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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910006/william-d-hamilton-s-brazilian-lectures-and-his-unpublished-model-regarding-wynne-edwards-s-idea-of-natural-selection-with-a-note-on-pluralism-and-different-philosophical-approaches-to-evolution
#1
Emanuele Coco
In 1975, the English evolutionist William Donald Hamilton (1936-2000) held in Brazil a series of lectures entitled "Population genetics and social behaviour". The unpublished notes of these conferences-written by Hamilton and recently discovered at the British Library-offer an opportunity to reflect on some of the author's ideas about evolution. The year of the conference is particularly significant, as it took place shortly after the applications of the Price equation with which Hamilton was able to build a model that included several levels of selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897366/active-site-crowding-of-p450-3a4-as-a-strategy-to-alter-its-selectivity
#2
Paolo Schiavini, Kin J Cheong, Nicolas Moitessier, Karine Auclair
Substrate promiscuous enzymes are a promising starting point for the development of versatile biocatalysts. In this study, human cytochrome P450 3A4, known for its ability to metabolize hundreds of drugs, was engineered to alter its regio- and stereoselectivity. Rational mutagenesis was used to specifically introduce steric hindrance in the large active site of P450 3A4 and favour oxidation at a more sterically accessible position on the substrate. Hydroxylation of a synthetic precursor of (R)-lisofylline, a compound under investigation for its anti-inflammatory properties, was chosen as a first proof-of-principle application of our protein engineering strategy...
November 29, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864642/evolution-of-kin-recognition-mechanisms-in-a-fish
#3
Timothy J A Hain, Shawn R Garner, Indar W Ramnarine, Bryan D Neff
Both selection and phylogenetic history can influence the evolution of phenotypic traits. Here we used recently characterized variation in kin recognition mechanisms among six guppy populations to explore the phylogenetic history of this trait. Guppies can use two different kin recognition mechanisms: either phenotype matching, in which individuals are identified based on comparison with a recognition template, or familiarity, in which individuals are remembered based on previous interactions. Across the six populations, we identified four transitions in recognition mechanism: phenotype matching evolved once and was subsequently lost in a single population, whereas familiarity evolved twice...
November 18, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860505/evolution-of-inbreeding-avoidance-and-inbreeding-preference-through-mate-choice-among-interacting-relatives
#4
A Bradley Duthie, Jane M Reid
While extensive population genetic theory predicts conditions favoring evolution of self-fertilization versus outcrossing, there is no analogous theory that predicts conditions favoring evolution of inbreeding avoidance or inbreeding preference enacted through mate choice given obligate biparental reproduction. Multiple interacting processes complicate the dynamics of alleles underlying such inbreeding strategies, including sexual conflict, distributions of kinship, genetic drift, purging of mutation load, direct costs, and restricted kin discrimination...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852800/kin-selection-and-the-evolution-of-plant-reproductive-traits
#5
REVIEW
Kamaljit S Bawa
Competition among developing seeds and sibling rivalry within multiovulated ovaries can be deleterious for both the maternal parent and the siblings. Increased genetic relatedness of seeds within the ovary may foster kin selection and reduce the deleterious consequences of sibling competition. The pollen parent may also be selected for siring all progeny within a fruit. I propose a series of hypotheses to explain the evolution of a number of reproductive traits in angiosperms in the context of kin selection and sibling rivalry within the ovaries of angiosperms...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852672/a-novel-selective-medium-for-isolation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-from-clinical-specimens
#6
Pak-Leung Ho, Lok-Yan Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Man-Ki Tong, Kin-Hung Chow
A novel Bacteroides fragilis selective (BFS) medium, consisting of a brain-heart infusion agar base supplemented with yeast extract, cysteine hydrochloride, bile salts, Vitamin K, hemin, glucose, esculin, ferric ammonium citrate, bromothymol blue, gentamicin, kanamycin and novobiocin, was evaluated. When BFS agar was tested with a collection of 303 bacteria of different genera, it allowed the growth of B. fragilis as large yellow colonies with blackening of the medium after 48 h of anaerobic incubation while the growth of most other anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and aerobes were inhibited...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830790/a-brain-spine-interface-alleviating-gait-deficits-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-primates
#7
Marco Capogrosso, Tomislav Milekovic, David Borton, Fabien Wagner, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Nicolas Buse, Jerome Gandar, Quentin Barraud, David Xing, Elodie Rey, Simone Duis, Yang Jianzhong, Wai Kin D Ko, Qin Li, Peter Detemple, Tim Denison, Silvestro Micera, Erwan Bezard, Jocelyne Bloch, Grégoire Courtine
Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain-computer interfaces have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, and have thus restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges...
