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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#1
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419349/genomic-signature-of-kin-selection-in-an-ant-with-obligately-sterile-workers
#2
Michael R Warner, Alexander S Mikheyev, Timothy A Linksvayer
Kin selection is thought to drive the evolution of cooperation and conflict, but the specific genes and genome-wide patterns shaped by kin selection are unknown. We identified thousands of genes associated with the sterile ant worker caste, the archetype of an altruistic phenotype shaped by kin selection, and then used population and comparative genomic approaches to study patterns of molecular evolution at these genes. Consistent with population genetic theoretical predictions, worker-upregulated genes experienced reduced selection compared to genes upregulated in reproductive castes...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417004/the-effect-of-relatedness-and-pack-size-on-territory-overlap-in-african-wild-dogs
#3
Craig R Jackson, Rosemary J Groom, Neil R Jordan, J Weldon McNutt
BACKGROUND: Spacing patterns mediate competitive interactions between conspecifics, ultimately increasing fitness. The degree of territorial overlap between neighbouring African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) packs varies greatly, yet the role of factors potentially affecting the degree of overlap, such as relatedness and pack size, remain unclear. We used movement data from 21 wild dog packs to calculate the extent of territory overlap (20 dyads). RESULTS: On average, unrelated neighbouring packs had low levels of overlap restricted to the peripheral regions of their 95% utilisation kernels...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408401/synergistic-immunostimulatory-effects-and-therapeutic-benefit-of-combined-histone-deacetylase-and-bromodomain-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Dennis Adeegbe, Yan Liu, Patrick H Lizotte, Yusuke Kamihara, Amir R Aref, Christina Almonte, Ruben Dries, Yuyang Li, Shengwu Liu, Xiaoen Wang, Tiquella Warner-Hatten, Jessica Castrillon, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Neermala Poudel-Neupane, Haikuo Zhang, Jennifer L Guerriero, Shiwei Han, Mark M Awad, David A Barbie, Jerome Ritz, Simon S Jones, Peter S Hammerman, James E Bradner, Steven N Quayle, Kwok-Kin Wong
Effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain challenging despite an increasingly comprehensive understanding of somatically altered oncogenic pathways. It is now clear that therapeutic agents with potential to impact the tumor immune microenvironment potentiate immune-orchestrated therapeutic benefit. Herein we evaluated the immunoregulatory properties of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and bromodomain inhibitors, two classes of drugs that modulate the epigenome, with a focus on key cell subsets that are engaged in an immune response...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386423/acquisition-and-functional-consequences-of-social-knowledge-in-macaques
#5
Barbara Tiddi, Eugenia Polizzi di Sorrentino, Julia Fischer, Gabriele Schino
To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371191/structure-based-target-specific-screening-leads-to-small-molecule-camkii-inhibitors
#6
David Xu, Liwei Li, Donghui Zhou, Degang Liu, Andy Hudmon, Samy O Meroueh
Target-specific scoring methods are more commonly used to identify small-molecule inhibitors among compounds docked to a target of interest. Top candidates that emerge from these methods have rarely been tested for activity and specificity across a family of proteins. In this study we docked a chemical library into CaMKIIδ, a member of the Ca(2+) /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family, and re-scored the resulting protein-compound structures using Support Vector Machine SPecific (SVMSP), a target-specific method that we developed previously...
March 29, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369655/why-do-phylogenomic-data-sets-yield-conflicting-trees-data-type-influences-the-avian-tree-of-life-more-than-taxon-sampling
#7
Sushma Reddy, Rebecca T Kimball, Akanksha Pandey, Peter A Hosner, Michael J Braun, Shannon J Hackett, Kin-Lan Han, John Harshman, Christopher J Huddleston, Sarah Kingston, Ben D Marks, Kathleen J Miglia, William S Moore, Frederick H Sheldon, Christopher C Witt, Tamaki Yuri, Edward L Braun
Phylogenomics, the use of large-scale data matrices in phylogenetic analyses, has been viewed as the ultimate solution to the problem of resolving difficult nodes in the tree of life. However, it has become clear that analyses of these large genomic datasets can also result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny. Here we use the early divergences in Neoaves, the largest clade of extant birds, as a 'model system' to understand the basis for incongruence among phylogenomic trees. We were motivated by the observation that trees from two recent avian phylogenomic studies exhibit conflicts...
