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kin selection

Riikka Homanen
The multimillion-euro fertility industry increasingly tailors its treatments to infertile people who are willing to travel across national borders for treatments inaccessible at home, especially reproductive tissue donor treatments. Finland is the Nordic destination for access to donor eggs, particularly for Swedes and Norwegians hoping for a donor match that will achieve a child of phenotypically plausible biological descent. Finns are seen as Nordic kin, and the inheritability of "Nordicness" is reinforced at clinics...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Amy E Leedale, Stuart P Sharp, Michelle Simeoni, Elva J H Robinson, Ben J Hatchwell
In animal societies, characteristic demographic and dispersal patterns may lead to genetic structuring of populations, generating the potential for kin selection to operate. However, even in genetically structured populations, social interactions may still require kin discrimination for cooperative behaviour to be directed towards relatives. Here, we use molecular genetics and long-term field data to investigate genetic structure in an adult population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus, a cooperative breeder in which helping occurs within extended kin networks, and relate this to patterns of helping with respect to kinship...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Wing-Kin Tam, Yang Zhi
BACKGROUND: Large-scale neural recordings provide detailed information on neuronal activities and can help elicit the underlying neural mechanisms of the brain. However, the computational burden is also formidable when we try to process the huge data stream generated by such recordings. NEW METHOD: In this study, we report the development of Neural Parallel Engine (NPE), a toolbox for massively parallel neural signal processing on graphical processing units (GPUs)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Ting Ji, Jiajia Wu, QiaoQiao He, Yi Tao, Ruth Mace
The relative importance of social evolution theories such as kin selection, direct reciprocity and need-based transfers in explaining real-world cooperation is the source of much debate. Previous field studies of cooperation in human communities have revealed variability in the extent to which each of these theories explains human sociality in different contexts. We conducted multivariate social network analyses predicting costly cooperation-labouring on another household's farm-in 128 082 dyads of Mosuo farming households in southwest China...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jussi Lehtonen, Lisa E Schwanz
Sex ratio evolution has been one of the most successful areas of evolutionary theory. Pioneered by Düsing and Fisher under panmixia, and later extended by Hamilton to cover local mate competition (LMC), these models often assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that all females are fertilized. Here, we examine the effects of relaxing this assumption, under both panmictic and LMC models with diploid genetics. We revisit the question of the mathematical relationship between sex ratio and probability of fertilization, and use these results to model sex ratio evolution under risk of incomplete fertilization...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mohammad Faruq Abd Rachman Isnadi, Voon Kin Chin, Roslaini Abd Majid, Tze Yan Lee, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Ramatu Bello Omenesa, Zaid Osamah Ibraheem, Rusliza Basir
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 family member, which exhibits both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties solely based on the type of the disease itself. Generally, IL-33 is expressed by both endothelial and epithelial cells and mediates its function based on the interaction with various receptors, mainly with ST2 variants. IL-33 is a potent inducer for the Th2 immune response which includes defence mechanism in brain diseases. Thus, in this paper, we review the biological features of IL-33 and the critical roles of IL-33/ST2 pathway in selected neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and malaria infection to discuss the involvement of IL-33/ST2 pathway during these brain diseases and its potential as future immunotherapeutic agents or for intervention purposes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Suegene Noh, Katherine S Geist, Xiangjun Tian, Joan E Strassmann, David C Queller
Many microbes engage in social interactions. Some of these have come to play an important role in the study of cooperation and conflict, largely because, unlike most animals, they can be genetically manipulated and experimentally evolved. However, whereas animal social behavior can be observed and assessed in natural environments, microbes usually cannot, so we know little about microbial social adaptations in nature. This has led to some difficult-to-resolve controversies about social adaptation even for well-studied traits such as bacterial quorum sensing, siderophore production, and biofilms...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kam-Chau Wu, Kin-Chung Ho, Chin-Cheung Tang, Yiu-Hung Yau
Foodwaste leachate (FWL) is often generated during foodwaste treatment processes. Owing to its high nutrient content, FWL has high potential for phycoremediation, a microalgal technology application for water treatment while acting as CO2 fixation tank. Additionally, the end product of microalgal from phycoremediation can be potentially used for biodiesel production. Therefore, the phycoremediation has drawn a lot of attention in recent decades. This study evaluates the performance of microalgal foodwaste leachate treatment and the potential of utilizing FWL as medium for microalgal biodiesel production...
March 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri, András Szilágyi, Zoltán Varga, Szabolcs Számadó
Parent-offspring communication remains an unresolved challenge for biologist. The difficulty of the challenge comes from the fact that it is a multifaceted problem with connections to life-history evolution, parent-offspring conflict, kin selection and signalling. Previous efforts mainly focused on modelling resource allocation at the expense of the dynamic interaction during a reproductive season. Here we present a two-stage model of begging where the first stage models the interaction between nestlings and parents within a nest and the second stage models the life-history trade-offs...
