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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895138/feed-backs-among-inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-traits-and-sperm-competition-can-drive-evolution-of-costly-polyandry
#1
Greta Bocedi, Jane M Reid
Ongoing ambitions are to understand the evolution of costly polyandry and its consequences for species ecology and evolution. Emerging patterns could stem from feed-back dynamics between the evolving mating system and its genetic environment, defined by interactions among kin including inbreeding. However, such feed-backs are rarely considered in non-selfing systems. We use a genetically-explicit model to demonstrate a mechanism by which inbreeding depression can select for polyandry to mitigate the negative consequences of mating with inbred males rather than avoiding inbreeding...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893285/estimates-of-individual-muscle-power-production-in-normal-adult-walking
#2
Ross A Bogey, Lee A Barnes
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. METHODS: An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#3
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886010/mobility-can-promote-the-evolution-of-cooperation-via-emergent-self-assortment-dynamics
#4
Jaideep Joshi, Iain D Couzin, Simon A Levin, Vishwesha Guttal
The evolution of costly cooperation, where cooperators pay a personal cost to benefit others, requires that cooperators interact more frequently with other cooperators. This condition, called positive assortment, is known to occur in spatially-structured viscous populations, where individuals typically have low mobility and limited dispersal. However many social organisms across taxa, from cells and bacteria, to birds, fish and ungulates, are mobile, and live in populations with considerable inter-group mixing...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884795/assortment-and-the-analysis-of-natural-selection-on-social-traits
#5
Grant C McDonald, Damien R Farine, Kevin R Foster, Jay M Biernaskie
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to determine whether and how social interactions contribute to natural selection. This can be addressed with selection analyses that relate individual fitness to individual and social phenotypes. One such approach, known as social selection analysis, leads to the intuitive result that fitness effects from social partners will contribute to selection only if there is a correlation between the traits of individuals and their social partners (non-random phenotypic assortment)...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855395/rare-autosomal-trisomies-revealed-by-maternal-plasma-dna-sequencing-suggest-increased-risk-of-feto-placental-disease
#6
Mark D Pertile, Meredith Halks-Miller, Nicola Flowers, Catalin Barbacioru, Sarah L Kinnings, Darcy Vavrek, William K Seltzer, Diana W Bianchi
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of maternal plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can potentially evaluate all 24 chromosomes to identify abnormalities of the placenta, fetus, or pregnant woman. Current bioinformatics algorithms typically only report on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y; sequencing results from other chromosomes may be masked. We hypothesized that by systematically analyzing WGS data from all chromosomes, we could identify rare autosomal trisomies (RATs) to improve understanding of feto-placental biology...
August 30, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821559/synergy-of-wee1-and-mtor-inhibition-in-mutant-kras-driven-lung-cancers
#7
Josephine Hai, Shengwu Liu, Lauren Bufe, Khanh Do, Ting Chen, Xiaoen Wang, Christine Ng, Shuai Li, Ming-Sound Tsao, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Kwok-Kin Wong
PURPOSE: KRAS-activating mutations are the most common oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but efforts to directly target mutant KRAS have proved a formidable challenge. Therefore, multi-targeted therapy may offer a plausible strategy to effectively treat KRAS-driven NSCLCs. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and mechanistic rationale for combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibition as a potential therapy for lung cancers harboring KRAS mutations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the synergistic effect of combining mTOR and WEE1 inhibitors on cell viability, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response using a panel of human KRAS-mutant and wild type NSCLC cell lines and patient-derived xenograft cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820387/infectious-polymorphic-toxins-delivered-by-outer-membrane-exchange-discriminate-kin-in-myxobacteria
#8
Christopher N Vassallo, Pengbo Cao, Austin Conklin, Hayley Finkelstein, Christopher S Hayes, Daniel Wall
Myxobacteria are known for complex social behaviors including outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells exchange large amounts of outer membrane lipids and proteins upon contact. The TraA cell surface receptor selects OME partners based on a variable domain. However, traA polymorphism alone is not sufficient to precisely discriminate kin. Here, we report a novel family of OME-delivered toxins that promote kin discrimination of OME partners. These SitA lipoprotein toxins are polymorphic and widespread in myxobacteria...
