keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

kin selection

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109264/epoxide-metabolites-of-arachidonate-and-docosahexaenoate-function-conversely-in-acute-kidney-injury-involved-in-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling
#1
Bing-Qing Deng, Ying Luo, Xin Kang, Chang-Bin Li, Christophe Morisseau, Jun Yang, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Jian Huang, Da-Yong Hu, Ming-Yu Wu, Ai Peng, Bruce D Hammock, Jun-Yan Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) causes severe morbidity and mortality for which new therapeutic strategies are needed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and their metabolites have various effects in kidney injury, but their molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that 14 (15)-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [14 (15)-EET] and 19 (20)-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid [19 (20)-EDP], the major epoxide metabolites of ARA and DHA, respectively, have contradictory effects on kidney injury in a murine model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-caused AKI...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104298/interference-in-early-dual-task-learning-by-predatory-mites
#2
Inga C Christiansen, Peter Schausberger
Animals are commonly exposed to multiple environmental stimuli, but whether, and under which circumstances, they can attend to multiple stimuli in multitask learning challenges is elusive. Here, we assessed whether simultaneously occurring chemosensory stimuli interfere with each other in a dual-task learning challenge. We exposed predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus early in life to either only conspecifics (kin) or simultaneously conspecifics (kin) and food (thrips or pollen), to determine whether presence of food interferes with social familiarization and, vice versa, whether presence of conspecifics interferes with learning the cues of thrips...
November 2017: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080969/altruistic-behavior-among-twins-willingness-to-fight-and-self-sacrifice-for-their-closest-relatives
#3
Encarnación Tornero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, José J Morosoli, Alexandra Vázquez, Ángel Gómez, Juan R Ordoñana
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity...
October 28, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073100/kinship-and-familiarity-mitigate-costs-of-social-conflict-between-seychelles-warbler-neighbors
#4
Kat Bebbington, Sjouke A Kingma, Eleanor A Fairfield, Hannah L Dugdale, Jan Komdeur, Lewis G Spurgin, David S Richardson
Because virtually all organisms compete with others in their social environment, mechanisms that reduce conflict between interacting individuals are crucial for the evolution of stable families, groups, and societies. Here, we tested whether costs of social conflict over territorial space between Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are mitigated by kin-selected (genetic relatedness) or mutualistic (social familiarity) mechanisms. By measuring longitudinal changes in individuals' body mass and telomere length, we demonstrated that the fitness costs of territoriality are driven by a complex interplay between relatedness, familiarity, local density, and sex...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061969/direct-benefits-explain-interspecific-variation-in-helping-behaviour-among-cooperatively-breeding-birds
#5
Sjouke A Kingma
Kin selection theory provides one important explanation for seemingly altruistic helping behaviour by non-breeding subordinates in cooperative breeding animals. However, it cannot explain why helpers in many species provide energetically costly care to unrelated offspring. Here, I use comparative analyses to show that direct fitness benefits of helping others, associated with future opportunities to breed in the resident territory, are responsible for the widespread variation in helping effort (offspring food provisioning) and kin discrimination across cooperatively breeding birds...
October 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052136/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-and-adult-t-cell-leukemia
#6
Chi-Ping Chan, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first retrovirus discovered to cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a highly aggressive blood cancer. HTLV-1 research in the past 35 years has been most revealing in the mechanisms of viral oncogenesis. HTLV-1 establishes a lifelong persistent infection in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The infection outcome is governed by host immunity. ATL develops in 2-5% of infected individuals 30-50 years after initial exposure. HTLV-1 encodes two oncoproteins Tax and HBZ, which are required for initiation of cellular transformation and maintenance of cell proliferation, respectively...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049217/identification-of-novel-therapeutic-target-genes-and-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-by-integrative-analysis
#7
Bangli Hu, Cheng Shi, Hai-Xing Jiang, Shan-Yu Qin
BACKGROUND: Gene alterations are crucial to the molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. The present study was designed to identify the potential candidate genes in the pancreatic carcinogenesis. METHODS: Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) datasets of pancreatic cancer tissue were retrieval and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from individual microarray data were merged. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, and gene coexpression analysis were performed...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043615/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-mutagenesis-using-a-highly-sensitive-single-stranded-dna-reporter-system-in-budding-yeast
#8
Kin Chan
Mutations are permanent alterations to the coding content of DNA. They are starting material for the Darwinian evolution of species by natural selection, which has yielded an amazing diversity of life on Earth. Mutations can also be the fundamental basis of serious human maladies, most notably cancers. In this chapter, I describe a highly sensitive reporter system for the molecular genetic analysis of mutagenesis, featuring controlled generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA in budding yeast cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021183/the-evolution-of-cooperation-in-simple-molecular-replicators
#9
Samuel R Levin, Stuart A West
In order for the first genomes to evolve, independent replicators had to act cooperatively, with some reducing their own replication rate to help copy others. It has been argued that limited diffusion explains this early cooperation. However, social evolution models have shown that limited diffusion on its own often does not favour cooperation. Here we model early replicators using social evolution tools. We show that: (i) replicators can be considered to be cooperating as a result of kin selection; (ii) limited diffusion on its own does not favour cooperation; and (iii) the addition of overlapping generations, probably a general trait of molecular replicators, promotes cooperation...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977660/are-older-adults-more-willing-to-donate-the-roles-of-donation-form-and-social-relationship
#10
Xianmin Gong, Fan Zhang, Helene H Fung
Objectives: Whether older adults are more prosocial than younger adults has been under debate. In the current study, we investigated how age differences in prosocial behaviors varied across different contextual factors, that is, donation form, kinship, and social distance. Methods: To achieve this purpose, 89 younger and 66 older adults took part in a hypothetical donation task in which they were asked to donate money and time to relatives and nonrelatives at various social distances...
