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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514634/convergent-reversion-to-single-mating-in-a-wasp-social-parasite
#1
Kevin J Loope, Federico Lopez-Osorio, Libor Dvořák
While eusociality arose in species with single-mating females, multiple mating by queens has evolved repeatedly across the social ants, bees, and wasps. Understanding the benefits and costs of multiple mating of queens is important because polyandry results in reduced relatedness between siblings, reducing kin-selected benefits of helping while also selecting for secondary social traits that reduce intracolony conflict. The leading hypothesis for the benefits of polyandry in social insects emphasizes advantages of a genetically diverse workforce...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510624/chromatic-interocular-switch-rivalry
#2
Jens H Christiansen, Anthony D D'Antona, Steven K Shevell
Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480586/the-ecology-of-cooperative-breeding-behaviour
#3
Sheng-Feng Shen, Stephen T Emlen, Walter D Koenig, Dustin R Rubenstein
Ecology is a fundamental driving force for the evolutionary transition from solitary living to breeding cooperatively in groups. However, the fact that both benign and harsh, as well as stable and fluctuating, environments can favour the evolution of cooperative breeding behaviour constitutes a paradox of environmental quality and sociality. Here, we propose a new model - the dual benefits framework - for resolving this paradox. Our framework distinguishes between two categories of grouping benefits - resource defence benefits that derive from group-defended critical resources and collective action benefits that result from social cooperation among group members - and uses insider-outsider conflict theory to simultaneously consider the interests of current group members (insiders) and potential joiners (outsiders) in determining optimal group size...
June 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473640/anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volume-predicted-by-altered-intra-item-configural-processing
#4
Lok-Kin Yeung, Rosanna K Olsen, Hannah E P Bild-Enkin, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Douglas A McQuiggan, Anna Keshabyan, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
Recent functional imaging studies have proposed that the human entorhinal cortex is subdivided into functionally distinct anterolateral (alERC) and posteromedial (pmERC) subregions. The alERC overlaps with regions that are affected earliest by Alzheimer's disease pathology, yet its cognitive function remains poorly understood. Previous human fMRI studies have focused on its role in object memory, but rodent studies on the putatively homologous lateral entorhinal cortex suggest that it also plays an important role in representing spatial properties of objects...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469015/biased-escorts-offspring-sex-not-relatedness-explains-alloparental-care-patterns-in-a-cooperative-breeder
#5
Emma I K Vitikainen, Harry H Marshall, Faye J Thompson, Jenni L Sanderson, Matthew B V Bell, Jason S Gilchrist, Sarah J Hodge, Hazel J Nichols, Michael A Cant
Kin selection theory predicts that animals should direct costly care where inclusive fitness gains are highest. Individuals may achieve this by directing care at closer relatives, yet evidence for such discrimination in vertebrates is equivocal. We investigated patterns of cooperative care in banded mongooses, where communal litters are raised by adult 'escorts' who form exclusive caring relationships with individual pups. We found no evidence that escorts and pups assort by parentage or relatedness. However, the time males spent escorting increased with increasing relatedness to the other group members, and to the pup they had paired with...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468880/selective-activation-of-interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-by-zika-virus-ns5-protein
#6
Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Ching-Ping Chan, Pei-Hui Wang, Jian-Piao Cai, Shuo Zhang, Mifang Liang, Kin-Hang Kok, Chi-Ping Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Dong-Yan Jin
Severe complications of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection might be caused by inflammation. How ZIKV induces pro-inflammatory cytokines is not understood. In this study, we show opposite regulatory effect of ZIKV NS5 protein on interferon (IFN) signaling. Whereas ZIKV and its NS5 protein were potent suppressors of type I and type III IFN signaling, they were found to activate IFN-γ signaling. Inversely, IFN-γ augmented ZIKV replication. NS5 interacted with STAT2 and targeted it for ubiquitination and degradation, but had no influence on STAT1 stability or nuclear translocation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450889/identification-of-mosaic-and-segmental-aneuploidies-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-preimplantation-genetic-screening-can-improve-clinical-outcomes-compared-to-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization
#7
Hsing-Hua Lai, Tzu-Hsuan Chuang, Lin-Kin Wong, Meng-Ju Lee, Chia-Lin Hsieh, Huai-Lin Wang, Shee-Uan Chen
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal mosaicism is observed as the presence of both euploid and aneuploid cells in a particular blastocyst. Recent studies have reported that the implantation rate of mosaic embryo transfer is remarkably lower than the euploid embryos. The superior capability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect chromosomal mosaicism in preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) remains controversial, and several data displayed similar implantation and pregnancy rates using NGS or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439031/explaining-negative-kin-discrimination-in-a-cooperative-mammal-society