November 9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826961/development-and-validation-of-an-attitudinal-profiling-tool-for-patients-with-asthma
#8
Aileen David-Wang, David Price, Sang Heon Cho, James Chung Man Ho, Chong Kin Liam, Glenn Neira, Pei Li Teh
PURPOSE: To develop a profiling tool which accurately assigns a patient to the appropriate attitudinal cluster for the management of asthma. METHODS: Attitudinal data from an online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from 8 Asian countries/region, aged 18-50 years, having had ≥2 prescriptions in the previous 2 years and access to social media was used in a discriminant function analysis to identify a minimal set of questions for the Profiling Tool. A split-sample procedure based on 100 sets of randomly selected estimation and validation sub-samples from the original sample was used to cross-validate the Tool and assess the robustness of its predictive accuracy...
January 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820660/long-term-function-and-optimization-of-mouse-and-human-islet-transplantation-in-the-subcutaneous-device-less-site
#9
Andrew R Pepper, Antonio Bruni, Rena Pawlick, Boris Gala-Lopez, Yasmin Rafiei, John Wink, Tatsuya Kin, A M James Shapiro
Clinical islet transplantation has routinely been demonstrated to be an efficacious means of restoring glycemic control in select patients with autoimmune diabetes. Notwithstanding marked progress and improvements, the broad-spectrum application of this treatment option is restricted by the complications associated with intrahepatic portal cellular infusion and the scarcity of human donor pancreata. Recent progress in stem cell biology has demonstrated that the potential to expand new beta cells for clinical transplantation is now a reality...
November 7, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812427/post-reproductive-parthenogenetic-pea-aphids-acyrthosiphon-pisum-are-visually-identifiable-and-disproportionately-positioned-distally-to-clonal-colonies
#10
Erik T Saberski, Julia Daisy Diamond, Nathaniel Fath Henneman, Daniel A Levitis
The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797812/astrogliopathy-predominates-the-earliest-stage-of-corticobasal-degeneration-pathology
#11
Helen Ling, Gabor G Kovacs, Jean Paul G Vonsattel, Karen Davey, Kin Y Mok, John Hardy, Huw R Morris, Thomas T Warner, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz
SEE KOBYLECKI AND MANN DOI101093/AWW267 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Animal models have shown that tau seeding and propagation are strain- and neural network-specific. The study of preclinical cases is valuable to gain insights into early pathological features of corticobasal degeneration and its progression. Three preclinical corticobasal degeneration cases and six age-matched end-stage corticobasal degeneration cases were included in this study. Tau immunohistochemistry performed in 20 brain regions and quantitative assessment of regional tau load using image analysis were performed...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775099/opting-out-against-defection-leads-to-stable-coexistence-with-cooperation
#12
Bo-Yu Zhang, Song-Jia Fan, Cong Li, Xiu-Deng Zheng, Jian-Zhang Bao, Ross Cressman, Yi Tao
Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762673/lessons-to-learn-after-1000-transcutaneous-laryngeal-ultrasound-tlusg-with-laryngoscopic-validation-is-there-a-role-of-tlusg-in-patients-indicated-for-laryngoscopic-examination-before-thyroidectomy
#13
Kai Pun Wong, Kin Pan Au, Shi Lam, Brian H Lang
INTRODUCTION: Patients with hoarseness of voice, previous neck operation or suspicion of malignancy are at "high-risk" of having pre-thyroidectomy vocal cord (VC) palsy. Therefore, VC functions should be evaluated before the operation. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of hoarseness, voice related questionnaire (Voice handicap Index (VHI) - 30) and transcutaneous laryngeal ultrasound (TLUSG) in diagnosing VC palsy, as well as the role of TLUSG in the evaluation of high-risk patients. METHODS: 1000 patients undergoing thyroidectomy or other endocrine-related neck procedures were prospectively included...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759064/dietary-patterns-and-mortality-from-cardiovascular-disease-isfahan-cohort-study
#14
N Mohammadifard, M Talaei, M Sadeghi, S Oveisegharan, J Golshahi, A Esmaillzadeh, N Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence about the relation between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is scarce in Middle Eastern countries. This study was performed to examine the association between major dietary patterns and CVD mortality in Iranian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study was conducted among 4834 randomly selected participants aged ⩾35 years from urban and rural areas of central Iran (2001-2009) (the Isfahan Cohort Study)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723824/cdia-effectors-from-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-use-heterotrimeric-osmoporins-as-receptors-to-recognize-target-bacteria
#15
Christina M Beck, Julia L E Willett, David A Cunningham, Jeff J Kim, David A Low, Christopher S Hayes
