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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#1
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228515/intrafamily-and-intragenomic-conflicts-in-human-warfare
#2
Alberto J C Micheletti, Graeme D Ruxton, Andy Gardner
Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212330/synthesis-of-8-aryl-o-methylcyanidins-and-their-usage-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-devices
#3
Yuki Kimura, Kin-Ichi Oyama, Yasujiro Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya, Kumi Yoshida
Anthocyanins as natural pigments are colorful and environmentally compatible dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To increase the efficiency, we designed and synthesized unnatural O-methylflavonols and O-methylcyanidins that possess an aryl group at the 8-position. We synthesized per-O-methylquercetin from quercetin, then using selective demethylation prepared various O-methylquercetins. Using the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, 8-arylation of per-O-methylquercetin was achieved. Using a LiAlH₄ reduction or Clemmensen reduction, these flavonols were transformed to the corresponding cyanidin derivatives in satisfactory yields...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148721/a-new-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-using-a-click-derivatization-reagent-2-nitrosopyridine
#4
Debin Wan, Jun Yang, Bogdan Barnych, Sung Hee Hwang, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Yongliang Cui, Jun Niu, Mitchell A Watsky, Bruce D Hammock
There is an increased demand in the comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites. This is a major challenge, especially for 1 α,25(OH)2VitD since it is biologically active at picomolar concentrations. 4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was a revolutionary reagent in dramatically increasing sensitivity of all diene metabolites and allowing the routine analysis of the bioactive but minor vitamin D metabolites. A second generation of reagents used large fixed charge groups in the dienophile that increased sensitivity at the cost of a deterioration in chromatographic separation of the vitamin D derivatives...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147527/photodissociation-of-acetone-from-266-to-312-nm-dynamics-of-ch3-ch3co-channels-on-the-s0-and-t1-states
#5
Kin Long Kelvin Lee, Klaas Nauta, Scott H Kable
The photodissociation dynamics of acetone (CH3)2CO, cooled in a molecular beam, have been explored over the wavelength range 266-312 nm. Nascent CH3 fragments were detected by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, followed by mass-selected ion imaging. For photolysis at λ = 306 nm, the image shows a sharp ring, which, when converted to a translational energy distribution, reveals a narrow Gaussian peak with a maximum at 90% of the available energy. As the photolysis energy is increased, the distribution slowly broadens and shifts to higher recoil translational energy...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146488/ultra-broadband-mode-multiplexers-based-on-three-dimensional-asymmetric-waveguide-branches
#6
Yunfei Wu, Kin Seng Chiang
We propose a three-dimensional waveguide mode multiplexer structure that operates on the principle of adiabatic mode transition along multilayer asymmetric waveguide branches. Using this structure, we designed and fabricated a three-mode and a four-mode multiplexer with polymer material that can operate over the C+L band and beyond with small modal crosstalk (<-10  dB) and negligible polarization dependence and be directly connected to fibers with low loss. These multiplexers could be used as mode-selective devices for ultra-broadband mode-division multiplexing based on few-mode fibers...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099712/comparison-of-selective-and-non-selective-internal-iliac-artery-embolization-for-abnormal-placentation-with-major-postpartum-hemorrhage
#7
Tsz-Kin Lo, Chun-Hong So, Sik-Wing Yeung, Mimi Fung, Kwai-Ying Lui, Nin-Yuan Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094027/persistent-females-and-compliant-males-coordinate-alarm-calling-in-diana-monkeys
#8
Claudia Stephan, Klaus Zuberbühler
Sexual dimorphisms in animal vocal behavior have been successfully explained by sexual selection theory (e.g., mammals [1-5]; birds [6, 7]; anurans [8, 9]), but this does not usually include alarm calls, which are thought to be the product of kin or individual selection (e.g., [10, 11]). Here, we present the results of playback experiments with wild Diana monkeys, a species with highly dimorphic predator-specific alarms, to investigate the communication strategies of males and females during predator encounters...