2018: PloS One
Colin M Wright, Trevor D Hyland, Amanda S Izzo, Donna R McDermott, Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Jonathan N Pruitt
Consistent differences in behavior between individuals, otherwise known as animal personalities, have become a staple in behavioral ecology due to their ability to explain a wide range of phenomena. Social organisms are especially serviceable to animal personality techniques because they can be used to explore behavioral variation at both the individual and group level. Despite the success of personality research in social organisms generally, and social Hymenoptera in particular, social wasps (Vespidae) have received little to no attention in the personality literature...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Rachel Dale, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Friederike Range
While food sharing among related individuals can be explained by kin selection, food sharing between unrelated individuals has been more of an evolutionary puzzle. The food-for-sex hypothesis provides an explanation for the occurrence of food sharing among nonkin. However, little is known about the socio-ecological factors that can promote such a commodity exchange. A species mating system is a factor potentially influencing food-for-sex patterns of behavior. Here, we compared wolves, which form pair-bonds, with dogs, which are typically promiscuous in free-ranging contexts, to investigate the effect of reproductive stages on the behavior around a food source in 2 different contexts...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Caroline V Fulkerson, Chee Kin Lim, Aubrey N Baird, Ann B Weil, Hock Gan Heng, Beatrice Gutierrez-Crespo, George E Moore
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Antonio Bruni, Andrew R Pepper, Rena L Pawlick, Boris Gala-Lopez, Anissa Gamble, Tatsuya Kin, Andrew J Malcolm, Carissa Jones, Jon D Piganelli, James D Crapo, A M James Shapiro
Islet transplantation has become a well-established therapy for select patients suffering from type 1 diabetes. Viability and engraftment can be compromised by the generation of oxidative stress encountered during isolation and culture. We evaluate whether administration of BMX-001, and its earlier derivative, BMX-010 could improve islet function and engraftment outcomes. Long-term culture of human islets with BMX-001, but not BMX-010, exhibited preserved in vitro viability. Murine islets isolated and cultured for 24 hours with 34μM BMX-001 exhibited improved insulin secretion (n=3 isolations, p<0...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Kyohei Kin, Takashi Agari, Takao Yasuhara, Yousuke Tomita, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Michiari Umakoshi, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Tatsuya Sasaki, Isao Date
OBJECTIVE: Optimal placement of electrodes is important for spinal cord stimulation. Factors affecting the difficulty of percutaneous electrode placement are not well known. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the factors affecting the difficulty of percutaneous electrode placement. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 90 consecutive procedures of percutaneous cylindrical electrode implantation at the first author's institution. Age, sex, smoking state, body mass index, the duration of time from the beginning of pain syndrome to operation, diagnosis, the number of previous electrode placements, the previous electrode implantation period, the presence of axial low back pain, the electrode tip level, the pattern of electrode placement, and the reason for reimplantation were selected as factors associated with the success of electrode placement or the operation time of electrode placement...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chee-Kin Then, Kao-Hui Liu, Ming-Hsuan Liao, Kuo-Hsuan Chung, Jia-Yi Wang, Shing-Chuan Shen
The impacts of antidepressants on the pathogenesis of dementia remain unclear despite depression and dementia are closely related. Antidepressants have been reported may impair serotonin-regulated adaptive processes, increase neurological side-effects and cytotoxicity. An 'astroglio-centric' perspective of neurodegenerative diseases proposes astrocyte dysfunction is involved in the impairment of proper central nervous system functioning. Thus, defining whether antidepressants are harmful to astrocytes is an intriguing issue...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Karis Kin-Fong Cheng, Ethel Yee-Ting Lim, Ravindran Kanesvaran
OBJECTIVES: The measurement of quality of life (QoL) in elderly cancer population is increasingly being recognised as an important element of clinical decision-making and the evaluation of treatment outcome. This systematic review aimed to summarise the evidence of QoL during and after adjuvant therapy in elderly patients with cancer. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted of studies published in CINAHL plus, CENTRAL, PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science from the inception of these databases to December 2016...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Lai Nar Tung, Senchuan Song, Kin Tak Chan, Mei Yuk Choi, Ho Yu Lam, Chung Man Chan, Zhiyong Chen, Hector K Wang, Hoi Ting Leung, Simon Law, Yanmin Huang, Huacan Song, Nikki P Lee
Purpose: Tumor xenograft model is an indispensable animal cancer model. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) research, orthotopic tumor xenograft model establishes tumor xenograft in the animal esophagus, which allows the study of tumorigenesis in its native microenvironment. Materials and Methods: In this study, we described two simple and reproducible methods to develop tumor xenograft at the cervical or the abdominal esophagus in nude mice by direct injection of ESCC cells in the esophageal wall...
January 24, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Kin Man Au, Ashutosh Tripathy, Carolina Pe-I Lin, Kyle Wagner, Seungpyo Hong, Andrew Z Wang, Steven I Park
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most common types of hematologic malignancies. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), the sequential administration of a bispecific antibody-based primary tumor-targeting component followed by a radionucleotide-labeled treatment effector, has been developed to improve the treatment efficacy and to reduce the side effects of conventional RIT. Despite the preclinical success of PRIT, clinical trials revealed that the immunogenicity of the bispecific antibody as well as the presence of competing endogenous effector molecules often compromised the treatment...
January 23, 2018: ACS Nano
Samay Pande, Gregory J Velicer
Many cooperative species form internally diverse social groups in which individual fitness depends significantly on group-level productivity from cooperation [1-4]. For such species, selection is expected to often disfavor within-group diversity that reduces cooperative productivity [5, 6]. While diversity within social groups is known to enhance productivity in some animals [7-9], diversity within natural groups of social microbes is largely unexamined in this regard. Cells of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus respond to starvation by constructing multicellular fruiting bodies within each of which a subpopulation of cells transforms into stress-resistant spores [10]...
January 11, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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