August 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812693/direct-benefits-and-evolutionary-transitions-to-complex-societies
#9
Cody J Dey, Constance M O'Connor, Holly Wilkinson, Susanne Shultz, Sigal Balshine, John L Fitzpatrick
The selective forces that drive the evolution of cooperation have been intensely debated. Evolutionary transitions to cooperative breeding, a complex form of cooperation, have been hypothesized to be linked to low degrees of promiscuity, which increases intragroup relatedness and the indirect (that is, kin selected) benefits of helping. However, ecological factors also promote cooperative breeding, and may be more important than relatedness in some contexts. Identifying the key evolutionary drivers of cooperative breeding therefore requires an integrated assessment of these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812668/evolutionary-transitions-towards-eusociality-in-snapping-shrimps
#10
Solomon Tin Chi Chak, J Emmett Duffy, Kristin M Hultgren, Dustin R Rubenstein
Animal social organization varies from complex societies where reproduction is dominated by a single individual (eusociality) to those where reproduction is more evenly distributed among group members (communal breeding). Yet, how simple groups transition evolutionarily to more complex societies remains unclear. Competing hypotheses suggest that eusociality and communal breeding are alternative evolutionary endpoints, or that communal breeding is an intermediate stage in the transition towards eusociality. We tested these alternative hypotheses in sponge-dwelling shrimps, Synalpheus spp...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807938/s100a4-is-a-biomarker-and-regulator-of-glioma-stem-cells-that-is-critical-for-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioblastoma
#11
Kin-Hoe Chow, Hee Jung Park, Joshy George, Keiko Yamamoto, Andrew D Gallup, Joel H Graber, Yuanxin Chen, Wen Jiang, Dennis Steindler, Eric G Neilson, Betty Y S Kim, Kyuson Yun
Glioma stem cells (GSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are strongly associated with therapy resistance and tumor recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that S100A4 is a novel biomarker of GSCs. S100A4+ cells in gliomas are enriched with cancer cells that have tumor-initiating and sphere-forming abilities, with the majority located in perivascular niches where GSCs are found. Selective ablation of S100A4-expressing cells was sufficient to block tumor growth in vitro and in vivo...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805820/prostate-cancer-associated-spop-mutations-confer-resistance-to-bet-inhibitors-through-stabilization-of-brd4
#12
Xiangpeng Dai, Wenjian Gan, Xiaoning Li, Shangqian Wang, Wei Zhang, Ling Huang, Shengwu Liu, Qing Zhong, Jianping Guo, Jinfang Zhang, Ting Chen, Kouhei Shimizu, Francisco Beca, Mirjam Blattner, Divya Vasudevan, Dennis L Buckley, Jun Qi, Lorenz Buser, Pengda Liu, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Andrew H Beck, Liewei Wang, Peter J Wild, Levi A Garraway, Mark A Rubin, Christopher E Barbieri, Kwok-Kin Wong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Jiaoti Huang, Yu Chen, James E Bradner, Wenyi Wei
The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins comprises four members-BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and the testis-specific isoform BRDT-that largely function as transcriptional coactivators and play critical roles in various cellular processes, including the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. BET proteins enhance the oncogenic functions of major cancer drivers by elevating the expression of these drivers, such as c-Myc in leukemia, or by promoting the transcriptional activities of oncogenic factors, such as AR and ERG in prostate cancer...
September 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781124/potent-and-selective-covalent-quinazoline-inhibitors-of-kras-g12c
#13
Mei Zeng, Jia Lu, Lianbo Li, Frederic Feru, Chunshan Quan, Thomas W Gero, Scott B Ficarro, Yuan Xiong, Chiara Ambrogio, Raymond M Paranal, Marco Catalano, Jay Shao, Kwok-Kin Wong, Jarrod A Marto, Eric S Fischer, Pasi A Jänne, David A Scott, Kenneth D Westover, Nathanael S Gray
Targeted covalent small molecules have shown promise for cancers driven by KRAS G12C. Allosteric compounds that access an inducible pocket formed by movement of a dynamic structural element in KRAS, switch II, have been reported, but these compounds require further optimization to enable their advancement into clinical development. We demonstrate that covalent quinazoline-based switch II pocket (SIIP) compounds effectively suppress GTP loading of KRAS G12C, MAPK phosphorylation, and the growth of cancer cells harboring G12C...
