surgery were excluded. Data distributions were evaluated using means with standard deviations for continuous variables and frequencies with percentages for categorical variables...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892547/non-rapid-eye-movement-arousal-parasomnias-in-children
#4
Vijayabharathi Ekambaram, Kiran Maski
Parasomnia is a common pediatric sleep disorder that can cause parents or caregivers distress when experienced by their children. Based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, parasomnias can be divided into two subgroups: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias and rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnias. REM sleep parasomnias include nightmares, REM behavior disorder, and sleep paralysis, whereas NREM sleep parasomnias include disorders of arousal such as confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors, and sleep-related eating disorder...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845923/clinical-rating-scale-for-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration-a-pilot-study
#5
Alejandra Darling, Cristina Tello, María Josep Martí, Cristina Garrido, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Miguel Tomás Vila, Itziar Gastón, Marcos Madruga, Luis González Gutiérrez, Julio Ramos Lizana, Montserrat Pujol, Tania Gavilán Iglesias, Kylee Tustin, Jean Pierre Lin, Giovanna Zorzi, Nardo Nardocci, Loreto Martorell, Gustavo Lorenzo Sanz, Fuencisla Gutiérrez, Pedro J García, Lidia Vela, Carlos Hernández Lahoz, Juan Darío Ortigoza Escobar, Laura Martí Sánchez, Fradique Moreira, Miguel Coelho, Leonor Correia Guedes, Ana Castro Caldas, Joaquim Ferreira, Paula Pires, Cristina Costa, Paulo Rego, Marina Magalhães, María Stamelou, Daniel Cuadras Pallejà, Carmen Rodríguez-Blazquez, Pablo Martínez-Martín, Vincenzo Lupo, Leonidas Stefanis, Roser Pons, Carmen Espinós, Teresa Temudo, Belén Pérez Dueñas
BACKGROUND: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a progressive neurological disorder occurring in both childhood and adulthood. The objective of this study was to design and pilot-test a disease-specific clinical rating scale for the assessment of patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. METHODS: In this international cross-sectional study, patients were examined at the referral centers following a standardized protocol. The motor examination was filmed, allowing 3 independent specialists in movement disorders to analyze 28 patients for interrater reliability assessment...
August 28, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841275/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-pediatric-nmda-receptor-autoimmune-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-india
#6
Salah Basheer, Madhu Nagappa, Anita Mahadevan, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Arun B Taly, Satish Chandra Girimaji
Objective: Although psychiatric manifestations are one of the most common presentations of pediatric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, there is a lack of studies that characterize psychiatric aspects of this disorder. This study was designed to address this gap. Methods: Initial clinical presentations including psychiatric symptoms, treatment details, and outcome with respect to psychiatric symptoms were collected from medical case records of children aged less than 18 years with seropositive NMDAR encephalitis from a single tertiary care center (May 2010-November 2016)...
August 17, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831753/pharmacological-management-of-restless-legs-syndrome-and-periodic-limb-movement-disorder-in-children
#7
Geoffrey Rulong, Thomas Dye, Narong Simakajornboon
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) are under-recognized sleep disorders in children and adolescents. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that RLS and PLMD are common in the pediatric population, and if left untreated, may lead to cardiovascular and neurocognitive consequences. Therefore, early diagnosis and intervention may help preventing long-term consequences. The management of RLS and PLMD in children involves both non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches...
August 22, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805718/myoclonic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Olaf Eberhardt, Helge Topka
Few movement disorders seem to make a straightforward approach to diagnosis and treatment more difficult and frustrating than myoclonus, due to its plethora of causes and its variable classifications. Nevertheless, in recent years, exciting advances have been made in the elucidation of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of many disorders presenting with myoclonus. Here, we provide a review of all of the important types of myoclonus encountered in pediatric and adult neurology, with an emphasis on the recent developments that have led to a deeper understanding of this intriguing phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783940/aripiprazole-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-in-13-years-old-girl-successfully-treated-with-biperiden-a-case-report
#9
Marco Lamberti, Gabriella Di Rosa, Francesca Cucinotta, Erica Pironti, Cecilia Galati, Antonella Gagliano
In the last years second-generation antipsychotics are increasingly prescribed in the pediatric population for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Among the long term adverse effects, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) are less reported compared to first-generation antipsychotics. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a iatrogenic rare syndrome characterized by persistent slow writhing and sudden involuntary movements mainly involving the oral-buccal-lingual area with masticatory movements. We report a young girl with mood disorders accompanied by mild intellectual disability and behavioral problems who had TD after treatment with Aripiprazole, which responded to Biperiden therapy...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770118/new-onset-insomnia-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#10
Tamar N Goldberg, Michael F Cellucci
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is becoming more widely recognized as a cause of encephalopathy in both adults and children. Certain clinical features such as mood lability, movement disorders, speech dysfunction, seizures, and autonomic instability in a pediatric patient should prompt immediate concern and evaluation for autoimmune encephalitis among providers. We present the case of a pediatric patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in which the symptom prompting medical evaluation was insomnia. Insomnia has not previously been emphasized in the literature as a presenting feature of this disease in children and has a broad differential...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735929/electrophysiological-and-microstructural-features-of-sleep-in%C3%A2-children%C3%A2-at-high-risk-for-depression-a-preliminary-study
#11
Gianluca Sesso, Flora Bat-Pitault, Aurore Guyon, Sabine Plancoulaine, Tommaso Banfi, Giulia Milioli, Liborio Parrino, Ugo Faraguna, Patricia Franco