#8
Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant, Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Jennifer L Sanderson, Hazel J Nichols, Jason S Gilchrist, Matthew B V Bell, Andrew J Young, Sarah J Hodge, Rufus A Johnstone
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435860/onymity-promotes-cooperation-in-social-dilemma-experiments
#9
Zhen Wang, Marko Jusup, Rui-Wu Wang, Lei Shi, Yoh Iwasa, Yamir Moreno, Jürgen Kurths
One of the most elusive scientific challenges for over 150 years has been to explain why cooperation survives despite being a seemingly inferior strategy from an evolutionary point of view. Over the years, various theoretical scenarios aimed at solving the evolutionary puzzle of cooperation have been proposed, eventually identifying several cooperation-promoting mechanisms: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. We report the results of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments with anonymous and onymous pairwise interactions among individuals...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#10
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419349/genomic-signature-of-kin-selection-in-an-ant-with-obligately-sterile-workers
#11
Michael R Warner, Alexander S Mikheyev, Timothy A Linksvayer
Kin selection is thought to drive the evolution of cooperation and conflict, but the specific genes and genome-wide patterns shaped by kin selection are unknown. We identified thousands of genes associated with the sterile ant worker caste, the archetype of an altruistic phenotype shaped by kin selection, and then used population and comparative genomic approaches to study patterns of molecular evolution at these genes. Consistent with population genetic theoretical predictions, worker-upregulated genes experienced reduced selection compared to genes upregulated in reproductive castes...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417004/the-effect-of-relatedness-and-pack-size-on-territory-overlap-in-african-wild-dogs
#12
Craig R Jackson, Rosemary J Groom, Neil R Jordan, J Weldon McNutt
BACKGROUND: Spacing patterns mediate competitive interactions between conspecifics, ultimately increasing fitness. The degree of territorial overlap between neighbouring African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) packs varies greatly, yet the role of factors potentially affecting the degree of overlap, such as relatedness and pack size, remain unclear. We used movement data from 21 wild dog packs to calculate the extent of territory overlap (20 dyads). RESULTS: On average, unrelated neighbouring packs had low levels of overlap restricted to the peripheral regions of their 95% utilisation kernels...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408401/synergistic-immunostimulatory-effects-and-therapeutic-benefit-of-combined-histone-deacetylase-and-bromodomain-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Dennis Adeegbe, Yan Liu, Patrick H Lizotte, Yusuke Kamihara, Amir R Aref, Christina Almonte, Ruben Dries, Yuyang Li, Shengwu Liu, Xiaoen Wang, Tiquella Warner-Hatten, Jessica Castrillon, Guo-Cheng Yuan, Neermala Poudel-Neupane, Haikuo Zhang, Jennifer L Guerriero, Shiwei Han, Mark M Awad, David A Barbie, Jerome Ritz, Simon S Jones, Peter S Hammerman, James E Bradner, Steven N Quayle, Kwok-Kin Wong
Effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain challenging despite an increasingly comprehensive understanding of somatically altered oncogenic pathways. It is now clear that therapeutic agents with potential to impact the tumor immune microenvironment potentiate immune-orchestrated therapeutic benefit. Herein we evaluated the immunoregulatory properties of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and bromodomain inhibitors, two classes of drugs that modulate the epigenome, with a focus on key cell subsets that are engaged in an immune response...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386423/acquisition-and-functional-consequences-of-social-knowledge-in-macaques
#14
Barbara Tiddi, Eugenia Polizzi di Sorrentino, Julia Fischer, Gabriele Schino
To manoeuvre in complex societies, it is beneficial to acquire knowledge about the social relationships existing among group mates, so as to better predict their behaviour. Although such knowledge has been firmly established in a variety of animal taxa, how animals acquire such knowledge, as well as its functional significance, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how primates acquire and use their social knowledge, we studied kin-biased redirected aggression in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) relying on a large database of over 15 000 aggressive episodes...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371191/structure-based-target-specific-screening-leads-to-small-molecule-camkii-inhibitors
#15
David Xu, Liwei Li, Donghui Zhou, Degang Liu, Andy Hudmon, Samy O Meroueh
Target-specific scoring methods are more commonly used to identify small-molecule inhibitors among compounds docked to a target of interest. Top candidates that emerge from these methods have rarely been tested for activity and specificity across a family of proteins. In this study we docked a chemical library into CaMKIIδ, a member of the Ca(2+) /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family, and re-scored the resulting protein-compound structures using Support Vector Machine SPecific (SVMSP), a target-specific method that we developed previously...