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090187/recurrent-intestinal-obstruction-in-a-patient-with-selective-iga-deficiency
#9
Chee-Kin Hui
A 32 year old woman presented with acute onset of abdominal pain and fever. An urgent computerised tomography (CT) of the whole abdomen showed dilated loop at the terminal ileum in the right lower abdomen with thickening of the wall and oedema. The CT was suggestive of distal small bowel obstruction at the ileum with surrounding wall oedema. Multiple biopsies taken from the terminal ileum and colon on colonoscopy were all unremarkable. She represented one-year later with a recurrence of intestinal obstruction...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#10
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087713/functional-genomics-reveals-that-tumors-with-activating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mutations-are-dependent-on-accelerated-protein-turnover
#11
Teresa Davoli, Kristen E Mengwasser, Jingjing Duan, Ting Chen, Camilla Christensen, Eric C Wooten, Anthony N Anselmo, Mamie Z Li, Kwok-Kin Wong, Kristopher T Kahle, Stephen J Elledge
Activating mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway are frequently identified in cancer. To identify pathways that support PI3K oncogenesis, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in isogenic cell lines harboring wild-type or mutant PIK3CA to search for PI3K synthetic-lethal (SL) genes. A combined analysis of these results with a meta-analysis of two other large-scale RNAi screening data sets in PI3K mutant cancer cell lines converged on ribosomal protein translation and proteasomal protein degradation as critical nononcogene dependencies for PI3K-driven tumors...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#12
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071790/synthesizing-perspectives-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-within-and-between-species
#13
Jessica L Barker, Judith L Bronstein, Maren L Friesen, Emily I Jones, H Kern Reeve, Andrew G Zink, Megan E Frederickson
Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intraspecific and interspecific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline three advantages of cooperation relative to noncooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain these advantages...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059289/mode-selective-coupling-between-few-mode-fibers-and-buried-channel-waveguides
#14
Yunfei Wu, Kin Seng Chiang
With intensive computation, we analyze in detail butt-coupling between few-mode fibers and buried channel waveguides and discuss, in particular, the conditions to achieve mode-selective coupling for the first 6 spatial modes. In the case of coupling a buried rectangular-core waveguide to a step-index or a parabolic-index circular-core fiber, a modal crosstalk smaller than -20 dB for all the 6 spatial modes can be achieved, when the shape of the waveguide core is sufficiently close to a square (within ± 0.7% variation in its aspect ratio) and the waveguide and the fiber have close mode volumes...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050819/preventing-fusion-mass-shift-avoids-postoperative-distal-curve-adding-on-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#15
Hideki Shigematsu, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Mauro Bruzzone, Hiroaki Matsumori, Kin-Cheung Mak, Dino Samartzis, Keith Dip Kei Luk
BACKGROUND: Surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is only complete after achieving fusion to maintain the correction obtained intraoperatively. The instrumented or fused segments can be referred to as the "fusion mass". In patients with AIS, the ideal fusion mass strategy has been established based on fulcrum-bending radiographs for main thoracic curves. Ideally, the fusion mass should achieve parallel endplates of the upper and lower instrumented vertebra and correct any "shift" for truncal balance...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028377/adult-helpers-increase-the-recruitment-of-closely-related-offspring-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-rifleman
#16
Stephanie A J Preston, James V Briskie, Ben J Hatchwell
Indirect fitness benefits gained through kin-selected helping are widely invoked to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior in birds. However, the impact of helpers on productivity of helped broods can be difficult to determine if the effects are confounded by territory quality or if the benefit of helpers is apparent only in the long term. In riflemen Acanthisitta chloris, helping and group membership are effectively decoupled as adult helpers are individuals that have dispersed from their natal territory and live independently from breeders in "kin neighborhoods...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991659/sexual-selection-modulates-genetic-conflicts-and-patterns-of-genomic-imprinting
#17
Gonçalo S Faria, Susana A M Varela, Andy Gardner
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in linking the theories of kin selection and sexual selection. In particular, there is a growing appreciation that kin selection, arising through demographic factors such as sex-biased dispersal, may modulate sexual conflicts, including in the context of male-female arms races characterized by coevolutionary cycles. However, evolutionary conflicts of interest need not only occur between individuals, but may also occur within individuals, and sex-specific demography is known to foment such intragenomic conflict in relation to social behavior...
December 19, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987088/elevated-kin-directed-altruism-emerges-in-childhood-and-is-linked-to-feminine-gender-expression-in-samoan-fa-afafine-a-retrospective-study
#18
Doug P VanderLaan, Lanna J Petterson, Paul L Vasey
Androphilia refers to sexual attraction toward adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction toward adult females. The kin selection hypothesis posits that androphilic males help kin increase their reproductive output via kin-directed altruism, thus offsetting their own lowered reproduction and contributing to the fitness of genes underpinning male androphilia. Support for this hypothesis has been garnered in several Samoan studies showing that feminine androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) report elevated willingness to invest in nieces and nephews in adulthood...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986091/from-early-detection-to-rehabilitation-in-the-community-reading-beyond-the-blog-testimonies-of-survivors-quality-of-life-and-prostate-cancer-representation
#19
Margareth Santos Zanchetta, Marguerite Cognet, Mary Rachel Lam-Kin-Teng, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Lise Renaud, Jacques Rhéaume
BACKGROUND: Survivors' testimonies can reveal much about men's experiences of prostate cancer and impacts on their quality of life (QOL) during the clinical trajectory of the disease. These survivors' shared thoughts and views were hypothesized to reflect salient features of their lived social representation of prostate cancer. CONTEXT: We explored the content of testimonies posted by men to a public blog hosted by a French national prostate cancer patients' association...
December 16, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984000/flavonoid-dimers-are-highly-potent-killers-of-multidrug-resistant-cancer-cells-overexpressing-mrp1
#20
Lauriane Dury, Rachad Nasr, Doriane Lorendeau, Elisabeta Comsa, Iris Wong, Xuezhen Zhu, Kin-Fai Chan, Tak-Hang Chan, Larry Chow, Pierre Falson, Attilio Di Pietro, Hélène Baubichon-Cortay
MRP1 overexpression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells has been shown to be responsible for collateral sensitivity to some flavonoids that stimulate a huge MRP1-mediated GSH efflux. This massive GSH depletion triggers the death of these cancer cells. We describe here that bivalent flavonoid dimers strikingly stimulate such MRP1-mediated GSH efflux and trigger a 50-100 fold more potent cell death than their corresponding monomers. This selective and massive cell death of MRP1-overexpressing cells (both transfected and drug-selected cell lines) is no longer observed either upon catalytic inactivation of MRP1 or its knockdown by siRNA...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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