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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320967/self-identity-reprogrammed-by-a-single-residue-switch-in-a-cell-surface-receptor-of-a-social-bacterium
#1
Pengbo Cao, Daniel Wall
The ability to recognize close kin confers survival benefits on single-celled microbes that live in complex and changing environments. Microbial kinship detection relies on perceptible cues that reflect relatedness between individuals, although the mechanisms underlying recognition in natural populations remain poorly understood. In myxobacteria, cells identify related individuals through a polymorphic cell surface receptor, TraA. Recognition of compatible receptors leads to outer membrane exchange among clonemates and fitness consequences...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295032/air-borne-genotype-by-genotype-indirect-genetic-effects-are-substantial-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#2
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277645/the-impact-of-dna-topology-and-guide-length-on-target-selection-by-a-cytosine-specific-cas9
#3
Tsz Kin Martin Tsui, Travis H Hand, Emily C Duboy, Hong Li
Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA cleavage enzyme being actively developed for genome editing and gene regulation. To be cleaved by Cas9, a double stranded DNA, or the protospacer, must be complementary to the guide region, typically 20-nucleotides in length, of the Cas9-bound guide RNA, and adjacent to a short Cas9-specific element called Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM). Understanding the correct juxtaposition of the protospacer- and PAM-interaction with Cas9 will enable development of versatile and safe Cas9-based technology...
March 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256603/exome-sequencing-identifies-potentially-druggable-mutations-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#4
Yock Ping Chow, Lu Ping Tan, San Jiun Chai, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Siew Woh Choo, Paul Vey Hong Lim, Rajadurai Pathmanathan, Noor Kaslina Mohd Kornain, Chee Lun Lum, Kin Choo Pua, Yoke Yeow Yap, Tee Yong Tan, Soo Hwang Teo, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Vyomesh Patel
In this study, we first performed whole exome sequencing of DNA from 10 untreated and clinically annotated fresh frozen nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and matched bloods to identify somatically mutated genes that may be amenable to targeted therapeutic strategies. We identified a total of 323 mutations which were either non-synonymous (n = 238) or synonymous (n = 85). Furthermore, our analysis revealed genes in key cancer pathways (DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response, lipid signaling) were mutated, of which those in the lipid-signaling pathway were the most enriched...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229624/do-step-and-biological-grandparents-show-differences-in-investment-and-emotional-closeness-with-their-grandchildren
#5
Peter B Gray, Elizabeth Brogdon
Human children are raised by a variety of caregivers including grandparents. A few studies have assessed potential differences in direct caregiving, financial expenditures, and emotional closeness between biological and step-grandparents. Drawing upon kin selection theory, we hypothesized that step-grandparents would provide less care and be less emotionally close to grandchildren than would biological grandparents. A sample of 341 heterosexual U.S. adults 25-35 years of age in a long-term partnership and with a biological child 5 years of age or younger were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228515/intrafamily-and-intragenomic-conflicts-in-human-warfare
#6
Alberto J C Micheletti, Graeme D Ruxton, Andy Gardner
Recent years have seen an explosion of multidisciplinary interest in ancient human warfare. Theory has emphasized a key role for kin-selected cooperation, modulated by sex-specific demography, in explaining intergroup violence. However, conflicts of interest remain a relatively underexplored factor in the evolutionary-ecological study of warfare, with little consideration given to which parties influence the decision to go to war and how their motivations may differ. We develop a mathematical model to investigate the interplay between sex-specific demography and human warfare, showing that: the ecology of warfare drives the evolution of sex-biased dispersal; sex-biased dispersal modulates intrafamily and intragenomic conflicts in relation to warfare; intragenomic conflict drives parent-of-origin-specific patterns of gene expression-i...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212330/synthesis-of-8-aryl-o-methylcyanidins-and-their-usage-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-devices
#7
Yuki Kimura, Kin-Ichi Oyama, Yasujiro Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya, Kumi Yoshida
Anthocyanins as natural pigments are colorful and environmentally compatible dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To increase the efficiency, we designed and synthesized unnatural O-methylflavonols and O-methylcyanidins that possess an aryl group at the 8-position. We synthesized per-O-methylquercetin from quercetin, then using selective demethylation prepared various O-methylquercetins. Using the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, 8-arylation of per-O-methylquercetin was achieved. Using a LiAlH₄ reduction or Clemmensen reduction, these flavonols were transformed to the corresponding cyanidin derivatives in satisfactory yields...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148721/a-new-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-analysis-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-using-a-click-derivatization-reagent-2-nitrosopyridine
#8
Debin Wan, Jun Yang, Bogdan Barnych, Sung Hee Hwang, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Yongliang Cui, Jun Niu, Mitchell A Watsky, Bruce D Hammock
There is an increased demand in the comprehensive analysis of vitamin D metabolites. This is a major challenge, especially for 1 α,25(OH)2VitD since it is biologically active at picomolar concentrations. 4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was a revolutionary reagent in dramatically increasing sensitivity of all diene metabolites and allowing the routine analysis of the bioactive but minor vitamin D metabolites. A second generation of reagents used large fixed charge groups in the dienophile that increased sensitivity at the cost of a deterioration in chromatographic separation of the vitamin D derivatives...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147527/photodissociation-of-acetone-from-266-to-312-nm-dynamics-of-ch3-ch3co-channels-on-the-s0-and-t1-states
#9
Kin Long Kelvin Lee, Klaas Nauta, Scott H Kable
The photodissociation dynamics of acetone (CH3)2CO, cooled in a molecular beam, have been explored over the wavelength range 266-312 nm. Nascent CH3 fragments were detected by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, followed by mass-selected ion imaging. For photolysis at λ = 306 nm, the image shows a sharp ring, which, when converted to a translational energy distribution, reveals a narrow Gaussian peak with a maximum at 90% of the available energy. As the photolysis energy is increased, the distribution slowly broadens and shifts to higher recoil translational energy...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146488/ultra-broadband-mode-multiplexers-based-on-three-dimensional-asymmetric-waveguide-branches
#10
Yunfei Wu, Kin Seng Chiang
We propose a three-dimensional waveguide mode multiplexer structure that operates on the principle of adiabatic mode transition along multilayer asymmetric waveguide branches. Using this structure, we designed and fabricated a three-mode and a four-mode multiplexer with polymer material that can operate over the C+L band and beyond with small modal crosstalk (<-10  dB) and negligible polarization dependence and be directly connected to fibers with low loss. These multiplexers could be used as mode-selective devices for ultra-broadband mode-division multiplexing based on few-mode fibers...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099712/comparison-of-selective-and-non-selective-internal-iliac-artery-embolization-for-abnormal-placentation-with-major-postpartum-hemorrhage
#11
Tsz-Kin Lo, Chun-Hong So, Sik-Wing Yeung, Mimi Fung, Kwai-Ying Lui, Nin-Yuan Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094027/persistent-females-and-compliant-males-coordinate-alarm-calling-in-diana-monkeys
#12
Claudia Stephan, Klaus Zuberbühler
Sexual dimorphisms in animal vocal behavior have been successfully explained by sexual selection theory (e.g., mammals [1-5]; birds [6, 7]; anurans [8, 9]), but this does not usually include alarm calls, which are thought to be the product of kin or individual selection (e.g., [10, 11]). Here, we present the results of playback experiments with wild Diana monkeys, a species with highly dimorphic predator-specific alarms, to investigate the communication strategies of males and females during predator encounters...