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems that promote cell-cell interaction. CDI+ bacteria express surface CdiA effector proteins, which transfer their C-terminal toxin domains into susceptible target cells upon binding to specific receptors. CDI+ cells also produce immunity proteins that neutralize the toxin domains delivered from neighboring siblings. Here, we show that CdiAEC536 from uropathogenic Escherichia coli 536 (EC536) uses OmpC and OmpF as receptors to recognize target bacteria...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720058/facultative-social-insects-can-provide-insights-into-the-reversal-of-the-longevity-fecundity-trade-off-across-the-eusocial-insects
#16
Alice Séguret, Abel Bernadou, Robert J Paxton
In eusocial insects, reversal of the fecundity/longevity trade-off and extreme differences in life histories between castes of the same species garner scientific and public interest. Facultative social species at the threshold of sociality, in which individuals are socially plastic, provide an excellent opportunity to understand the causes and mechanisms underlying this reversal in life history trade-off associated with eusociality. We briefly present the ultimate factors favoring sociality and the association between fecundity and longevity in facultative eusocial insects, including kin selection and disposable soma, as well as proximate mechanisms observed in such species, such as differences in hormone titers and functions...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704841/quest-for-inexpensive-hydrogen-isotopic-fractionation-do-we-need-2d-quantum-confining-in-porous-materials-or-are-rough-surfaces-enough-the-case-of-ammonia-nanoclusters
#17
Massimo Mella, E Curotto
We study the adsorption energetics and quantum properties of the molecular hydrogen isotopes H2, D2, and T2 onto the surface of rigid ammonia nanoclusters with quantum simulations and accurate model potential energy surfaces (PES). A highly efficient diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm for rigid rotors allowed us to accurately define zero-point adsorption energies for the three isotopes, as well as the degree of translational and rotational delocalization that each affords on the surface. From the data emerges that the quantum adsorption energy (Eads) of T2 can be up to twice the one of H2 at 0 K, suggesting the possibility of exploiting some form of solid ammonia to selectivity separate hydrogen isotopes at low temperatures (≃20 K)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650926/melodinine-v-an-antitumor-bisindole-alkaloid-with-selective-cytotoxicity-from-melodinus-henryi
#18
Ya-Ping Liu, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Julia Kin-Ming Lee, Tao Feng, Yun-Li Zhao, Yan Li, Clara Bik-San Lau, Xiao-Dong Luo
Melodinine V (1) with a vincanol-eburenine skeleton, was isolated from Melodinus henryi. The structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and further confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Melodinine V showed selective cytotoxic activities against human colon cancer cell line HT-29 and inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. It induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cellular apoptosis by increasing histone-associated DNA fragmentation in the treated HT-29 cells...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648229/strategies-for-determining-kinship-in-wild-populations-using-genetic-data
#19
Veronika Städele, Linda Vigilant
Knowledge of kin relationships between members of wild animal populations has broad application in ecology and evolution research by allowing the investigation of dispersal dynamics, mating systems, inbreeding avoidance, kin recognition, and kin selection as well as aiding the management of endangered populations. However, the assessment of kinship among members of wild animal populations is difficult in the absence of detailed multigenerational pedigrees. Here, we first review the distinction between genetic relatedness and kinship derived from pedigrees and how this makes the identification of kin using genetic data inherently challenging...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634705/endovascular-treatment-of-a-severe-stroke-occurring-in-a-commercial-airplane-over-the-sahara
#20
Christian Foerch, Christoph A Mayer, Joachim Berkefeld, Se-Jong You
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of an acute stroke syndrome during a long-distance flight demands critical decisions from the crew and attendant physicians. One in particular is whether the flight should be continued or be detoured to a nearby airport. CASE REPORT: We describe a 42-yr-old woman who suffered from a severe stroke in a commercial airplane over the Sahara. The captain, together with a physician aboard and the next of kin, decided not to detour to north African or south European airports, but to continue flying to Frankfurt, Germany (final destination; remaining flight time 4 h), where an efficient transfer infrastructure and an advanced medical standard were presumed...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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