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Damian T Rieke, Sebastian Ochsenreither, Konrad Klinghammer, Tanguy Y Seiwert, Frederick Klauschen, Inge Tinhofer, Ulrich Keilholz
Immune checkpoints are emerging treatment targets, but mechanisms underlying checkpoint expression are poorly understood. Since alterations in DNA repair genes have been connected to the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, we investigated associations between methylation of DNA repair genes and CTLA4 and CD274 (PD-L1) expression.A list of DNA repair genes (179 genes) was selected from the literature, methylation status and expression of inflammation-associated genes (The Cancer Genome Atlas data) was correlated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), cervical and lung squamous cell carcinoma...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
M-O Grimm
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are establishing itselves as a new systemic treatment option (in addition to chemotherapy and targeted therapy) for metastatic tumours. (Re)activating the immune system, these antibodies may lead to impressive remissions lasting for a long time in some patients. Regarding urological tumours, the anti-PD-1 antibody Nivolumab (Opdivo(®)) has been approved this year for advanced, previously treated renal cell carcinoma. In the United States, Atezolizumab (Tecentriq(®)) has been approved for metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum-based chemotherapy...
September 2016: Aktuelle Urologie
Emily F Goode, Elizabeth C Smyth
Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Stefan Diem, Fabienne Keller, Reinhard Rüesch, Samia A Maillard, Daniel E Speiser, Reinhard Dummer, Marco Siano, Ursula Urner-Bloch, Simone M Goldinger, Lukas Flatz
Immunotherapy leads to significantly prolonged survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. Autoimmune side effects including colitis, dermatitis, and endocrine abnormalities are common in patients treated with ipilimumab [anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4)]. Antibodies such as pembrolizumab that interfere with the PD-1 (programmed cell death 1)/PD-L1 pathway show greater efficacy and less toxicity than ipilimumab. Here we report 2 cases of pembrolizumab-induced uveitis associated with complete or partial tumor response...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Lucie Heinzerling, Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi, Aliya N Husain, Azadeh Tajmir-Riahi, Hussein Tawbi, Matthias Pauschinger, Thomas F Gajewski, Evan J Lipson, Jason J Luke
Immune-checkpoint blocking antibodies have demonstrated objective antitumor responses in multiple tumor types including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and renal cell cancer (RCC). In melanoma, an increase in overall survival has been demonstrated with anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibition. However, a plethora of immune-mediated adverse events has been reported with these agents. Immune-mediated cardiotoxicity induced by checkpoint inhibitors has been reported in single cases with variable presentation, including myocarditis and pericarditis...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Megan Ratterman, Sigrun Hallmeyer, Jon Richards
Identification of BRAF driver mutations and agents that block their activity combined with development of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies have dramatically changed survival and quality of life for patients with metastatic melanoma. Approximately half of patients with metastatic melanoma do not harbor mutations in the BRAF gene and therefore cannot benefit from currently available agents that target this mutation. Additionally, few patients with metastatic melanoma achieve durable disease control with these targeted therapies alone...
October 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Amy E Moran, Fanny Polesso, Andrew D Weinberg
Cancer cells harbor high-affinity tumor-associated Ags capable of eliciting potent antitumor T cell responses, yet detecting these polyclonal T cells is challenging. Therefore, surrogate markers of T cell activation such as CD69, CD44, and programmed death-1 (PD-1) have been used. We report in this study that in mice, expression of activation markers including PD-1 is insufficient in the tumor microenvironment to identify tumor Ag-specific T cells. Using the Nur77GFP T cell affinity reporter mouse, we highlight that PD-1 expression can be induced independent of TCR ligation within the tumor...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Min Dai, Yuen Yee Yip, Ingegerd Hellstrom, Karl Erik Hellstrom
Immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have efficacy in patients with advanced cancer and are the focus of intensive research. However, cures are infrequent and responses vary among tumor types and among subjects with the same tumor. An in vitro test would be valuable to determine the most effective mAb combination for a given case and to evaluate novel agents. Toward this goal, we investigated the ability of various mAb combinations to generate a tumor-destructive immune response in vitro in the presence of lymphoid cells from mice with established TC1 lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, or SW1 melanoma...
