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Diana I Sánchez, Bárbara González-Fernández, Beatriz San-Miguel, Juan Ortiz de Urbina, Irene Crespo, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
The sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine1-phosphate (S1P) pathway is involved in multiple biological processes, including carcinogenesis. Melatonin shows beneficial effects in cell and animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it is unknown if they are associated with the modulation of the SphK/S1P system, along with different downstream signaling pathways modified in cancer. We investigated effects of melatonin in mice which received diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (35 mg/kg body weight i.p) once a week for 8 weeks...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Katsumasa Higashi, Etsuko Matsuzaki, Yoko Hashimoto, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Aiko Takano, Hisashi Anan, Masato Hirata, Fusanori Nishimura
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid that also plays crucial roles in bone regeneration. Recently, we reported that the S1P receptors S1PR1 and S1PR2 were mainly expressed in osteoblast-like cells, and that the S1P/S1PR1 signaling pathway up-regulated osteoprotegerin and osteoblast differentiation. However, the involvement of S1P/S1PR2 signaling in osteoblast differentiation is not well understood. Here we investigate the role of S1P/S1PR2-mediated signaling in osteoblast differentiation and clarify the underlying signaling mechanisms...
September 6, 2016: Bone
Viviane Zelenay, Michael E Arzt, Stefan Bibow, Martin E Schwab, Roland Riek
Functional recovery from central neurotrauma, such as spinal cord injury, is limited by myelin-associated inhibitory proteins. The most prominent example, Nogo-A, imposes an inhibitory cue for nerve fibre growth via two independent domains: Nogo-A-Δ20 (residues 544-725 of the rat Nogo-A sequence) and Nogo-66 (residues 1026-1091). Inhibitory signalling from these domains causes a collapse of the neuronal growth cone via individual receptor complexes, centred around sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) for Nogo-A-Δ20 and Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) for Nogo-66...
2016: PloS One
Nadine Al Alam, Sawsan Ibrahim Kreydiyyeh
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was found previously to inhibit Na(+)-K(+) ATPase in HepG2 cells. Whether fingolimod (FTY720), a S1P receptor (S1PR) agonist, similarly inhibits the ATPase is a question that needs to be addressed. The aim of this work was to study the effect of FTY720P, the active form of the drug, on the activity of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase in HepG2 cells and determine its mechanism of action. The activity of the ATPase was assayed by measuring the amount of inorganic phosphate liberated in the presence and the absence of ouabain...
August 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Masayuki Nagahashi, Kizuki Yuza, Yuki Hirose, Masato Nakajima, Rajesh Ramanathan, Nitai C Hait, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Based on research carried out over the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that bile acids act not only as detergents, but also as important signaling molecules that exert various biological effects via activation of specific nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways. Bile acids also regulate the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in the synthesis and metabolism of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins, as well as energy metabolism. Receptors activated by bile acids include, farnesoid X receptor α, pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptors, TGR5, muscarinic receptor 2, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)2...
September 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
A Bouska, W Zhang, Q Gong, J Iqbal, A Scuto, J Vose, M Ludvigsen, K Fu, D D Weisenburger, T C Greiner, R D Gascoyne, A Rosenwald, G Ott, E Campo, L M Rimsza, J Delabie, E S Jaffe, R M Braziel, J M Connors, C-I Wu, L M Staudt, F D'Amore, T W McKeithan, W C Chan
Follicular lymphoma (FL) is typically an indolent disease, but 30-40% of FL cases transform into an aggressive lymphoma (tFL) with a poor prognosis. To identify the genetic changes that drive this transformation, we sequenced the exomes of 12 cases with paired FL and tFL biopsies and identified 45 recurrently mutated genes in the FL-tFL data set and 39 in the tFL cases. We selected 496 genes of potential importance in transformation and sequenced them in 23 additional tFL cases. Integration of the mutation data with copy-number abnormality (CNA) data provided complementary information...