March 27, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363015/solution-assembled-blends-of-regioregularity-controlled-polythiophenes-for-coexistence-of-mechanical-resilience-and-electronic-performance
#8
Hyeong Jun Kim, Moo Yeol Lee, Jin-Seong Kim, Jae-Han Kim, Hojeong Yu, Hongseok Yun, Kin Liao, Taek-Soo Kim, Joon Hak Oh, Bumjoon J Kim
Considering all the potential applications of organic electronics in portable, wearable and implantable devices, it is of great importance to develop electro-active materials that possess mechanical reliability along with excellent electronic performance. The coexistence of these two attributes, however, is very difficult to achieve because there is an inverse relationship between the electrical properties and the mechanical flexibility, both of which are associated with the conjugation length and intermolecular ordering of the polymers...
March 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361104/discordance-in-selected-designee-for-return-of-genomic-findings-in-the-event-of-participant-death-and-estate-executor
#9
Jessie L Goodman, Laura M Amendola, Martha Horike-Pyne, Susan B Trinidad, Stephanie M Fullerton, Wylie Burke, Gail P Jarvik
BACKGROUND: Legal and ethical questions arise regarding disseminating genetic research results to family members in the event of a research participant's death; failure to return or return to legal next of kin or estate executor may not reflect participant desires. We sought to determine participant preferences for whether and to whom they would like their data released in the case of their death prior to receiving genomic results, focusing on whether the person selected was also their estate executor...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356494/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-pharmacological-inhibition-decreases-alveolar-bone-loss-by-modulating-host-inflammatory-response-rank-related-signaling-er-stress-and-apoptosis
#10
Carlos A Trindade da Silva, Ahmed Bettaieb, Marcelo H Napimoga, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Bora Inceoglu, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Donald Bruun, Sumanta K Goswami, Fawaz G Haj, Bruce D Hammock
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory bone loss. Thus, in the present study, we tested the selective sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) in a mouse model of periodontitis induced by infection with A...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351582/defining-an-inflamed-tumor-immunophenotype-in-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#11
Glenn J Hanna, Hongye Liu, Robert E Jones, Alyssa F Bacay, Patrick H Lizotte, Elena V Ivanova, Mark A Bittinger, Megan E Cavanaugh, Amanda J Rode, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Nicole G Chau, Robert I Haddad, Jochen H Lorch, Kwok-Kin Wong, Ravindra Uppaluri, Peter S Hammerman
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit in recurrent, metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SSCHN), but lacking are biomarkers that predict response. We sought to define an inflamed tumor immunophenotype in this R/M SCCHN population and correlate immune metrics with clinical parameters and survival. METHODS: Tumor samples were prospectively acquired from 34 patients to perform multiparametric flow cytometry and multidimensional clustering analysis integrated with next-generation sequencing data, clinical parameters and outcomes...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345048/kin-selection-promotes-female-productivity-and-cooperation-between-the-sexes
#12
Aleksandra Łukasiewicz, Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Jacek Radwan
Hamilton's theory of kin selection explains the evolution of costly traits that benefit other individuals by highlighting the fact that passing genes to offspring is not the only way of increasing the representation of those genes in subsequent generations: Genes are also shared with other classes of relatives. Consequently, any heritable trait that affects fitness of relatives should respond to kin selection. We tested this core prediction of kin selection theory by letting bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini) evolve in populations structured into groups of relatives or nonrelatives during the reproductive phase of the life cycle...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320967/self-identity-reprogrammed-by-a-single-residue-switch-in-a-cell-surface-receptor-of-a-social-bacterium
#13
Pengbo Cao, Daniel Wall