October 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
Kim Margolin
Advanced melanoma, rarely diagnosed at the time of primary melanoma excision but most often occurring later via lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination, is the cause of death for approximately 10,000 people in the USA each year, with the rate of incidence and death increasing yearly. Its causes are multifactorial and depend in large part on solar ultraviolet damage to DNA as well as underlying genetic predisposition. Cutaneous melanoma is the most common, but other subsets of importance are mucosal and uveal primaries, with different biology and treatment considerations...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
José Luís Manzano, Laura Layos, Cristina Bugés, María de Los Llanos Gil, Laia Vila, Eva Martínez-Balibrea, Anna Martínez-Cardús
Patients with advanced melanoma have traditionally had very poor prognosis. However, since 2011 better understanding of the biology and epidemiology of this disease has revolutionized its treatment, with newer therapies becoming available. These newer therapies can be classified into immunotherapy and targeted therapy. The immunotherapy arsenal includes inhibitors of CTLA4, PD-1 and PDL-1, while targeted therapy focuses on BRAF and MEK. BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib) have shown benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) compared to chemotherapy, and their combination with MEK inhibitors has recently been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS), compared with monotherapy with BRAF inhibitors...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Katia Boniface, Julien Seneschal, Alain Taïeb, Aksam Merched
The therapeutic hypothesis proposed by Speeckaert and van Geel in this issue (1) is based on the dramatic effect of the new drugs targeting immune privilege checkpoints (PD1/PD-L1, CTLA4) in current advanced melanoma therapy as major inducers of vitiligo-like skin changes. Such striking clinical manifestations cannot be classified as mere adverse effects without considering possible consequences for spontaneously occurring vitiligo. GWAS revealed more than 35 loci significantly associated with vitiligo (2)...
June 17, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Pedro Berraondo, María Carmen Ochoa, María Esperanza Rodriguez-Ruiz, Luna Minute, Juan José Lasarte, Ignacio Melero
The recent approval by the FDA of the combination of anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-1 mAbs for the treatment of BRAF-unmutated unresectable or metastatic melanoma is a landmark for the development of cancer immunotherapy. On October 18 to 22, 2015, a symposium was held in Pamplona (Spain) to present and discuss the basic and clinical discoveries that have brought us to this milestone and to explore other targets and immunotherapy strategies aimed at attaining more efficacious oncology practice in the short term. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2863-7...
May 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Steffen Böhm, Anne Montfort, Oliver M T Pearce, Joanne Topping, Probir Chakravarty, Gemma L A Everitt, Andrew Clear, Jackie R McDermott, Darren Ennis, Thomas Dowe, Amanda Fitzpatrick, Elly C Brockbank, Alexandra C Lawrence, Arjun Jeyarajah, Asma Z Faruqi, Iain A McNeish, Naveena Singh, Michelle Lockley, Frances R Balkwill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on immune activation in stage IIIC/IV tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), and its relationship to treatment response. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We obtained pre- and posttreatment omental biopsies and blood samples from a total of 54 patients undergoing platinum-based NACT and 6 patients undergoing primary debulking surgery. We measured T-cell density and phenotype, immune activation, and markers of cancer-related inflammation using IHC, flow cytometry, electrochemiluminescence assays, and RNA sequencing and related our findings to the histopathologic treatment response...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Takehiko Fukuda, Takao Kamai, Akinori Masuda, Akinori Nukui, Hideyuki Abe, Kyoko Arai, Ken-Ichiro Yoshida
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an immunogenic and proangiogenic cancer. Although antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies achieve impressive responses in some patients, many tumors eventually develop resistance to such therapy. The B7 family molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 are pivotal players in immune checkpoints that positively or negatively regulate various immune responses. Recently, immunotherapy based on blocking immune checkpoints with anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, or anti-PD-L1 antibodies has been proposed as a potential new approach to the treatment of metastatic RCC...