July 8, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Neil J Ingham, Francesca Carlisle, Selina Pearson, Morag A Lewis, Annalisa Buniello, Jing Chen, Rivka L Isaacson, Johanna Pass, Jacqueline K White, Sally J Dawson, Karen P Steel
Progressive hearing loss is very common in the population but we still know little about the underlying pathology. A new spontaneous mouse mutation (stonedeaf, stdf ) leading to recessive, early-onset progressive hearing loss was detected and exome sequencing revealed a Thr289Arg substitution in Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-2 (S1pr2). Mutants aged 2 weeks had normal hearing sensitivity, but at 4 weeks most showed variable degrees of hearing impairment, which became severe or profound in all mutants by 14 weeks...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aneta Dobierzewska, Macarena Palominos, Marianela Sanchez, Michael Dyhr, Katja Helgert, Pia Venegas-Araneda, Stephen Tong, Sebastian E Illanes
Preeclampsia (PE), is a serious pregnancy disorder characterized in the early gestation by shallow trophoblast invasion, impaired placental neo-angiogenesis, placental hypoxia and ischemia, which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Here we hypothesized that angiogenic sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors pathway is impaired in PE. We found that SPHK1 mRNA and protein expression are down-regulated in term placentae and term chorionic villous explants from patients with PE or severe PE (PES), compared with controls...
2016: PloS One
Hong Yu
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) couples with the Gi, Gq, and G12/13 group of proteins, which modulate an array of cellular signaling pathways and affect immune responses to multiple stimuli. In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of S1PR2 by a specific S1PR2 shRNA lentiviral vector significantly inhibited IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α protein levels induced by oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) in murine bone marrow-derived monocytes and macrophages (BMMs) compared with controls...
2016: PloS One
Sathya Narayanan Patmanathan, Steven P Johnson, Sook Ling Lai, Suthashini Panja Bernam, Victor Lopes, Wenbin Wei, Maha Hafez Ibrahim, Federico Torta, Pradeep Narayanaswamy, Markus R Wenk, Deron R Herr, Paul G Murray, Lee Fah Yap, Ian C Paterson
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival...
2016: Scientific Reports
Huaping Xie, Ding Ye, Diane Sepich, Fang Lin
Formation of the heart tube requires synchronized migration of endocardial and myocardial precursors. Our previous studies indicated that in S1pr2/Gα13-deficient embryos, impaired endoderm convergence disrupted the medial migration of myocardial precursors, resulting in the formation of two myocardial populations. Here we show that endoderm convergence also regulates endocardial migration. In embryos defective for S1pr2/Gα13 signaling, endocardial precursors failed to migrate towards the midline, and the presumptive endocardium surrounded the bilaterally-located myocardial cells rather than being encompassed by them...
June 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Deron R Herr, Marie J Y Reolo, Yee Xin Peh, Wei Wang, Chang-Wook Lee, Rich Rivera, Ian C Paterson, Jerold Chun
Ototoxic drugs, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutics, often lead to permanent hearing loss through apoptosis of neuroepithelial hair cells and afferent neurons of the cochlea. There is no approved therapy for preventing or reversing this process. Our previous studies identified a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), S1P2, as a potential mediator of otoprotection. We therefore sought to identify a pharmacological approach to prevent cochlear degeneration via activation of S1P2. The cochleae of S1pr2(-/-) knockout mice were evaluated for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) assay...
2016: Scientific Reports
Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Shubha Priyamvada, Anas Alakkam, Anoop Kumar, Alip Borthakur, Seema Saksena, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
SLC26A3 or Downregulated in adenoma (DRA) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger involved in electroneutral NaCl absorption in the mammalian intestine. Alterations in DRA function and expression have been implicated in diarrheal diseases associated with inflammation or infection. Therefore, agents that upregulate DRA activity may serve as potential antidiarrheals. In this regard, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a member of the bioactive sphingolipid family, has been shown to modulate various cellular processes including improvement of intestinal barrier function...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Audrey M Hendley, Yue J Wang, Kishore Polireddy, Janivette Alsina, Ishrat Ahmed, Kelly J Lafaro, Hao Zhang, Nilotpal Roy, Samuel G Savidge, Yanna Cao, Matthias Hebrok, Anirban Maitra, Albert B Reynolds, Michael Goggins, Mamoun Younes, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Steven D Leach, Jennifer M Bailey
Aberrant regulation of cellular extrusion can promote invasion and metastasis. Here, we identify molecular requirements for early cellular invasion using a premalignant mouse model of pancreatic cancer with conditional knockout of p120 catenin (Ctnnd1). Mice with biallelic loss of p120 catenin progressively develop high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and neoplasia accompanied by prominent acute and chronic inflammatory processes, which is mediated, in part, through NF-κB signaling...
