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kin selection

Jeremy Koster
Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Klaree Boose, Frances White, Colin Brand, Audra Meinelt, Josh Snodgrass
Infant handling describes interactions between infants and non-maternal group members and is widespread across mammalian taxa. The expression of infant handling behaviors, defined as any affiliative or agonistic interaction between a group member and an infant, varies considerably among primate species. Several functional hypotheses may explain the adaptive value of infant handling including the Kin Selection hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which indirect fitness is increased and predicts a bias in handling behaviors directed toward related (genetic) infants; the Alliance Formation hypothesis, which describes handling as a social commodity and predicts females with infants will support handlers during conflict; and the Learning-to-Mother hypothesis, which describes handling as a mechanism through which handlers learn species-specific maternal behaviors and predicts that handling will occur most frequently in immature and nulliparous females...
May 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S Richardson, Jan Komdeur
1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Margareth S Zanchetta, Marguerite Cognet, Mary Rachel Lam-Kin-Teng, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Carlos Haag, Bernard Kadio, François Desgrandchamps, Lise Rénaud
Background: This study explored the French media's presentation of ideas and medical information about prostate cancer (PC) that may influence men's understanding, attitudes and behavior. Methods: A qualitative media content analysis centered on PC information delivered by French professional media. The selected data were produced in the aftermath of the High Health Authority's decision in 2008 not to recommend systematic screening by prostate specific antigen(PSA) for men over 50. Source was the Media Archives of the French National Library...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Pui Ying Choy, Kin Ho Chung, Qingjing Yang, Chau Ming So, Raymond Wai-Yin Sun, Fuk Yee Kwong
The scope and limitation of mono-selective N-arylation of various amines using aryl or heteroaryl tosylates are presented. Air-stable and easily accessible Pd(OAc)2/CM-phos catalyst system was found capable to deal with a wide range of aryl tosylate substrates as well as amine nucleophiles, including primary and secondary cyclic/acyclic aliphatic amines, and anilines. NH-bearing heterocycles such as indole, carbazole, pyrrole, 10-phenothiazine and 10-phenoxazine were shown to be feasible coupling partners under this catalytic system...
May 9, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Philip G Madgwick, Balint Stewart, Laurence J Belcher, Christopher R L Thompson, Jason B Wolf
Contributing to cooperation is typically costly, while its rewards are often available to all members of a social group. So why should individuals be willing to pay these costs, especially if they could cheat by exploiting the investments of others? Kin selection theory broadly predicts that individuals should invest more into cooperation if their relatedness to group members is high (assuming they can discriminate kin from nonkin). To better understand how relatedness affects cooperation, we derived the ‟Collective Investment" game, which provides quantitative predictions for patterns of strategic investment depending on the level of relatedness...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of bacterial chemical communication that regulates cellular phenotypes, including certain cooperative behaviors, in response to environmental and demographic changes. Despite the existence of proposed mechanisms that stabilize QS against defector exploitation, it is unclear if or how QS-cooperators can proliferate in populations of mostly defectors in some model systems. We predicted that growth in fragmented subpopulations could allow QS-cooperators to invade a QS-defector population...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Polly Lee, Apple Cm Yeung, Zigui Chen, Martin Cw Chan, Kin Ho Sze, Paul Ks Chan
BACKGROUND: A newly developed dengue virus vaccine (CYD-TDV) has recently been licensed for clinical use. The World Health Organization recommends vaccination for populations with seroprevalence of at least 70% to maximize public health impact. This study aimed to delineate the seroprevalence of dengue infection in Hong Kong. METHODS: A total of 105,972 serum samples submitted for clinical testing during the period 2013-2015 were age- and sex-stratified. For each year of collection, 25 samples were randomly selected from each age-sex group...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Wei Ke Zhao, Jing Feng, Kai Xin Chen, Kin Seng Chiang
We propose a reconfigurable broadband mode (de)multiplexer based on a thermally induced long-period grating integrated with an asymmetric Y-junction. Either of the two spatial modes of a two-mode waveguide launched into the grating end of the device can be switched into either of the two output ports of the Y-junction by controlling the electric power applied to the electrode heater that induces the grating. Our typical device fabricated with polymer material that has a length of ∼14  mm shows a mode selectivity higher than 12 dB over the C+L band at a switching power of 198 mW...
May 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Sangeetha Madhavan, Donatien Beguy, Shelley Clark, Caroline Kabiru
BACKGROUND: Researchers have increasingly turned to longitudinal data to understand how the family environment of children changes over time and how this change affects their well-being. While the value of such efforts is clear, the inherent challenges of collecting robust data over time may limit or bias our understanding of family complexity. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on data from an exploratory study on kinship structure and support for low income single mothers and their young children in Nairobi, Kenya, this paper aims to (1) assess the strengths and weaknesses of our approach in reflecting the complexities of kinship dynamics and (2) analyze how methodological issues such as selection and reporting inconsistency can influence our understanding of the role of kin in children's lives...
January 2018: Demographic Research
Brian R Haney, Jennifer H Fewell
The fitness consequences of joining a group are highly dependent on ecological context, especially for non-kin. To assess the relationships between cooperation and environment, we examined variation in colony reproductive success for a harvester ant species that nests either solitarily or with multiple, unrelated queens, a social strategy known as primary polygyny. We measured the reproductive investment of colonies of solitary versus social nesting types at two sites, one with primarily single-queen colonies, and the other with a majority of polygynous nests...
