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Satellite cell activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547585/aio-casilio-a-robust-crispr-cas9-pumilio-system-for-chromosome-labeling
#1
Shuxian Zhang, Zhan Song
The biological function of chromatin bases on its spatial organization and dynamic activities in different situations. Labeling and tracing of genomic sequences has been a huge challenge in studying the spatial dynamics of chromatin. We reported the development of 'all-in-one Casilio system (Aio-Casilio)', a new system that enables the labeling of endogenous genomic loci. The Aio-Casilio system consists of the dCas9 protein, mClover fused with the Pumilio and FBF proteins RNA-binding domain (PUF domain) and an U6-sgRNA appended with multiple PUF-binding site(s)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546002/catechins-activate-muscle-stem-cells-by-myf5-induction-and-stimulate-muscle-regeneration
#2
A Rum Kim, Kyung Min Kim, Mi Ran Byun, Jun-Ha Hwang, Jung Il Park, Ho Taek Oh, Hyo Kyeong Kim, Mi Gyeong Jeong, Eun Sook Hwang, Jeong-Ho Hong
Muscle weakness is one of the most common symptoms in aged individuals and increases risk of mortality. Thus, maintenance of muscle mass is important for inhibiting aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, polyphenol compounds in green tea, on muscle regeneration. We found that (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activate satellite cells by induction of Myf5 transcription factors. For satellite cell activation, Akt kinase was significantly induced after ECG treatment and ECG-induced satellite cell activation was blocked in the presence of Akt inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536315/-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell
#3
Shinsuke Yuasa
Adult skeletal muscle has its own stem cell population known as satellite cells. After muscle injury, quiescent satellite cells are activated and then proliferate and differentiate into mature skeletal muscle to ensure that muscle function is recovered. In our screen for myocyte differentiation-promoting factors, we noted markedly elevated expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor(G-CSFR, encoded by csf3r)in the skeletal muscle developing area. Furthermore, G-CSFR was transiently expressed in regenerating myocytes of adult injured skeletal muscle, and extrinsic G-CSF supported short-term and long-term muscle regeneration in mouse model of skeletal muscle injury...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534262/inflammatory-changes-in-paravertebral-sympathetic-ganglia-in-two-rat-pain-models
#4
Ai-Ling Li, Jing-Dong Zhang, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526658/nonclinical-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-first-biosimilar-insulin-glargine-drug-product-basaglar-%C3%A2-abasaglar-%C3%A2-approved-in-the-european-union
#5
Richard A Byrd, Rebecca A Owens, Jamie L Blackbourne, David E Coutant, Mark W Farmen, M Dodson Michael, Julie S Moyers, A Eric Schultze, Michael K Sievert, Niraj K Tripathi, John L Vahle
Basaglar(®)/Abasaglar(®) (Lilly insulin glargine [LY IGlar]) is a long-acting human insulin analogue drug product granted marketing authorisation as a biosimilar to Lantus(®) (Sanofi insulin glargine [SA IGlar]) by the European Medicines Agency. We assessed the similarity of LY IGlar to the reference drug product, European Union-sourced SA IGlar (EU-SA IGlar), using nonclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. No biologically relevant differences were observed for receptor binding affinity at either the insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors, or in assays of functional or de novo lipogenic activity...
May 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507987/pitx2-in-embryonic-and-adult-myogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Francisco Hernandez-Torres, Lara Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Diego Franco, Amelia E Aranega
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506310/unexpected-evolutionarily-conserved-rapid-effects-of-viral-infection-on-oxytocin-receptor-and-tgf-%C3%AE-psmad3
#7
Yutong Liu, Irina Conboy
BACKGROUND: shRNA lentiviral vectors are extensively used for gene knockdowns in mammalian cells, and non-target shRNAs typically are considered the proper experimental control for general changes caused by RNAi. However, the effects of non-target lentivirus controls on the modulation of cell signaling pathways remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of control lentiviral transduction on oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression through the ERK/MAPK pathway in mouse and human skeletal muscle cells, on myogenic activity, and in vivo on mouse muscle regeneration...
