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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934333/supermarket-purchase-contributes-to-nutrition-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-urban-kenya
#1
Kathrin M Demmler, Stephan Klasen, Jonathan M Nzuma, Matin Qaim
BACKGROUND: While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932190/empirical-evaluation-of-voluntarily-activatable-muscle-synergies
#2
Shunta Togo, Hiroshi Imamizu
The muscle synergy hypothesis assumes that individual muscle synergies are independent of each other and voluntarily controllable. However, this assumption has not been empirically tested. This study tested if human subjects can voluntarily activate individual muscle synergies extracted by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), the standard mathematical method for synergy extraction. We defined the activation of a single muscle synergy as the generation of a muscle activity pattern vector parallel to the single muscle synergy vector...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923976/catch-and-release-14-3-3-controls-ncd-in-meiotic-spindles
#3
Mary Dasso
During Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis, spindle assembly occurs without centrosomes and relies on signals from chromosomes. Beaven et al. (2017. J. Cell. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201704120) show that 14-3-3 proteins bind and inhibit a key microtubule motor, Ncd, during oogenesis, but Aurora B releases Ncd inhibition near chromosomes, allowing Ncd to work in the right time and place.
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923078/curbing-the-lifestyle-disease-pandemic-making-progress-on-an-interdisciplinary-research-agenda-for-law-and-policy-interventions
#4
Brigit Toebes, Marlies Hesselman, Jitse P van Dijk, Joost Herman
By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically...
September 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921638/graft-infiltrating-pd-l1-hi-cross-dressed-dendritic-cells-regulate-anti-donor-t-cell-responses-in-mouse-liver-transplant-tolerance
#5
Yoshihiro Ono, Angelica Perez-Gutierrez, Toshimasa Nakao, Helong Dai, Geoffrey Camirand, Osamu Yoshida, Shinichiro Yokota, Donna Beer Stolz, Mark A Ross, Adrian E Morelli, David A Geller, Angus W Thomson
While a key role of cross-dressing has been established in immunity to viral infection and more recently in the instigation of transplant rejection, its role in tolerance is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of intra-graft dendritic cells (DC) and cross-dressing in mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched liver transplant tolerance that occurs without therapeutic immunosuppression. While donor interstitial DC diminished rapidly following transplantation, they were replaced in the liver by host DC that peaked on postoperative day (POD) 7 and persisted indefinitely...
September 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920396/-inhibition-of-chitin-oligosaccharide-on-dyslipidemia-and-the-potential-molecular-mechanism-exploration
#6
Fanqi Yi, Junping Zheng, Qiongyu Li, Siming Jiao, Yuguang Du, Yun Ye, Hongtao Liu
The inhibitory effect of NACOS on dyslipidemia and potential molecular mechanisms by in vitro and in vivo experiments were investigated. For in vitro study, four experimental groups were designed by using HepG2 cells, including the control group, palmitic acid (PA) treatment alone group, NACOS treatment alone group and NACOS + PA treatment group. For in vivo study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5) at random including the normal control group (NCD), high fat diet (HFD) group, NACOS treatment alone group, NACOS+HFD group, which were treated for 20 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904264/zoonotic-potential-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-in-neonatal-calves-in-uruguay
#8
Ana Umpiérrez, Inés Bado, Martín Oliver, Sofía Acquistapace, Analía Etcheverría, Nora Lía Padola, Rafael Vignoli, Pablo Zunino
Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902320/-investing-in-health-the-economic-case-report-of-the-wish-investing-in-health-forum-2016
#9
Gavin Yamey, Naomi Beyeler, Hester Wadge, Dean Jamison
Developing country governments and aid agencies face difficult decisions on how best to allocate their finite resources. Investments in many different sectors -including education, water and sanitation, transportation, and health- can all reap social and economic benefits. This report focuses specifically on the health sector. It presents compelling evidence of the value of scaling-up health investments. The economic case for increasing these investments in health has never been stronger. Having made progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, and deaths from infectious diseases, it is essential that policymakers do not become complacent...
May 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890141/-gait-speed-and-the-appearance-of-neurocognitive-disorders-in-older-adults-results-of-a-peruvian-cohort
#10
José F Parodi, Wendy Nieto-Gutierrez, Walter A Tellez, Iris Ventocilla-Gonzales, Fernando M Runzer-Colmenares, Alvaro Taype-Rondan
INTRODUCTION: The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants' gait speed was recorded...
September 7, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887712/higher-incidence-of-pancreatic-fistula-in-laparoscopic-gastrectomy-real-world-evidence-from-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Naoki Hiki, Michitaka Honda, Tsuyoshi Etoh, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Yasuhiro Kodera, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Hikaru Kumamaru, Hiroaki Miyata, Yuichi Yamashita, Masafumi Inomata, Hiroyuki Konno, Yasuyuki Seto, Seigo Kitano
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) is becoming the standard procedure for gastric cancer. However, supporting evidence thus far has been derived primarily from randomized control trials conducted by centers of excellence. In the present study we used the National Clinical Database (NCD) in Japan to prospectively accumulate data from diverse types of hospitals and examine whether LDG is a safe and valid standard procedure. METHODS: From the NCD, 169 institutions were selected to form a cohort that was considered to be representative of Japan...