July 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973685/microsurgery-simulator-of-cerebral-aneurysm-clipping-with-interactive-cerebral-deformation-featuring-a-virtual-arachnoid
#11
Naoyuki Shono, Taichi Kin, Seiji Nomura, Satoru Miyawaki, Toki Saito, Hideaki Imai, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Hiroshi Oyama, Nobuhito Saito
BACKGROUND: A virtual reality simulator for aneurysmal clipping surgery is an attractive research target for neurosurgeons. Brain deformation is one of the most important functionalities necessary for an accurate clipping simulator and is vastly affected by the status of the supporting tissue, such as the arachnoid membrane. However, no virtual reality simulator implementing the supporting tissue of the brain has yet been developed. OBJECTIVE: To develop a virtual reality clipping simulator possessing interactive brain deforming capability closely dependent on arachnoid dissection and apply it to clinical cases...
August 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971874/modified-penicillin-molecule-with-carbapenem-like-stereochemistry-specifically-inhibits-class-c-%C3%AE-lactamases
#12
Xuehua Pan, Yunjiao He, Tianfeng Chen, Kin-Fai Chan, Yanxiang Zhao
Bacterial β-lactamases readily inactivate most penicillins and cephalosporins by hydrolyzing and "opening" their signature β-lactam ring. In contrast, carbapenems resist hydrolysis by many serine-based Class A, C and D β-lactamases due to their unique stereochemical features. To improve the resistance profile of penicillins, we synthesized a modified penicillin molecule MPC-1 by "grafting" carbapenem-like stereochemistry onto the penicillin core. Chemical modifications include the trans conformation of hydrogen atoms at C5 and C6 instead of cis, and a 6-α hydroxyethyl moiety to replace the original 6-β aminoacyl group...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962575/the-incomparability-of-cause-of-death-statistics-under-one-country-two-systems-shanghai-versus-hong-kong
#13
Jiaying Zhao, Edward Jow-Ching Tu, Chi-Kin Law
BACKGROUND: Valid and comparable cause of death (COD) statistics are crucial for health policy analyses. Variations in COD assignment across geographical areas are well-documented while socio-institutional factors may affect the process of COD and underlying cause of death (UCD) determination. This study examines the comparability of UCD statistics in Hong Kong and Shanghai, having two political systems within one country, and assesses how socio-institutional factors influence UCD comparability...
September 29, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957516/stags-hawks-and-doves-social-evolution-theory-and-individual-variation-in-cooperation
#14
Jeremy Van Cleve
One of the triumphs of evolutionary biology is the discovery of robust mechanisms that promote the evolution of cooperative behaviors even when cooperation reduces the fertility or survival of cooperators. These mechanisms include, kin selection, reciprocity, and direct benefits to cooperation that are often nonlinear. Though they have been extensively studied separately, investigating the joint action of these mechanisms has been more difficult. Moreover, how these mechanisms shape variation in cooperation is not well known...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957515/identity-signaling-and-patterns-of-cooperative-behavior
#15
Michael J Sheehan, Caitlin Miller, H Kern Reeve
Recognition systems play a central role in mediating cooperative behavior among individuals in a population. Despite the importance of discriminating among potential recipients of cooperation, the evolutionary forces that maintain diversity in traits used for kin recognition are poorly understood. Greenbeard-based models of kin recognition in which alleles for cooperative behavior also control recognition of those alleles in potential cooperators suggest that discrimination based on a greenbeard locus leads to positive frequency dependence, eroding diversity at the very genes responsible for recognition...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957147/ultra-broadband-mode-filters-based-on-graphene-embedded-waveguides
#16
Zeshan Chang, Kin Seng Chiang
We propose spatial-mode filters based on embedding graphene films in optical waveguides. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the flexibility of this approach, we design and fabricate several mode filters where graphene films of different widths and lengths are placed in different locations of polymer waveguides. Our mode filters are easy to make and can provide high mode extinction ratios that are insensitive to the operation wavelength. Such mode filters could find applications in broadband mode-division-multiplexing transmission systems and other areas that involve mode selection or stripping...
October 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954911/male-cooperation-for-breeding-opportunities-contributes-to-the-evolution-of-multilevel-societies
#17
Xiao-Guang Qi, Kang Huang, Gu Fang, Cyril C Grueter, Derek W Dunn, Yu-Li Li, Weihong Ji, Xiao-Yan Wang, Rong-Tao Wang, Paul A Garber, Bao-Guo Li
A small number of primate species including snub-nosed monkeys (colobines), geladas (papionins) and humans live in multilevel societies (MLSs), in which multiple one-male polygamous units (OMUs) coexist to form a band, and non-breeding males associate in bachelor groups. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the papionin MLS appears to have evolved through internal fissioning of large mixed-sex groups, whereas the colobine MLS evolved through the aggregation of small, isolated OMUs. However, how agonistic males maintain tolerance under intensive competition over limited breeding opportunities remains unclear...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895138/feed-backs-among-inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-traits-and-sperm-competition-can-drive-evolution-of-costly-polyandry
#18
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893285/estimates-of-individual-muscle-power-production-in-normal-adult-walking
#19
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. METHODS: An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#20
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
keyword
keyword
53797
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"