May 15, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490543/molecular-regulation-of-exercise-induced-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy
#8
Marcas M Bamman, Brandon M Roberts, Gregory R Adams
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a widely sought exercise adaptation to counteract the muscle atrophy of aging and disease, or to improve athletic performance. While this desired muscle enlargement is a well-known adaptation to resistance exercise training (RT), the mechanistic underpinnings are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is thus to provide the reader with a summary of recent advances in molecular mechanisms-based on the most current literature-that are thought to promote RT-induced muscle hypertrophy...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484201/epigenetic-analysis-of-bovine-parthenogenetic-embryonic-fibroblasts
#9
Masahiro Kaneda, Masashi Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Yamanaka, Koji Saito, Masanori Taniguchi, Satoshi Akagi, Shinya Watanabe, Takashi Nagai
Although more than 100 imprinted genes have already been identified in the mouse and human genomes, little is known about genomic imprinting in cattle. For a better understanding of these genes in cattle, parthenogenetically activated bovine blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows to obtain parthenotes, and fibroblasts derived from a Day 40 (Day 0 being the day of parthenogenetic activation) parthenogenetic embryo (BpEFs) were successfully obtained. Bovine embryonic fibroblasts (BEFs) were also isolated from a normal fertilized embryo obtained from an artificially inseminated cow...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480978/lumbar-multifidus-muscle-degenerates-in-individuals-with-chronic-degenerative-lumbar-spine-pathology
#10
Bahar Shahidi, James C Hubbard, Michael C Gibbons, Severin Ruoss, Vinko Zlomislic, Richard Todd Allen, Steven R Garfin, Samuel R Ward
Histological and cell-level changes in the lumbar musculature in individuals with chronic lumbar spine degenerative conditions are not well characterized. Although prior literature supports evidence of changes in fiber type and size, little information exists describing the tissue quality and biology of pathological features of muscle in this population. The purpose of this study was to quantify multifidus tissue composition and structure, inflammation, vascularity, and degeneration in individuals with chronic degenerative lumbar spine pathology...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#11
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells up-regulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early- differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479215/local-injection-to-sciatic-nerve-of-dex-reduces-pain-behaviors-sgcs-activation-ngf-expression-and-sympathetic-sprouting-in-cci-rats
#12
Jing-Ru Wu, Hui Chen, Deng-Xin Zhang, Kai Jiang, Ying-Ying Yao, Ming-Ming Zhang, Bo Zhou, Jie Wang
Neuropathic pain has become an intractable health threat, with its profound effect on quality of life. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is evidenced to play a crucial role in neuropathic pain. The peripheral nociceptive afferents seem to be essential not only to initiate the process of neuropathic pain, but also to maintain and modulate it. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective agonist of α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR), has provided significant analgesia in neuropathic pain. In the present study, we found that local injection to sciatic nerve of DEX alleviated heat hypersensitivity induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
May 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474561/hormones-and-sarcopenia
#13
John E Morley
Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass associated with a loss of muscle function, e.g., walking speed. A number of consensus definitions exist for sarcopenia with cut-off points being ethnically specific. A rapid screen test (SARC-F) is available and does not require different ethnic cut-off points. Sarcopenia leads to the development of frailty, disability and mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies from 1-29% in community-dwelling and 14 to 33% in long-term care populations. Hormones play a role in the development of muscle mass and in the regulation of muscle strength...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468973/il-1r-type-1-deficient-mice-demonstrate-an-impaired-host-immune-response-against-cutaneous-vaccinia-virus-infection
#14
Tian Tian, Michelle Qiushuang Jin, Krista Dubin, Sandra L King, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, George F Murphy, Chen Amy Chen, Thomas S Kupper, Robert C Fuhlbrigge
