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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622934/selection-to-outsmart-the-germs-the-evolution-of-disease-recognition-and-social-cognition
#1
Sharon E Kessler, Tyler R Bonnell, Richard W Byrne, Colin A Chapman
The emergence of providing care to diseased conspecifics must have been a turning point during the evolution of hominin sociality. On a population level, care may have minimized the costs of socially transmitted diseases at a time of increasing social complexity, although individual care-givers probably incurred increased transmission risks. We propose that care-giving likely originated within kin networks, where the costs may have been balanced by fitness increases obtained through caring for ill kin. We test a novel hypothesis of hominin cognitive evolution in which disease may have selected for the cognitive ability to recognize when a conspecific is infected...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609611/selective-aliphatic-carbon-carbon-bond-activation-by-rhodium-porphyrin-complexes
#2
Ching Tat To, Kin Shing Chan
The carbon-carbon bond activation of organic molecules with transition metal complexes is an attractive transformation. These reactions form transition metal-carbon bonded intermediates, which contribute to fundamental understanding in organometallic chemistry. Alternatively, the metal-carbon bond in these intermediates can be further functionalized to construct new carbon-(hetero)atom bonds. This methodology promotes the concept that the carbon-carbon bond acts as a functional group, although carbon-carbon bonds are kinetically inert...
June 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591651/transplantation-of-human-pancreatic-endoderm-cells-reverses-diabetes-post-transplantation-in-a-prevascularized-subcutaneous-site
#3
Andrew R Pepper, Rena Pawlick, Antonio Bruni, John Wink, Yasmin Rafiei, Doug O'Gorman, Richard Yan-Do, Boris Gala-Lopez, Tatsuya Kin, Patrick E MacDonald, A M James Shapiro
Beta-cell replacement therapy is an effective means to restore glucose homeostasis in select humans with autoimmune diabetes. The scarcity of "healthy" human donor pancreata restricts the broader application of this effective curative therapy. "β-Like" cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with the capacity to secrete insulin in a glucose-regulated manner, have been developed in vitro, with limitless capacity for expansion. Here we report long-term diabetes correction in mice transplanted with hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) in a prevascularized subcutaneous site...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583138/molecular-characterization-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines-through-multiple-omic-approaches
#4
Shari E Smith, Paul Mellor, Alison K Ward, Stephanie Kendall, Megan McDonald, Frederick S Vizeacoumar, Franco J Vizeacoumar, Scott Napper, Deborah H Anderson
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer cell lines are frequently used as model systems to study the cellular properties and biology of breast cancer. Our objective was to characterize a large, commonly employed panel of breast cancer cell lines obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 30-4500 K) to enable researchers to make more informed decisions in selecting cell lines for specific studies. Information about these cell lines was obtained from a wide variety of sources. In addition, new information about cellular pathways that are activated within each cell line was generated...
June 5, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568742/chromosome-copy-number-variants-in-fetuses-with-syndromic-malformations
#5
REVIEW
Huilin Wang, Matthew Hoi Kin Chau, Ye Cao, Ka Yin Kwok, Kwong Wai Choy
Chromosome copy number variants (CNVs; gains and losses of DNA sequences >1 kb) are wide-spread throughout the genome of healthy individuals. Laboratory studies show that a subset of CNVs are pathogenic, and not only can be responsible for the pathogenesis of major birth defects and cancer, but are also associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at birth. The characteristics of the pathogenic microdeletions and microduplications are important for both clinical implications and genetic counselling regarding test selection for prenatal screening and diagnosis...
June 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540044/experiences-of-supportive-care-when-waiting-for-a-lung-re-transplantation
#6
Bodil Ivarsson, Richard Ingemansson, Trygve Sjöberg
OBJECTIVES: Lung transplant patients and their next of kin share the experiences of illness but little is known in the face of a lung re-transplantation. To describe patients' and next of kin's experiences of supportive care while awaiting lung re-transplantation and the objective was to highlight a small group with special circumstances and needs. METHODS: Using qualitative content analysis, seven adult patients and seven next of kin were consecutively selected from a regional lung transplantation centre and individually interviewed shortly after decision about lung re-transplantation...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514634/convergent-reversion-to-single-mating-in-a-wasp-social-parasite
#7
Kevin J Loope, Federico Lopez-Osorio, Libor Dvořák
While eusociality arose in species with single-mating females, multiple mating by queens has evolved repeatedly across the social ants, bees, and wasps. Understanding the benefits and costs of multiple mating of queens is important because polyandry results in reduced relatedness between siblings, reducing kin-selected benefits of helping while also selecting for secondary social traits that reduce intracolony conflict. The leading hypothesis for the benefits of polyandry in social insects emphasizes advantages of a genetically diverse workforce...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510624/chromatic-interocular-switch-rivalry
#8
Jens H Christiansen, Anthony D D'Antona, Steven K Shevell
Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480586/the-ecology-of-cooperative-breeding-behaviour
#9
Sheng-Feng Shen, Stephen T Emlen, Walter D Koenig, Dustin R Rubenstein
Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size...
