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Satellite cell activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291734/safety-assessment-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-the-flowers-of-nymphaea-lotus-linn-nymphaeaceae-acute-neuro-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-studies-in-albinos-wistar-rats
#1
Mireille Kameni Poumeni, Danielle Claude Bilanda, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet Djomeni, Yolande Sandrine Mengue Ngadena, Marguerite Francine Mballa, Madeleine Chantal Ngoungoure, Agnès Carolle Ouafo, Théophile Dimo, Pierre Kamtchouing
BACKGROUND: Nymphaea lotus Linn (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon popular medicine, to treat neuropsychiatric conditions, male sexual disorders or as food supplement. However, scientific data on the pharmacotoxic profile of this plant are not available. The safety of N. lotus was assessed in acute, neuro- and subchronic toxicity studies by following the OECD guidelines. Effectively, no data have been published until now in regard to its safety on the nervous system...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249356/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-by-fibroblast-growth-factors
#2
REVIEW
Bradley Pawlikowski, Thomas Orion Vogler, Katherine Gadek, Bradley Olwin
Fibroblast growth factors are essential for self-renewal of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), and required for maintenance and repair of skeletal muscle. Satellite cells express high levels of FGF receptor 1 and 4, low levels of FGF receptor 3 and little or no detectable FGF receptor 2. Of the multiple FGFs that influence satellite cell function in culture, FGF2 and FGF6 are the only members that regulate satellite cell function in vivo by activating ERK MAPK, p38α/β MAPKs, PI3 kinase, PLCγ and STATs...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247357/methods-for-observing-and-quantifying-muscle-satellite-cell-motility-and-invasion-in-vitro
#3
Dane K Lund, Patrick McAnulty, Ashley L Siegel, Ddw Cornelison
Motility and/or chemotaxis of satellite cells has been suggested or observed in multiple in vitro and in vivo contexts. Satellite cell motility also affects the efficiency of muscle regeneration, particularly in the context of engrafted exogenous cells. Consequently, there is keen interest in determining what cell-autonomous and environmental factors influence satellite cell motility and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of activated satellite cells to relocate in vivo would suggest that they must be able to invade and transit through the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is supported by studies in which alteration or addition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity enhanced the spread of engrafted satellite cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247355/monitoring-autophagy-in-muscle-stem-cells
#4
Laura García-Prat, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Marta Martínez-Vicente
Autophagy is critical not only for the cell's adaptive response to starvation but also for cellular homeostasis, by acting as quality-control machinery for cytoplasmic components. This basal autophagic activity is particularly needed in postmitotic cells for survival maintenance. Recently, basal autophagic activity was reported in skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) in their dormant quiescent state. Satellite cells are responsible for growth as well as for regeneration of muscle in response to stresses such as injury or disease...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243354/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-ameliorates-antioxidant-defense-mechanisms-and-improves-replicative-senescence-associated-oxidative-stress-in-human-myoblasts
#5
Shy Cian Khor, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof, Norwahidah Abdul Karim, Suzana Makpol
During aging, oxidative stress affects the normal function of satellite cells, with consequent regeneration defects that lead to sarcopenia. This study aimed to evaluate tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) modulation in reestablishing the oxidative status of myoblasts during replicative senescence and to compare the effects of TRF with other antioxidants (α-tocopherol (ATF) and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)). Primary human myoblasts were cultured to young, presenescent, and senescent phases. The cells were treated with antioxidants for 24 h, followed by the assessment of free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activities, and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238764/cullin-e3-ligase-activity-is-required-for-myoblast-differentiation
#6
Jordan Blondelle, Paige Shapiro, Andrea A Domenighetti, Stephan Lange
The role of cullin E3-ubiquitin ligases for muscle homeostasis is best known during muscle atrophy, as the cullin-1 substrate adaptor atrogin-1 is among the most well-characterized muscle atrogins. We investigated whether cullin activity was also crucial during terminal myoblast differentiation and aggregation of acetylcholine receptors for the establishment of neuromuscular junctions in vitro. The activity of cullin E3-ligases is modulated through post-translational modification with the small ubiquitin-like modifier nedd8...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223540/akirin2-promotes-slow-myosin-heavy-chain-expression-by-can-nfatc1-signaling-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#7
Xiaoling Chen, Yanliu Luo, Zhiqing Huang, Guangmang Liu, Hua Zhao