April 24, 2018: Oecologia
Jacqulyne P Robichaux, Yasir Y Elamin, Zhi Tan, Brett W Carter, Shuxing Zhang, Shengwu Liu, Shuai Li, Ting Chen, Alissa Poteete, Adriana Estrada-Bernal, Anh T Le, Anna Truini, Monique B Nilsson, Huiying Sun, Emily Roarty, Sarah B Goldberg, Julie R Brahmer, Mehmet Altan, Charles Lu, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou, Katerina Politi, Robert C Doebele, Kwok-Kin Wong, John V Heymach
Although most activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are sensitive to available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a subset with alterations in exon 20 of EGFR and HER2 are intrinsically resistant and lack an effective therapy. We used in silico, in vitro, and in vivo testing to model structural alterations induced by exon 20 mutations and to identify effective inhibitors. 3D modeling indicated alterations restricted the size of the drug-binding pocket, limiting the binding of large, rigid inhibitors...
April 23, 2018: Nature Medicine
Cheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Jie Liao, Cedric Sueur, John Chih Mun Sha, Jie Zhang, Peng Zhang
In group-living animals, individuals do not interact uniformly with their conspecifics. Among primates, such heterogeneity in partner choice can be discerned from affiliative grooming patterns. While the preference for selecting close kin as grooming partners is ubiquitous across the primate order, the selection of higher-ranking non-kin individuals as grooming partners is less common. We studied a group of provisioned rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta brevicaudus) on Hainan Island, China, to examine rank-related benefits of grooming exchanges and the influence of kin relationships...
April 18, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Chi Kin Kenneth Wong, Unnati Narvekar, Haralampos Petridis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review and analyze the prosthodontic complications, survival, and success of metal-ceramic (MC) and all-ceramic (AC) complete-arch fixed implant dental prostheses (CFIDPs) with a minimum mean follow-up period of 5 years. METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted using 3 electronic databases (MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science) for clinical studies reporting on prosthodontic complications of metal-ceramic and/or all-ceramic CFIDPs published between 2000 and 2016...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Wei Jiang, Yuehua Wei, Yong Long, Arthur Owen, Bingying Wang, Xuebing Wu, Shuo Luo, Yongjun Dang, Dengke K Ma
How multicellular organisms respond to and are impacted by severe hypothermic stress is largely unknown. From C. elegans screens for mutants abnormally responding to cold-warming stimuli, we identify a molecular genetic pathway comprising ISY-1, a conserved uncharacterized protein, and ZIP-10, a bZIP-type transcription factor. ISY-1 gatekeeps the ZIP-10 transcriptional program by regulating the microRNA mir-60 . Downstream of ISY-1 and mir-60 , zip-10 levels rapidly and specifically increase upon transient cold-warming exposure...
April 17, 2018: ELife
Hongchao Xie, Shengwei Jiang, Jie Shan, Kin Fai Mak
We demonstrate robust optical bistability, the phenomenon of two well-discriminated stable states depending upon the history of the optical input, in fully suspended monolayers of WSe2 at low temperatures near the exciton resonance. Optical bistability has been achieved under continuous-wave optical excitation that is red-detuned from the exciton resonance at an intensity level of 103 W/cm2. The observed bistability is originated from a photo-thermal mechanism, which provides both optical nonlinearity and passive feedback, which are the two essential elements for optical bistability...
April 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Siobhán M Mattison, Edmond Seabright, Adam Z Reynolds, Jingzhe Bill Cao, Melissa J Brown, Marcus W Feldman
Adoption is sometimes considered paradoxical from an evolutionary perspective because the costs spent supporting an adopted child would be better spent on rearing one's own. Kin selection theory is commonly used to solve this paradox, because the adoption of closely related kin contributes to the inclusive fitness of the adoptive parent. In this paper, we perform a novel test of kin selection theory in the context of adoption by asking whether adopted daughters-in-law, who contribute directly (i.e. genealogically) to the perpetuation of their adoptive families' lineages, experience lower mortality than daughters adopted for other purposes in historical Taiwan...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sosuke Komiyama, Yasuhito Izumiya, Yu Kimura, Shingo Nakashima, Syuichi Kin, Sadao Kawakami
A 70-year-old man with distal bile duct carcinoma underwent a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy without adjuvant chemotherapy. One and a half years after the surgery, elevated levels of serum SPan-1(38.1 U/mL)were observed and CT scans demonstrated a solitary metastasis, 25mm in size, in segment 8 of the liver. The patient received 2 courses of gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy. No new lesions were detected after chemotherapy and the patient underwent a partial liver resection of segment 8...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Karen Yirmiya, Nancy L Segal, Guy Bloch, Ariel Knafo-Noam
Several related and complementary theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain the existence of prosocial behavior, despite its potential fitness cost to the individual. These include kin selection theory, proposing that organisms have a propensity to help those to whom they are genetically related, and reciprocity, referring to the benefit of being prosocial, depending on past and future mutual interactions. A useful paradigm to examine prosociality is to compare mean levels of this behavior between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins...
April 6, 2018: Developmental Science
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