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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681201/cost-effectiveness-vs-affordability-in-the-age-of-immuno-oncology-cancer-drugs
#1
George Dranitsaris, Xiaofu Zhu, Georges Adunlin, Mark D Vincent
After years of setback, cancer immunotherapy has begun to yield clinical dividends, which are changing the treatment landscape and offering cancer patients the potential for long-term survival, reduced treatment-related toxicity and improved quality-of-life. Using the immune system to treat cancer is known as 'Immuno-oncology' (IO) and agents are sub-classified by their ability to enhance anti-tumor response or to direct the immune system to attack cancer cells via tumor-associated antigens. Areas covered: Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of several IO agents in many disease sites such as early and advanced stage melanoma, advanced non-small cell lung cancer, bladder, head and neck, gastric, kidney as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681044/benefit-risk-of-patients-online-access-to-their-medical-records-consensus-exercise-of-an-international-expert-group
#2
Harshana Liyanage, Siaw-Teng Liaw, Emmanouela Konstantara, Freda Mold, Richard Schreiber, Craig Kuziemsky, Amanda L Terry, Simon de Lusignan
BACKGROUND:  Patients' access to their computerised medical records (CMRs) is a legal right in many countries. However, little is reported about the benefit-risk associated with patients' online access to their CMRs. OBJECTIVE:  To conduct a consensus exercise to assess the impact of patients' online access to their CMRs on the quality of care as defined in six domains by the Institute of Medicine (IoM), now the National Academy of Medicine (NAM). METHOD:  A five-round Delphi study was conducted...
April 22, 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681039/the-safe-and-effective-use-of-shared-data-underpinned-by-stakeholder-engagement-and-evaluation-practice
#3
Andrew Georgiou, Farah Magrabi, Hannele Hypponen, Zoie Shui-Yee Wong, Pirkko Nykänen, Philip J Scott, Elske Ammenwerth, Michael Rigby
OBJECTIVES:  The paper draws attention to: i) key considerations involving the confidentiality, privacy, and security of shared data; and ii) the requirements needed to build collaborative arrangements encompassing all stakeholders with the goal of ensuring safe, secure, and quality use of shared data. METHOD:  A narrative review of existing research and policy approaches along with expert perspectives drawn from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development in Health Care and the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Working Group for Assessment of Health Information Systems...
April 22, 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680757/applying-the-global-rcp-ssp-spa-scenario-framework-at-sub-national-scale-a-multi-scale-and-participatory-scenario-approach
#4
Abiy S Kebede, Robert J Nicholls, Andrew Allan, Iñaki Arto, Ignacio Cazcarro, Jose A Fernandes, Chris T Hill, Craig W Hutton, Susan Kay, Attila N Lázár, Ian Macadam, Matthew Palmer, Natalie Suckall, Emma L Tompkins, Katharine Vincent, Paul W Whitehead
To better anticipate potential impacts of climate change, diverse information about the future is required, including climate, society and economy, and adaptation and mitigation. To address this need, a global RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways), SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathways), and SPA (Shared climate Policy Assumptions) (RCP-SSP-SPA) scenario framework has been developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR5). Application of this full global framework at sub-national scales introduces two key challenges: added complexity in capturing the multiple dimensions of change, and issues of scale...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680407/accelerating-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-innovations-from-the-research-pipeline-to-patients
#5
Dana P Goldman, Howard Fillit, Peter Neumann
In June 2017, a diverse group of experts in Alzheimer's disease convened to discuss how to accelerate getting new drugs to patients to both prevent and treat the disease. Participants concluded that we need a more robust, diversified drug development pipeline. Strategic policy measures can help keep new Alzheimer's disease therapies (whether to treat symptoms, prevent onset, or cure) affordable for patients while supporting innovation and facilitating greater information sharing among payers, providers, researchers, and the public, including a postmarket surveillance study system, disease registries, innovative payment approaches, harmonizing federal agency review requirements, allowing conditional coverage for promising therapeutics and technology while additional data are collected, and opening up channels for drug companies to communicate with payers (and each other) about data and outcomes...