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Akirin2 on slow myosin heavy chain (slow MyHC, MyHC I) gene expression and its molecular mechanisms. In this study, we showed that the protein expression of Akirin2 in pig slow oxidative Psoas major muscle is higher than that in fast glycolytic tibialis anterior muscle, suggesting that Akirin2 may play a role in myofiber typing. Knockdown of Akirin2 decreased the MyHC I expression and the calcineurin (CaN) activity, and also decreased the expressions of NFATc1 and MCIP1...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223128/a-screening-assay-for-the-identification-of-host-cell-requirements-and-antiviral-targets-for-hepatitis-d-virus-infection
#8
Bettina Buchmann, Katinka Döhner, Thomas Schirdewahn, Beate Sodeik, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek, Thomas von Hahn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a minimalistic satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV/HDV co-infection, i.e. "hepatitis D", is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. No effective therapy for HDV infection is available partly due to the fact that HDV is a highly host-dependent virus devoid of any potentially drugable enzyme encoded in its small genome. In this study we present a semi-automated method to evaluate HDV infection and replication under the influence of different drugs. We utilized a Huh-7/hNTCP cell culture based system in a 96-well plate format, an automated microscope and image acquisition as well as analysis with the CellProfiler software to quantify the impact of these drugs on HDV infection...
February 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202082/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-myostatin-pathways-key-mediator-of-human-sarcopenia
#9
Manuel Scimeca, Eleonora Piccirilli, Francesca Mastrangeli, Cecilia Rao, Maurizio Feola, Augusto Orlandi, Elena Gasbarra, Elena Bonanno, Umberto Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199982/n-acetyl-cysteine-attenuates-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-via-inhibiting-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#10
Yue Liu, Yuan Ni, Wei Zhang, Yu-E Sun, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
Treatment of remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia (RIH) remains a clinical challenge because the mechanisms are not fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a key component in neuroinflammation because of its facilitation of pro-inflammatory cytokine maturation. Therefore, inhibition of MMP-9 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of RIH. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Incision and Remifentanil. A right plantar surgical incision was performed in Group Incision, and intraoperative remifentanil (0...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192150/effect-of-artemisinin-on-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-p2x4-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#11
Mofeng Ying, Hui Liu, Tengling Zhang, Chenxu Jiang, Yingxin Gong, Bing Wu, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Shenqiang Rao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Huilong Yuan, Liran Shi, Lin Li, Shangdong Liang, Shuangmei Liu
Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by nervous system damage and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is complicated, and there are no effective therapies for neuropathic pain. Studies show that the P2X4 receptor expressed in the satellite glial cells (SGCs) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is related to neuropathic pain. Artemisinin is a monomeric component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine and has a variety of important pharmacological effects and potential applications. This study observed the effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain and delineated its possible mechanism...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191501/skeletal-muscle-function-deficits-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives-on-resistance-training
#12
Evan V Papa, Xiaoyang Dong, Mahdi Hassan
A variety of changes in skeletal muscle occur with aging. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Traditional definitions of sarcopenia focused on the size of human skeletal muscle. However, increasing evidence in older adults suggests that low muscle mass is associated with weakness, and weakness is strongly associated with function and disability. In recent years a global trend has shifted toward more encompassing definitions for the loss of muscle mass which include decreases in physical function...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188178/activation-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-myogenesis-through-the-noncanonical-wnt-pathway-leading-to-hypertrophic-myotubes
#13
Federica Cirillo, Giulia Resmini, Andrea Ghiroldi, Marco Piccoli, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Luigi Anastasia
Regeneration of skeletal muscle is a complex process that requires the activation of quiescent adult stem cells, called satellite cells, which are resident in hypoxic niches in the tissue. Hypoxia has been recognized as a key factor to maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Herein we report that hypoxia plays a fundamental role also in activating myogenesis. In particular, we found that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxia, in murine skeletal myoblasts, leads to activation of MyoD through the noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183860/diminished-satellite-cell-fusion-and-s6k1-expression-in-myotubes-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-of-low-birth-weight-neonatal-pigs