March 29, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369655/why-do-phylogenomic-data-sets-yield-conflicting-trees-data-type-influences-the-avian-tree-of-life-more-than-taxon-sampling
#16
Sushma Reddy, Rebecca T Kimball, Akanksha Pandey, Peter A Hosner, Michael J Braun, Shannon J Hackett, Kin-Lan Han, John Harshman, Christopher J Huddleston, Sarah Kingston, Ben D Marks, Kathleen J Miglia, William S Moore, Frederick H Sheldon, Christopher C Witt, Tamaki Yuri, Edward L Braun
Phylogenomics, the use of large-scale data matrices in phylogenetic analyses, has been viewed as the ultimate solution to the problem of resolving difficult nodes in the tree of life. However, it has become clear that analyses of these large genomic datasets can also result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny. Here we use the early divergences in Neoaves, the largest clade of extant birds, as a 'model system' to understand the basis for incongruence among phylogenomic trees. We were motivated by the observation that trees from two recent avian phylogenomic studies exhibit conflicts...
March 27, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363015/solution-assembled-blends-of-regioregularity-controlled-polythiophenes-for-coexistence-of-mechanical-resilience-and-electronic-performance
#17
Hyeong Jun Kim, Moo Yeol Lee, Jin-Seong Kim, Jae-Han Kim, Hojeong Yu, Hongseok Yun, Kin Liao, Taek-Soo Kim, Joon Hak Oh, Bumjoon J Kim
Considering all the potential applications of organic electronics in portable, wearable, and implantable devices, it is of great importance to develop electroactive materials that possess mechanical reliability along with excellent electronic performance. The coexistence of these two attributes, however, is very difficult to achieve because there is an inverse relationship between the electrical properties and the mechanical flexibility, both of which are associated with the conjugation length and intermolecular ordering of the polymers...
April 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361104/discordance-in-selected-designee-for-return-of-genomic-findings-in-the-event-of-participant-death-and-estate-executor
#18
Jessie L Goodman, Laura M Amendola, Martha Horike-Pyne, Susan B Trinidad, Stephanie M Fullerton, Wylie Burke, Gail P Jarvik
BACKGROUND: Legal and ethical questions arise regarding disseminating genetic research results to family members in the event of a research participant's death; failure to return or return to legal next of kin or estate executor may not reflect participant desires. We sought to determine participant preferences for whether and to whom they would like their data released in the case of their death prior to receiving genomic results, focusing on whether the person selected was also their estate executor...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356494/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-pharmacological-inhibition-decreases-alveolar-bone-loss-by-modulating-host-inflammatory-response-rank-related-signaling-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#19
Carlos Antonio Trindade-da-Silva, Ahmed Bettaieb, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Bora Inceoglu, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Donald Bruun, Sumanta Kumar Goswami, Fawaz G Haj, Bruce D Hammock
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory bone loss. Thus, in the present study, we tested the selective sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), in a mouse model of periodontitis induced by infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Oral treatment of wild-type mice with TPPU and sEH knockout (KO) animals showed reduced bone loss induced by A...
June 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351582/defining-an-inflamed-tumor-immunophenotype-in-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#20
Glenn J Hanna, Hongye Liu, Robert E Jones, Alyssa F Bacay, Patrick H Lizotte, Elena V Ivanova, Mark A Bittinger, Megan E Cavanaugh, Amanda J Rode, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Nicole G Chau, Robert I Haddad, Jochen H Lorch, Kwok-Kin Wong, Ravindra Uppaluri, Peter S Hammerman
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefit in recurrent, metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SSCHN), but lacking are biomarkers that predict response. We sought to define an inflamed tumor immunophenotype in this R/M SCCHN population and correlate immune metrics with clinical parameters and survival. METHODS: Tumor samples were prospectively acquired from 34 patients to perform multiparametric flow cytometry and multidimensional clustering analysis integrated with next-generation sequencing data, clinical parameters and outcomes...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
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