June 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Wenxuan Xu, Chunfeng Lu, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Shizhong Zheng
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are universally acknowledged to play a stimulative role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. HSCs when activated in response to liver injury are characterized with many changes, with HSC contraction being the most common cause of portal hypertension. Previous studies have shown that dihydroartemisinine (DHA) is a potential antifibrotic natural product by inducing HSC apoptosis, whereas the role of DHA in regulating HSC contraction and the mechanisms involved remain a riddle...
May 2016: IUBMB Life
Cynthia R L Webster, M Sawkat Anwer
The hepatotoxic bile acid glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) modulates hepatocyte cell death through activation of JNK, Akt, and Erk. The nonhepatotoxic bile acid taurocholate activates Akt and Erk through the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). The role of the S1PR2 in GCDC-mediated apoptosis and kinase activation is unknown. Studies were done in rat hepatocytes, HUH7 cells, and HUH7 cells stably transfected with rat Ntcp (HUH7-Ntcp). Cells were treated with GCDC and apoptosis was monitored morphologically by Hoechst staining and biochemically by immunoblotting for the active cleaved fragment of caspase 3...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Cosima T Baldari
Inactivating mutations in the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 2 (S1PR2) promoter have been associated with the germinal center (GC) B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) subtype. In this issue of Blood, Flori et al have now identified S1PR2 as a tumor suppressor that is transcriptionally silenced by forkhead box protein 1 (FOXP1) in the aggressive, activated B-cell (ABC-DLBCL) subtype.
March 17, 2016: Blood
Yoshihiko Kitada, Kazuo Kajita, Koichiro Taguchi, Ichiro Mori, Masahiro Yamauchi, Takahide Ikeda, Mikako Kawashima, Motochika Asano, Toshiko Kajita, Tatsuo Ishizuka, Yoshiko Banno, Itaru Kojima, Jerold Chun, Shotaro Kamata, Isao Ishii, Hiroyuki Morita
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is known to regulate insulin resistance in hepatocytes, skeletal muscle cells, and pancreatic β-cells. Among its 5 cognate receptors (S1pr1-S1pr5), S1P seems to counteract insulin signaling and confer insulin resistance via S1pr2 in these cells. S1P may also regulate insulin resistance in adipocytes, but the S1pr subtype(s) involved remains unknown. Here, we investigated systemic glucose/insulin tolerance and phenotypes of epididymal adipocytes in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type and S1pr2-deficient (S1pr2(-/-)) mice...
May 2016: Endocrinology
Dai Shida, Satoru Inoue, Yuki Yoshida, Atsushi Kodaka, Tsutomu Tsuji, Makoto Tsuiji
AIM: To examine the expression of SphK1, an oncogenic kinase that produces sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and its correlation with the expression of LPAR2, a major lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor overexpressed in various cancers, in human colorectal cancer. METHODS: Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA expression of SphK1, LPAR2, and the three major S1P receptors in 27 colorectal cancer samples and corresponding normal tissue samples...
February 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Weihua Liu, Bin Liu, Shaojun Liu, Jingzhi Zhang, Shuangfeng Lin
Endothelial dysfunction is believed the early stage of development of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates various biological activities by binding to sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) including S1PR1-S1PR5. In the present study, the role of S1P receptors in S1P-induced human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) dysfunction under high glucose condition was investigated and the underlying mechanism was explored. S1PR1-S1PR5 mRNA levels were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR...
April 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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