#14
Ying Chen, Haibo Zhu, Sydney R McCauley, Lidan Zhao, Sally E Johnson, Robert P Rhoads, Samer W El-Kadi
Low birth weight (LBWT) is consistently associated with impaired postnatal muscle growth in mammals. Satellite cell (SC)-mediated myonuclear incorporation precedes protein accumulation in the early stages of postnatal muscle development and growth. The objective of this study was to investigate proliferation and differentiation of SCs and the regulation of protein synthesis signaling in response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I stimulation in SC-derived myotubes of LBWT neonatal pigs. SCs isolated from Longissimus dorsi muscle of LBWT and NBWT pigs (3-d-old, n = 8) were cultured and induced to proliferate and differentiate to myotubes in vitro...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167779/integrity-of-the-human-centromere-dna-repeats-is-protected-by-cenp-a-cenp-c-and-cenp-t
#15
Simona Giunta, Hironori Funabiki
Centromeres are highly specialized chromatin domains that enable chromosome segregation and orchestrate faithful cell division. Human centromeres are composed of tandem arrays of α-satellite DNA, which spans up to several megabases. Little is known about the mechanisms that maintain integrity of the long arrays of α-satellite DNA repeats. Here, we monitored centromeric repeat stability in human cells using chromosome-orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization (CO-FISH). This assay detected aberrant centromeric CO-FISH patterns consistent with sister chromatid exchange at the frequency of 5% in primary tissue culture cells, whereas higher levels were seen in several cancer cell lines and during replicative senescence...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161635/effect-of-tcea3-on-the-differentiation-of-bovine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#16
Yue Zhu, Hui-Li Tong, Shu-Feng Li, Yun-Qin Yan
Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro...
February 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155812/human-muscle-precursor-cells-overexpressing-pgc-1%C3%AE-enhance-early-skeletal-muscle-tissue-formation
#17
Deana Haralampieva, Souzan Salemi, Ivana Dinulovic, Tullio Sulser, Simon M Ametamey, Christoph Handschin, Daniel Eberli
Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are activated satellite cells capable of muscle fiber reconstruction. Therefore, autologous MPC transplantation is envisioned for the treatment of muscle diseases. However, the density of MPCs, as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential gradually decline with age. The goal of this research was to genetically modify human MPCs (hMPCs) to overexpress the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α), a key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation, and thereby to enhance early skeletal muscle formation and quality...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155605/met-activating-genetically-improved-chimeric-factor-1-promotes-angiogenesis-and-hypertrophy-in-adult-myogenesis
#18
Flavio Ronzoni, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Ilaria Perini, Laura Benedetti, Daniela Galli, Francesca Mulas, Martina Balli, Giovanni Magenes, Riccardo Bellazzi, Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Maurilio Sampaolesi
BACKGROUND: Myogenic progenitor cells (activated satellite cells) are able to express both HGF and its receptor cMet. After muscle injury, HGF-Met stimulation promotes activation and primary division of satellite cells. MAGIC-F1 (Met-Activating Genetically Improved Chimeric Factor-1) is an engineered protein that contains two human Met-binding domains that promotes muscle hypertrophy. MAGIC-F1 protects myogenic precursors against apoptosis and increases their fusion ability enhancing muscle differentiation...
February 1, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155153/characterizing-satellite-cells-and-myogenic-progenitors-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#19
Nicolas A Dumont, Michael A Rudnicki
Muscle stem cells, named satellite cells, are quiescent in resting skeletal muscle. Following injury, satellite cells are activated and become proliferating myoblasts that either self-renew or differentiate. Several markers are used to identify the different myogenic populations, such as Pax7 (quiescent and activated satellite cells), MyoD (proliferating myoblasts), and myogenin (differentiating myoblasts). Immunodetection of these markers is a very useful tool to analyze myogenic cells and muscle regeneration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138563/ganglionic-gfap-glial-gq-gpcr-signaling-enhances-heart-functions-in-vivo
#20
Alison Xiaoqiao Xie, Jakovin J Lee, Ken D McCarthy
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) accelerates heart rate, increases cardiac contractility, and constricts resistance vessels. The activity of SNS efferent nerves is generated by a complex neural network containing neurons and glia. Gq G protein-coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing (GFAP(+)) glia in the central nervous system supports neuronal function and regulates neuronal activity. It is unclear how Gq-GPCR signaling in GFAP(+) glia affects the activity of sympathetic neurons or contributes to SNS-regulated cardiovascular functions...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
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