August 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757338/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-in-podocytes-is-a-significant-contributor-to-renal-function-under-hyperglycemia
#14
Ahmed Bettaieb, Shinichiro Koike, Ming-Fo Hsu, Yoshihiro Ito, Samah Chahed, Santana Bachaalany, Artiom Gruzdev, Miguel Calvo-Rubio, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Bora Inceoglu, John D Imig, Jose M Villalba, Darryl C Zeldin, Bruce D Hammock, Fawaz G Haj
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of renal failure, and podocyte dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of DN. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, encoded by Ephx2) is a conserved cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition has beneficial effects on renal function. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of sEH in podocytes to hyperglycemia-induced renal injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice with podocyte-specific sEH disruption (pod-sEHKO) were generated, and alterations in kidney function were determined under normoglycemia, and high-fat diet (HFD)- and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia...
July 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743054/continuity-for-children-after-guardianship-versus-adoption-with-kin-approximating-the-right-counterfactual
#15
Nancy Rolock, Kevin R White
Over the past two decades there has been a rapid increase in the number of children and youth living in guardianship and adoptive homes who were previously in foster care. Further, previous studies compared outcomes for children in guardianship homes to those for children in adoptive homes, despite the fact that many factors likely affect the selection of foster youth into different types of permanent placements. This study examined two counterfactuals for guardianship as a permanent placement type: adoption only and adoption or long-term-fostercare (A+LTFC)...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739086/a-preclinical-study-on-the-combined-effects-of-repeated-eltoprazine-and-preladenant-treatment-for-alleviating-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Wai Kin D Ko, Qin Li, Long Yun Cheng, Micaela Morelli, Manolo Carta, Erwan Bezard
Eltoprazine, a serotonergic (5-HT)1A/B receptor agonist, is a potential treatment for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) but notably compromises the anti-parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, as seen in rodent and monkey models of PD. Preladenant, a selective adenosine A2a receptor antagonist, mediates modest anti-parkinsonian effects in parkinsonian monkeys. In a recent investigation, combined eltoprazine and preladenant treatment with a sub-threshold dose of L-DOPA acutely attenuated dyskinesia without exacerbating PD disability in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques...
July 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725393/water-mold-infection-but-not-paternity-induces-selective-filial-cannibalism-in-a-goby
#17
Martin Vallon, Nils Anthes, Katja U Heubel
Many animals heavily invest in parental care but still reject at least some of their offspring. Although seemingly paradoxical, selection can favor parents to neglect offspring of particularly low reproductive value, for example, because of small survival chances. We here assess whether filial cannibalism (FC), where parents routinely eat some of their own young, is selective in response to individual offspring reproductive value. We performed two independent laboratory experiments in the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) to test whether caring fathers preferentially cannibalize eggs of a given infection history and paternity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717592/epas1-variants-in-high-altitude-tibetan-wolves-were-selectively-introgressed-into-highland-dogs
#18
Bridgett vonHoldt, Zhenxin Fan, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Robert K Wayne
BACKGROUND: Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. METHODS: Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711317/invasion-fitness-for-gene-culture-co-evolution-in-family-structured-populations-and-an-application-to-cumulative-culture-under-vertical-transmission
#19
Charles Mullon, Laurent Lehmann
Human evolution depends on the co-evolution between genetically determined behaviors and socially transmitted information. Although vertical transmission of cultural information from parent to offspring is common in hominins, its effects on cumulative cultural evolution are not fully understood. Here, we investigate gene-culture co-evolution in a family-structured population by studying the invasion fitness of a mutant allele that influences a deterministic level of cultural information (e.g., amount of knowledge or skill) to which diploid carriers of the mutant are exposed in subsequent generations...
August 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699275/the-concepts-of-asymmetric-and-symmetric-power-can-help-resolve-the-puzzle-of-altruistic-and-cooperative-behaviour
#20
Tim Phillips
Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. direct, indirect and generalized reciprocity) among non-kin. Here, it is proposed that the concepts of asymmetry and symmetry in power and dominance are critical if we are ever to resolve the puzzle of altruism and cooperation towards non-kin...
July 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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