The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1(-/-)) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. The phenotype of infected IL-1R1(-/-) mice was similar to eczema vaccinatum, a severe side effect of VACV vaccination that may develop in humans with atopic dermatitis...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467493/p38-mapk-activation-and-h3k4-trimethylation-is-decreased-by-lactate-in-vitro-and-high-intensity-resistance-training-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#15
Lena Willkomm, Sebastian Gehlert, Daniel Jacko, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch
Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs). Lactate (La)-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464938/quiescence-of-human-muscle-stem-cells-is-favored-by-culture-on-natural-biopolymeric-films
#16
Claire Monge, Nicholas DiStasio, Thomas Rossi, Muriel Sébastien, Hiroshi Sakai, Benoit Kalman, Thomas Boudou, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Isabelle Marty, Anne Bigot, Vincent Mouly, Catherine Picart
BACKGROUND: Satellite cells are quiescent resident muscle stem cells that present an important potential to regenerate damaged tissue. However, this potential is diminished once they are removed from their niche environment in vivo, prohibiting the long-term study and genetic investigation of these cells. This study therefore aimed to provide a novel biomaterial platform for the in-vitro culture of human satellite cells that maintains their stem-like quiescent state, an important step for cell therapeutic studies...
May 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463680/loss-of-ptpn11-shp2-drives-satellite-cells-into-quiescence
#17
Joscha Griger, Robin Schneider, Ines Lahmann, Verena Schöwel, Charles Keller, Simone Spuler, Marc Nazare, Carmen Birchmeier
The equilibrium between proliferation and quiescence of myogenic progenitor and stem cells is tightly regulated to ensure appropriate skeletal muscle growth and repair. The non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn11 (Shp2) is an important transducer of growth factor and cytokine signals. Here we combined complex genetic analyses, biochemical studies and pharmacological interference to demonstrate a central role of Ptpn11 in postnatal myogenesis of mice. Loss of Ptpn11 drove muscle stem cells out of the proliferative and into a resting state during muscle growth...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462365/data-supporting-possible-implication-of-apobec2-in-self-renewal-functions-of-myogenic-stem-satellite-cells-toward-understanding-the-negative-regulation-of-myoblast-differentiation
#18
Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Sato, Takahiro Suzuki, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi
This paper provides in vitro phenotypical data to show that APOBEC2, a member of apoB mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family, may implicate in self-renewal functions of myogenic stem satellite cells, namely in the re-establishment of quiescent status after activation and proliferation of myoblasts in single-myofiber culture.
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462123/resistance-exercise-reduced-the-expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-mice
#19
Jin-Soo Kim, Dong Hyun Yoon, Hee-Jae Kim, Mi-Jung Choi, Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) protein level has been shown to be elevated in aged mice muscle compared to adult mice. It activates the satellite cell quiescence, which leads to satellite cell depletion and may accelerate aging process. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle FGF-2 protein level in aged mice. METHODS: This study included eight young adult control C57BL/6 male mice (age 12 weeks, YCON group) and 14 aged C57BL/6 male mice (age 19 months), randomly divided into two groups (old control, OCON, n = 7; old resistance exercise, ORT, n = 7)...
September 2016: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448743/circular-rnas-with-hammerhead-ribozymes-encoded-in-eukaryotic-genomes-the-enemy-at-home
#20
Marcos de la Peña, Amelia Cervera
A new family of non-autonomous retrotransposons with self-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes, the so called retrozymes, has recently been found encoded in a number of plant genomes. These retroelements can be actively transcribed, and their RNAs accumulate in the cells as abundant non-coding circular RNAs (circRNAs) of small size (600-1000 nt). Related circRNAs with self-cleaving ribozymes had already been described in plants, and belong to a group of infectious RNA agents with an uncertain origin: the viroids and viroid-like satellites of plant RNA viruses...
April 27, 2017: RNA Biology
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