The ability to recognize close kin confers survival benefits on single-celled microbes that live in complex and changing environments. Microbial kinship detection relies on perceptible cues that reflect relatedness between individuals, although the mechanisms underlying recognition in natural populations remain poorly understood. In myxobacteria, cells identify related individuals through a polymorphic cell surface receptor, TraA. Recognition of compatible receptors leads to outer membrane exchange among clonemates and fitness consequences...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295032/air-borne-genotype-by-genotype-indirect-genetic-effects-are-substantial-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#14
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277645/the-impact-of-dna-topology-and-guide-length-on-target-selection-by-a-cytosine-specific-cas9
#15
Tsz Kin Martin Tsui, Travis H Hand, Emily C Duboy, Hong Li
Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA cleavage enzyme being actively developed for genome editing and gene regulation. To be cleaved by Cas9, a double stranded DNA, or the protospacer, must be complementary to the guide region, typically 20-nucleotides in length, of the Cas9-bound guide RNA, and adjacent to a short Cas9-specific element called Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM). Understanding the correct juxtaposition of the protospacer- and PAM-interaction with Cas9 will enable development of versatile and safe Cas9-based technology...
March 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256603/exome-sequencing-identifies-potentially-druggable-mutations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
Yock Ping Chow, Lu Ping Tan, San Jiun Chai, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Siew Woh Choo, Paul Vey Hong Lim, Rajadurai Pathmanathan, Noor Kaslina Mohd Kornain, Chee Lun Lum, Kin Choo Pua, Yoke Yeow Yap, Tee Yong Tan, Soo Hwang Teo, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Vyomesh Patel
In this study, we first performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from 10 untreated and clinically annotated fresh frozen nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and matched bloods to identify somatically mutated genes that may be amenable to targeted therapeutic strategies. We identified a total of 323 mutations which were either non-synonymous (n = 238) or synonymous (n = 85). Furthermore, our analysis revealed genes in key cancer pathways (DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response, lipid signaling) were mutated, of which those in the lipid-signaling pathway were the most enriched...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#17
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228515/intrafamily-and-intragenomic-conflicts-in-human-warfare
#18
Alberto J C Micheletti, Graeme D Ruxton, Andy Gardner
Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212330/synthesis-of-8-aryl-o-methylcyanidins-and-their-usage-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-devices
#19
Yuki Kimura, Kin-Ichi Oyama, Yasujiro Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya, Kumi Yoshida
Anthocyanins as natural pigments are colorful and environmentally compatible dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To increase the efficiency, we designed and synthesized unnatural O-methylflavonols and O-methylcyanidins that possess an aryl group at the 8-position. We synthesized per-O-methylquercetin from quercetin, then using selective demethylation prepared various O-methylquercetins. Using the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, 8-arylation of per-O-methylquercetin was achieved. Using a LiAlH₄ reduction or Clemmensen reduction, these flavonols were transformed to the corresponding cyanidin derivatives in satisfactory yields...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148721/a-new-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-using-a-click-derivatization-reagent-2-nitrosopyridine
#20
Debin Wan, Jun Yang, Bogdan Barnych, Sung Hee Hwang, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Yongliang Cui, Jun Niu, Mitchell A Watsky, Bruce D Hammock
There is an increased demand for comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites. This is a major challenge, especially for 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1α,25(OH)2VitD], because it is biologically active at picomolar concentrations. 4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was a revolutionary reagent in dramatically increasing sensitivity of all diene metabolites and allowing the routine analysis of the bioactive, but minor, vitamin D metabolites. A second generation of reagents used large fixed charge groups that increased sensitivity at the cost of a deterioration in chromatographic separation of the vitamin D derivatives...
April 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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