March 23, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679895/ingredientes-farmac%C3%A3-uticos-activos-potencialmente-inapropiados-en-adultos-mayores-lista-ifaspiam-panel-de-consenso-argentino
#6
Marta M Marzi, Miryam S Pires, Nora B Quaglia
OBJECTIVES: To perform a list agreed by Argentinean experts and adapted to the local context containing potentially inappropriate (PI) medications in old people (OP) usingthe Delphi consensus technique optimized for this subject. METHODS: A preliminary list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) was drawn up based on foreign PIM lists and a selective search in the scientific literature. The iterative Delphi process was used to submit the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of the preliminary PIM list to the panel of Argentinean experts...
April 18, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679598/sleep-in-women-across-the-lifespan
#7
REVIEW
Martino Pengo, Christine Won, Ghada Bourjeily
There are many ways in which women experience sleep differently than men. Women contend with distinct sleep challenges, respond differently to sleep disorders, sleep deprivation and deficiency, and face particular health outcomes as a result of poor sleep. Idiosyncrasies - including changes that occur with the biological life cycles of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause- make the understanding of sleep in women an important topic to study. Each phase of a woman's life, from childhood to menopause, increases the risk of sleep disturbance in unique ways that may require distinct management...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678059/building-bayesian-networks-from-causal-rules
#8
Karima Sedki, Rosy Tsopra
Bayesian Networks (BNs) are often used for designing diagnosis decision support systems. They are a well-established method for reasoning under uncertainty and making inferences. But, eliciting the probabilities can be tedious and time-consuming especially in medical domain where variables are often related by qualitative terms rather than probabilities. The goal of this paper is to propose a method for eliciting the probabilities required in BNs by using and transforming causal rules which are often used in medicine...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678054/automatic-processing-of-anatomic-pathology-reports-in-the-italian-language-to-enhance-the-reuse-of-clinical-data
#9
Natalia Viani, Lorenzo Chiudinelli, Cristina Tasca, Alberto Zambelli, Mauro Bucalo, Arianna Ghirardi, Nicola Barbarini, Eleonora Sfreddo, Lucia Sacchi, Carlo Tondini, Riccardo Bellazzi
Medical reports often contain a lot of relevant information in the form of free text. To reuse these unstructured texts for biomedical research, it is important to extract structured data from them. In this work, we adapted a previously developed information extraction system to the oncology domain, to process a set of anatomic pathology reports in the Italian language. The information extraction system relies on a domain ontology, which was adapted and refined in an iterative way. The final output was evaluated by a domain expert, with promising results...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678018/advantages-of-a-web-based-real-time-bed-management-system-for-hospital-admission-monitoring-in-iran
#10
Somayeh Abedian, Ehsan Bitaraf, Marjan Askari
Lack of up-to-date information of hospitals beds, specifically in emergencies, is a significant problem in many large countries; The Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran (MOHME) designed and implemented a dynamic system that reports the status of beds in 2012. This system created great opportunities for national bed management, including real-time hospital admission monitoring, especially for emergency departments, ICUs and CCUs. Therefore, an additional online system was planned to be implemented for monitoring hospital admissions, including a national alert system...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677987/towards-unsupervised-detection-of-process-models-in-healthcare
#11
Amirah Alharbi, Andy Bulpitt, Owen A Johnson
Process mining techniques can play a significant role in understanding healthcare processes by supporting analysis of patient records in electronic health record systems. Healthcare processes are complex and patterns of care may vary considerably within similar cohorts of patients. Process mining often creates "spaghetti" models and require significant domain expert input to refine. Machine learning approaches such as Hidden Markov Models (HMM) may assist this refinement process. HMMs have been advocated for patient pathways clustering purposes; however these models can also be utilized for detecting hidden processes to help event abstraction...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677963/two-years-of-eprescription-in-slovenia-applications-and-potentials
#12
Dalibor Stanimirovic, Dusan Savic
ePrescription is one of the most successful eHealth solutions in Slovenia. Since its national roll-out in early 2016, the quality of its operations has been constantly improving, and the number of users has been growing ever since to reach today's 90% of all healthcare providers. ePrescription facilitates more transparent and safer prescribing of medications, an overview of possible medication interactions, and reduction of administrative and opportunity costs. This paper initially explores the current state of ePrescription in Slovenia and different aspects of its application...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676709/-consult-online-digital-resource-for-tropical-doctors
#13
E P Baerends, W W E Nolet
Consult Online is a Dutch telemedicine system for physicians who work in international healthcare and tropical medicine (formerly known as 'tropical doctors'). It provides specialist advice for complicated cases where local specialist services are lacking. Eighty-nine experts from 25 different specialties are available for advice via www.troie.nl/consult-online. Most of these experts have worked in low resource settings for years before becoming specialists in other disciplines. Since its inception in 2008, Consult Online has received 639 consultations from 41 different countries...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676201/prognosis-and-monitoring-of-giant-cell-arteritis-and-associated-complications
#14
Tanaz A Kermani, Kenneth J Warrington
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in people over the age of 50 years. Prospective imaging studies in GCA highlight the systemic nature of this vasculitis. Areas covered: This review summarizes literature using PubMed on complications of GCA and its treatment. Emphasis was placed on articles published within the past 5 years. Disease associated complications including vision loss from arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, large-artery stenoses and ischemia, and, aortic aneurysms and dissections...