June 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473640/anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volume-predicted-by-altered-intra-item-configural-processing
#10
Lok-Kin Yeung, Rosanna K Olsen, Hannah E P Bild-Enkin, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Douglas A McQuiggan, Anna Keshabyan, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
Recent functional imaging studies have proposed that the human entorhinal cortex is subdivided into functionally distinct anterolateral (alERC) and posteromedial (pmERC) subregions. The alERC overlaps with regions that are affected earliest by Alzheimer's disease pathology, yet its cognitive function remains poorly understood. Previous human fMRI studies have focused on its role in object memory, but rodent studies on the putatively homologous lateral entorhinal cortex suggest that it also plays an important role in representing spatial properties of objects...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469015/biased-escorts-offspring-sex-not-relatedness-explains-alloparental-care-patterns-in-a-cooperative-breeder
#11
Emma I K Vitikainen, Harry H Marshall, Faye J Thompson, Jenni L Sanderson, Matthew B V Bell, Jason S Gilchrist, Sarah J Hodge, Hazel J Nichols, Michael A Cant
Kin selection theory predicts that animals should direct costly care where inclusive fitness gains are highest. Individuals may achieve this by directing care at closer relatives, yet evidence for such discrimination in vertebrates is equivocal. We investigated patterns of cooperative care in banded mongooses, where communal litters are raised by adult 'escorts' who form exclusive caring relationships with individual pups. We found no evidence that escorts and pups assort by parentage or relatedness. However, the time males spent escorting increased with increasing relatedness to the other group members, and to the pup they had paired with...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468880/selective-activation-of-interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-by-zika-virus-ns5-protein
#12
Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Ching-Ping Chan, Pei-Hui Wang, Jian-Piao Cai, Shuo Zhang, Mifang Liang, Kin-Hang Kok, Chi-Ping Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Dong-Yan Jin
Severe complications of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection might be caused by inflammation. How ZIKV induces pro-inflammatory cytokines is not understood. In this study, we show opposite regulatory effect of ZIKV NS5 protein on interferon (IFN) signaling. Whereas ZIKV and its NS5 protein were potent suppressors of type I and type III IFN signaling, they were found to activate IFN-γ signaling. Inversely, IFN-γ augmented ZIKV replication. NS5 interacted with STAT2 and targeted it for ubiquitination and degradation, but had no influence on STAT1 stability or nuclear translocation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450889/identification-of-mosaic-and-segmental-aneuploidies-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-preimplantation-genetic-screening-can-improve-clinical-outcomes-compared-to-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization
#13
Hsing-Hua Lai, Tzu-Hsuan Chuang, Lin-Kin Wong, Meng-Ju Lee, Chia-Lin Hsieh, Huai-Lin Wang, Shee-Uan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal mosaicism is observed as the presence of both euploid and aneuploid cells in a particular blastocyst. Recent studies have reported that the implantation rate of mosaic embryo transfer is remarkably lower than the euploid embryos. The superior capability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect chromosomal mosaicism in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) remains controversial, and several data displayed similar implantation and pregnancy rates using NGS or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439031/explaining-negative-kin-discrimination-in-a-cooperative-mammal-society
#14
Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant, Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Jennifer L Sanderson, Hazel J Nichols, Jason S Gilchrist, Matthew B V Bell, Andrew J Young, Sarah J Hodge, Rufus A Johnstone
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435860/onymity-promotes-cooperation-in-social-dilemma-experiments
#15
Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Rui-Wu Wang, Lei Shi, Yoh Iwasa, Yamir Moreno, Jürgen Kurths
One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#16
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419349/genomic-signature-of-kin-selection-in-an-ant-with-obligately-sterile-workers
#17
Michael R Warner, Alexander S Mikheyev, Timothy A Linksvayer
Kin selection is thought to drive the evolution of cooperation and conflict, but the specific genes and genome-wide patterns shaped by kin selection are unknown. We identified thousands of genes associated with the sterile ant worker caste, the archetype of an altruistic phenotype shaped by kin selection, and then used population and comparative genomic approaches to study patterns of molecular evolution at these genes. Consistent with population genetic theoretical predictions, worker-upregulated genes experienced reduced selection compared with genes upregulated in reproductive castes...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417004/the-effect-of-relatedness-and-pack-size-on-territory-overlap-in-african-wild-dogs
#18
Craig R Jackson, Rosemary J Groom, Neil R Jordan, J Weldon McNutt
BACKGROUND: Spacing patterns mediate competitive interactions between conspecifics, ultimately increasing fitness. The degree of territorial overlap between neighbouring African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) packs varies greatly, yet the role of factors potentially affecting the degree of overlap, such as relatedness and pack size, remain unclear. We used movement data from 21 wild dog packs to calculate the extent of territory overlap (20 dyads). RESULTS: On average, unrelated neighbouring packs had low levels of overlap restricted to the peripheral regions of their 95% utilisation kernels...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408401/synergistic-immunostimulatory-effects-and-therapeutic-benefit-of-combined-histone-deacetylase-and-bromodomain-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Dennis Adeegbe, Yan Liu, Patrick H Lizotte, Yusuke Kamihara, Amir R Aref, Christina Almonte, Ruben Dries, Yuyang Li, Shengwu Liu, Xiaoen Wang, Tiquella Warner-Hatten, Jessica Castrillon, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Neermala Poudel-Neupane, Haikuo Zhang, Jennifer L Guerriero, Shiwei Han, Mark M Awad, David A Barbie, Jerome Ritz, Simon S Jones, Peter S Hammerman, James E Bradner, Steven N Quayle, Kwok-Kin Wong
Effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain challenging despite an increasingly comprehensive understanding of somatically altered oncogenic pathways. It is now clear that therapeutic agents with potential to impact the tumor immune microenvironment potentiate immune-orchestrated therapeutic benefit. Herein we evaluated the immunoregulatory properties of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and bromodomain inhibitors, two classes of drugs that modulate the epigenome, with a focus on key cell subsets that are engaged in an immune response...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386423/acquisition-and-functional-consequences-of-social-knowledge-in-macaques
#20
Barbara Tiddi, Eugenia Polizzi di Sorrentino, Julia Fischer, Gabriele Schino
To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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