August 2016: Cancer Medicine
Marc Oliva, Antonio J Rullan, Josep M Piulats
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare disease that can be deadly in spite of adequate local treatment. Systemic therapy with chemotherapy is usually ineffective and new-targeted therapies have not improved results considerably. The eye creates an immunosuppressive environment in order to protect eyesight. UM cells use similar processes to escape immune surveillance. Regarding innate immunity the production of macrophage inhibiting factor (MIF) and TGF-β, added to MHC class I upregulation, inhibits the action of natural killer (NK) cells...
May 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Davide Bedognetti, Cristina Maccalli, Salha B J Al Bader, Francesco M Marincola, Barbara Seliger
Immune checkpoints are crucial for the maintenance of self-tolerance and for the modulation of immune responses in order to minimize tissue damage. Tumor cells take advantage of these mechanisms to evade immune recognition. A significant proportion of tumors, including breast cancers, can express co-inhibitory molecules that are important formediating the escape from T cell-mediated immune surveillance. The interaction of inhibitory receptors with their ligands can be blocked by specific molecules. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and, more recently, against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), have been approved for the therapy of melanoma (anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 mAbs) and non-small cell lung cancer (anti-PD1 mAbs)...
April 2016: Breast Care
Marco Puzzoni, Nicola Silvestris, Francesco Leone, Riccardo Giampieri, Luca Faloppi, Laura Demurtas, Emanuela Dell'Aquila, Donatella Marino, Oronzo Brunetti, Silvio Ken Garattini, Elena Ongaro, Giorgio Astara, Laura Orgiano, Giuseppe Aprile, Daniele Santini, Mario Scartozzi
The encouraging results in immunotherapy for melanoma also led the way for translational and clinical research about immune-related mechanisms possibly relevant for gastrointestinal tumours. It is in fact now evident that the immune checkpoint modulation and in particular cell-mediated immune-response through programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) receptors along with the regulatory T cells activity all have a relevant role in gastrointestinal cancers as well. This review aims to explore the state of the art of immunotherapy for gastrointestinal tumours, deepening recent scientific evidence regarding anti PD-1/PDL-1 and anti CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, peptide based vaccine, DNA based vaccine, and pulsed dendritic cells, either alone or in combination with other antineoplastic medical therapy and locoregional treatments...
May 17, 2016: Targeted Oncology
M-O Grimm, Y Winkler, I Fetter, H Oppel-Heuchel
With the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has gained new importance in oncology. Current research is focused on the cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoints. The CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (melanoma) as well as the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) and pembrolizumab (melanoma) are approved for the treatment of metastatic disease in Europe. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (re)activate the immune system against cancer cells and appear to be more effective than current standards for many tumors...
May 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Renata Duchnowska, Rafał Pęksa, Barbara Radecka, Tomasz Mandat, Tomasz Trojanowski, Bożena Jarosz, Bogumiła Czartoryska-Arłukowicz, Wojciech P Olszewski, Waldemar Och, Ewa Kalinka-Warzocha, Wojciech Kozłowski, Anna Kowalczyk, Sherene Loi, Wojciech Biernat, Jacek Jassem
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of immune response in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) may prompt new preventive and therapeutic strategies. METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs: CD4, CD8, CTLA4), macrophage/microglial cells (CD68), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor (PD-1), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2 and glial fibrillary acid protein was assessed in 84 BCBM and their microenvironment...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Alessia Pochesci, Antonio Passaro, Chiara Catania, Cristina Noberasco, Ester Del Signore, Gianluca Spitaleri, Filippo De Marinis
Lung cancer represent the leading cause of cancer related-death worldwide. Although cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted agents improved survival, the median overall survival for patients with metastatic disease remains poor. Docetaxel is still the corner stone of the second-line treatment, although associated with an unfavourable safety profile. Recent advances in the understanding of cancer immune escape system lead to the development of novel immunotherapies agent that can restore patient's immune response to cancer cells...
April 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
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