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676182/an-evaluation-of-selected-q-sars-expert-systems-for-predicting-skin-sensitisation-potential
#15
J M Fitzpatrick, D W Roberts, G Patlewicz
Predictive testing to characterise substances for their skin sensitisation potential has historically been based on animal models such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and the Guinea Pig Maximisation Test (GPMT). In recent years, EU regulations, have provided a strong incentive to develop non-animal alternatives, such as expert systems software. Here we selected three different types of expert systems: VEGA (statistical), Derek Nexus (knowledge-based) and TIMES-SS (hybrid), and evaluated their performance using two large sets of animal data: one set of 1249 substances from eChemportal and a second set of 515 substances from NICEATM...
April 20, 2018: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676181/identification-of-glia-phenotype-modulators-based-on-select-glial-function-regulatory-signaling-pathways
#16
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Despite the considerable social and economic burden on the healthcare system worldwide due to neurodegenerative diseases, there are currently few disease-altering treatment options for many of these conditions. Therefore, new approaches for both prevention and intervention for neurodegenerative diseases are urgently required. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity is one of the pathologic hallmarks common to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Current therapeutic approaches to target microglia-mediated neurotoxicity are focused on the identification of glia phenotype modulators (GPMs), which can inhibit the 'classical' pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic phenotypes of microglia...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675812/a-new-venous-entry-detection-method-based-on-electrical-bio-impedance-sensing
#17
Zhuoqi Cheng, Brian L Davies, Darwin G Caldwell, Leonardo S Mattos
Peripheral intravenous catheterization (PIVC) is frequently required for various medical treatments. Over 1 billion PIVC operations are performed per year in the United States alone. However, this operation is characterized by a very low success rate, especially amongst pediatric patients. Statistics show that only 53% of first PIVC attempts are successful in pediatric patients. Since their veins are small and readily rupture, multiple attempts are commonly required before successfully inserting the catheter into the vein...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675412/capacities-for-the-risk-assessment-of-gmos-challenges-to-build-sustainable-systems
#18
Danilo Fernández Ríos, Clara Rubinstein, Carmen Vicién
The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675411/cyberbiosecurity-an-emerging-new-discipline-to-help-safeguard-the-bioeconomy
#19
Randall S Murch, William K So, Wallace G Buchholz, Sanjay Raman, Jean Peccoud
Cyberbiosecurity is being proposed as a formal new enterprise which encompasses cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity as applied to biological and biomedical-based systems. In recent years, an array of important meetings and public discussions, commentaries and publications have occurred that highlight numerous vulnerabilities. While necessary first steps, they do not provide a systematized structure for effectively promoting communication, education and training, elucidation and prioritization for analysis, research, development, test and evaluation and implementation of scientific, technological, standards of practice, policy, or even regulatory or legal considerations for protecting the bioeconomy...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675055/shifting-paradigm-from-no-code-and-do-not-resuscitate-to-goals-of-care-policies
#20
Yaseen M Arabi, Abdulla A Al-Sayyari, Mohamed S Al Moamary
Policies addressing limitations of medical therapy in patients with advanced medical conditions are typically referred to as Code Status (No Code) policies or Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) status polices. Inconsistencies in implementation, understanding, decision-making, communication and management of No Code or DNR orders have led to delivery of poorer care to some patients. Several experts have called for a change in the current approach. The new approach, Goals of Care paradigm, aims to contextualize the decisions about resuscitation and advanced life support within the overall plan of care, focusing on choices of treatments to be given rather than specifically on treatments not to be given...
April 2018: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
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