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study investigated electrophysiological and microstructural features of sleep in children and adolescents 4-18 years of age who were born to depressed mothers. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy subjects (15 male and 16 female) participated in the study. In this sample, 20 children born to mothers diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were designated as "high-risk"; 11 children born to mothers without a personal history of depression were designated as "low-risk...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708753/effectiveness-of-preoperative-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-compared-with-oral-midazolam-for-the-prevention-of-emergence-delirium-in-the-pediatric-patient-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-systematic-review
#12
James FitzSimons, Laura S Bonanno, Stephanie Pierce, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705170/can-lokomat-therapy-with-children-and-adolescents-be-improved-an-adaptive-clinical-pilot-trial-comparing-guidance-force-path-control-and-freed
#13
Tabea Aurich-Schuler, Fabienne Grob, Hubertus J A van Hedel, Rob Labruyère
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted gait therapy is increasingly being used in pediatric neurorehabilitation to complement conventional physical therapy. The robotic device applied in this study, the Lokomat (Hocoma AG, Switzerland), uses a position control mode (Guidance Force), where exact positions of the knee and hip joints throughout the gait cycle are stipulated. Such a mode has two disadvantages: Movement variability is restricted, and patients tend to walk passively. Kinematic variability and active participation, however, are crucial for motor learning...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660669/comparison-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-therapy-cognitive-behavioral-writing-therapy-and-wait-list-in-pediatric-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-single-incident-trauma-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Carlijn de Roos, Saskia van der Oord, Bonne Zijlstra, Sacha Lucassen, Sean Perrin, Paul Emmelkamp, Ad de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recommend trauma-focused psychotherapies, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is a brief trauma-focused, evidence-based treatment for PTSD in adults, but with few well-designed trials involving children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial with three arms (n = 103): EMDR (n = 43), Cognitive Behavior Writing Therapy (CBWT; n = 42), and wait-list (WL; n = 18)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654799/neurobehavioral-consequences-of-continuous-spike-and-waves-during-slow-sleep-csws-in-a-pediatric-population-a-pattern-of-developmental-hindrance
#15
Valentina De Giorgis, Melissa Filippini, Joyce Ann Macasaet, Silvia Masnada, Pierangelo Veggiotti
INTRODUCTION: Continuous spike and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) is a typical EEG pattern defined as diffuse, bilateral and recently also unilateral or focal localization spike-wave occurring in slow sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep. Literature results so far point out a progressive deterioration and decline of intellectual functioning in CSWS patients, i.e. a loss of previously normally acquired skills, as well as persistent neurobehavioral disorders, beyond seizure and EEG control...
June 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647021/reprint-of-minimizing-noise-in-pediatric-task-based-functional-mri-adolescents-with-developmental-disabilities-and-typical-development
#16
Catherine Fassbender, Prerona Mukherjee, Julie B Schweitzer
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) represents a powerful tool with which to examine brain functioning and development in typically developing pediatric groups as well as children and adolescents with clinical disorders. However, fMRI data can be highly susceptible to misinterpretation due to the effects of excessive levels of noise, often related to head motion. Imaging children, especially with developmental disorders, requires extra considerations related to hyperactivity, anxiety and the ability to perform and maintain attention to the fMRI paradigm...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628591/movement-system-diagnosis
#17
Ann F Van Sant
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This article presents the concept of movement system diagnoses (MSDxs), including an examination of the evolution of the ideas that are shaping the development of MSDxs. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Ideas leading to development of the need for MSDxs are traced, and an overview of Diagnosis Dialog and points of consensus are provided. Four examples from areas of neurologic and pediatric practice where additional work is needed on movement system diagnosis are highlighted...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616427/specific-genes-associated-with-adverse-events-of-methylphenidate-use-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Beinta Joensen, Morten Meyer, Lise Aagaard
The aim of this study was to review empirical studies examining associations between candidate genes and adverse events (AEs) from methylphenidate (MPH) use in children and adolescents. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until March 2017. We included empirically based articles on pharmacogenetic studies in 0-17-year-old patients that investigated associations between specific candidate genes, their polymorphisms, and reported AEs. We extracted information about study design, setting, type of AE reporter, studied genes and their polymorphisms, age and gender, administered doses, method of genotyping, outcome measures, and main findings...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604158/a-stepwise-approach-decreasing-infection-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-childhood-dystonic-cerebral-palsy
#19
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Ryan C Hofler, Douglas E Anderson
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, which cause twisting movements or abnormal postures. Deep brain stimulation has been used to improve the quality of life for secondary dystonia caused by cerebral palsy. Despite being a viable treatment option for childhood dystonic cerebral palsy, deep brain stimulation is associated with a high rate of infection in children. The authors present a small series of patients with dystonic cerebral palsy who underwent a stepwise approach for bilateral globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation placement in order to decrease the rate of infection...
September 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553399/the-gut-brain-axis-a-new-pathogenic-view-of-neurologic-symptoms-description-of-a-pediatric-case
#20
Raffaele Falsaperla, Catia Romano, Piero Pavone, Giovanna Vitaliti, Qian Yuan, Nazgole Motamed-Gorji, Riccardo Lubrano
Recent literature data have given emphasis to the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and neurologic diseases, underlying a new pathogenic pathway: The so-called "gut-brain axis." Herein, authors report a case of a 10-month-old male infant, admitted for drug-resistant epilepsy, associated with irritable behavior and GI discomfort, secondary to cow's milk protein allergy. Seizures were described by parents as upward eye movements that were mostly deviated to the right and were associated with slight extension of his neck...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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