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090187/recurrent-intestinal-obstruction-in-a-patient-with-selective-iga-deficiency
#13
Chee-Kin Hui
A 32 year old woman presented with acute onset of abdominal pain and fever. An urgent computerised tomography (CT) of the whole abdomen showed dilated loop at the terminal ileum in the right lower abdomen with thickening of the wall and oedema. The CT was suggestive of distal small bowel obstruction at the ileum with surrounding wall oedema. Multiple biopsies taken from the terminal ileum and colon on colonoscopy were all unremarkable. She represented one-year later with a recurrence of intestinal obstruction...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089514/reproductive-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-menopause-in-killer-whales
#14
Darren P Croft, Rufus A Johnstone, Samuel Ellis, Stuart Nattrass, Daniel W Franks, Lauren J N Brent, Sonia Mazzi, Kenneth C Balcomb, John K B Ford, Michael A Cant
Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9])...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087713/functional-genomics-reveals-that-tumors-with-activating-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mutations-are-dependent-on-accelerated-protein-turnover
#15
Teresa Davoli, Kristen E Mengwasser, Jingjing Duan, Ting Chen, Camilla Christensen, Eric C Wooten, Anthony N Anselmo, Mamie Z Li, Kwok-Kin Wong, Kristopher T Kahle, Stephen J Elledge
Activating mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway are frequently identified in cancer. To identify pathways that support PI3K oncogenesis, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in isogenic cell lines harboring wild-type or mutant PIK3CA to search for PI3K synthetic-lethal (SL) genes. A combined analysis of these results with a meta-analysis of two other large-scale RNAi screening data sets in PI3K mutant cancer cell lines converged on ribosomal protein translation and proteasomal protein degradation as critical nononcogene dependencies for PI3K-driven tumors...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#16
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071790/synthesizing-perspectives-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-within-and-between-species
#17
Jessica L Barker, Judith L Bronstein, Maren L Friesen, Emily I Jones, H Kern Reeve, Andrew G Zink, Megan E Frederickson
Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intraspecific and interspecific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline three advantages of cooperation relative to noncooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain these advantages...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059289/mode-selective-coupling-between-few-mode-fibers-and-buried-channel-waveguides
#18
Yunfei Wu, Kin Seng Chiang
With intensive computation, we analyze in detail butt-coupling between few-mode fibers and buried channel waveguides and discuss, in particular, the conditions to achieve mode-selective coupling for the first 6 spatial modes. In the case of coupling a buried rectangular-core waveguide to a step-index or a parabolic-index circular-core fiber, a modal crosstalk smaller than -20 dB for all the 6 spatial modes can be achieved, when the shape of the waveguide core is sufficiently close to a square (within ± 0.7% variation in its aspect ratio) and the waveguide and the fiber have close mode volumes...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050819/preventing-fusion-mass-shift-avoids-postoperative-distal-curve-adding-on-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#19
Hideki Shigematsu, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Mauro Bruzzone, Hiroaki Matsumori, Kin-Cheung Mak, Dino Samartzis, Keith Dip Kei Luk
BACKGROUND: Surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is only complete after achieving fusion to maintain the correction obtained intraoperatively. The instrumented or fused segments can be referred to as the "fusion mass". In patients with AIS, the ideal fusion mass strategy has been established based on fulcrum-bending radiographs for main thoracic curves. Ideally, the fusion mass should achieve parallel endplates of the upper and lower instrumented vertebra and correct any "shift" for truncal balance...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028377/adult-helpers-increase-the-recruitment-of-closely-related-offspring-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-rifleman
#20
Stephanie A J Preston, James V Briskie, Ben J Hatchwell
Indirect fitness benefits gained through kin-selected helping are widely invoked to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior in birds. However, the impact of helpers on productivity of helped broods can be difficult to determine if the effects are confounded by territory quality or if the benefit of helpers is apparent only in the long term. In riflemen Acanthisitta chloris, helping and group membership are effectively decoupled as adult helpers are individuals that have dispersed from their natal territory and live independently from breeders in "kin neighborhoods...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
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