September 8, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882166/social-determinants-of-common-metabolic-risk-factors-high-blood-pressure-high-blood-sugar-high-body-mass-index-and-high-waist-hip-ratio-of-major-non-communicable-diseases-in-south-asia-region-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Sudesh Raj Sharma, Shiva Raj Mishra, Kusum Wagle, Rachel Page, Anna Matheson, Danielle Lambrick, James Faulkner, David Lounsbury, Abhinav Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. METHODS: A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines...
September 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875891/age-group-differences-in-risk-perceptions-of-non-communicable-diseases-among-adults-in-diepsloot-township-johannesburg-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-health-belief-model
#13
Z Kaba, N Khamisa, N Tshuma
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) occur simultaneously with an ageing HIV-positive population, resulting in premature deaths in persons <70 years of age. Poor risk perception of NCDs results in poor adoption practices of NCD preventive measures. There is a gap in age-related research regarding risk perceptions of NCDs among the SA population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-group differences in risk perceptions of NCDs based on the Health Belief Model...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860809/perihippocampal-metastasis-following-hippocampus-avoiding-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-for-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#14
Seung-Gu Yeo
Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) lowers the risk of brain metastasis (BM) and increases survival in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, but it also entails a risk of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). One strategy to mitigate this neurotoxicity is hippocampus-avoiding (HA) whole-brain radiation therapy, as the hippocampus is mainly responsible for radiation-related NCD and hippocampal or perihippocampal metastases are rare. A few prospective clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in NCD following HA whole-brain radiation therapy...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860275/14-3-3-regulation-of-ncd-reveals-a-new-mechanism-for-targeting-proteins-to-the-spindle-in-oocytes
#15
Robin Beaven, Ricardo Nunes Bastos, Christos Spanos, Pierre Romé, C Fiona Cullen, Juri Rappsilber, Régis Giet, Gohta Goshima, Hiroyuki Ohkura
The meiotic spindle is formed without centrosomes in a large volume of oocytes. Local activation of crucial spindle proteins around chromosomes is important for formation and maintenance of a bipolar spindle in oocytes. We found that phosphodocking 14-3-3 proteins stabilize spindle bipolarity in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. A critical 14-3-3 target is the minus end-directed motor Ncd (human HSET; kinesin-14), which has well-documented roles in stabilizing a bipolar spindle in oocytes. Phospho docking by 14-3-3 inhibits the microtubule binding activity of the nonmotor Ncd tail...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857019/smart-health-and-innovation-facilitating-health-related-behaviour-change
#16
J Redfern
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens...
August 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853130/urbanization-and-noncommunicable-disease-ncd-risk-factors-who-stepwise-iranian-ncd-risk-factors-surveillance-in-2011
#17
Zahra Khorrami, Koorosh Etemad, Shahin Yarahmadi, Soheila Khodakarim, Mohammadesmail Kameli, Alireza Mahdavi Hezaveh, Ebrahim Rahimi
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors...
August 27, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839315/the-need-for-dietary-guidelines-in-pakistan
#18
Romaina Iqbal, Saman Tahir, Naveera Ghulamhussain
Diet is one of the most important contributors to health and disease. Developing countries such as Pakistan are facing a growing epidemic of under nutrition resulting in stunting, wasting and micronutrient deficiencies in the population. This severe situation of under nutrition in the country is coupled with rising tide of non-communicable diseases (NCD) posing the double burden of disease on the country. These burden of NCD, along with over and under nutrition poses a huge burden on the already over-utilized multi-tiered health care system in Pakistan...
August 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820539/a-survey-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-among-university-employees-a-single-institutional-study
#19
Emmanuel I Agaba, Maxwell O Akanbi, Patricia A Agaba, Amaka N Ocheke, Zumnan M Gimba, Steve Daniyam, Edith N Okeke
BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising globally, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors among members of a university community. METHODS: All employees of the university were invited to the University health clinic for screening, using the World Health Organisation's STEPwise approach to NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 883 (521; 59...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812826/a-policy-analysis-on-the-proactive-prevention-of-chronic-disease-learnings-from-the-initial-implementation-of-integrated-measurement-for-early-detection-mido
#20
Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Rodrigo Saucedo-Martínez, Ricardo Mújica-Rosales, Héctor Gallardo-Rincón, Evan Lee, Craig Waugh, Lucía Guajardo, Braulio Torres-Beltrán, Úrsula Quijano-González, Mauricio López-Mendez, Elena Rose Atkinson
Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
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