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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199741/melatonin-prevents-obesity-through-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#1
Pengfei Xu, Jialin Wang, Fan Hong, Sheng Wang, Xi Jin, Tingting Xue, Li Jia, Yonggong Zhai
Excess weight and obesity are severe public health threats worldwide. Recent evidence demonstrates that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to obesity and its comorbidities. The body weight-reducing and energy balancing effects of melatonin have been reported in several studies, but to date, no investigations toward examining whether the beneficial effects of melatonin are associated with gut microbiota have been carried out. In this study, we show that melatonin reduces body weight, liver steatosis, and low-grade inflammation as well as improving insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199042/global-effects-of-income-and-income-inequality-on-adult-height-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-height
#2
Barry Bogin, Christiane Scheffler, Michael Hermanussen
OBJECTIVES: Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194950/pinpoint-the-positions-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-by-a-nanocluster-dimer
#3
Jie Liu, Yuexiang Lu, Lu Feng, Song Wang, Shixi Zhang, Xuewei Zhu, Linfeng Sheng, Sichun Zhang, Xinrong Zhang
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most fundamental internal causes for many genetic diseases. However, the location information on SNPs in a specific DNA sequence is not well acquired through current SNPs detection methods, except for accurate DNA sequencing. Here we report a fluorescence enhancement phenomenon in the process of two silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) approaching closely to form a nanocluster dimer (NCD). The fluorescence intensity is sensitive to the distance between two AgNCs; therefore, the NCD lights into different fluorescence intensities upon binding SNPs targets with mismatched bases at different positions...
February 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174394/-past-present-and-future-of-national-clinical-database
#4
Tadashi Iwanaka
The National Clinical Database of Japan( NCD) was established in April 2010 in the collaboration of 9 surgical subspecialty societies on the platform of the Japan Surgical Society(JSS). Registrations began in 2011, and because NCD is strongly linked to the board certification system by JSS, the ratio of registration of surgical procedures is very high, over than 97%. To date, more than 4,000 facilities have enrolled and over 7 million cases were registered over a 5-year period. The analyses of NCD are compared to the foreign database, such as American College of Surgeon National Surgical Quality Improvement Program in the gastrointestinal (GI) surgical field, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Adult Cardiac Database in the cardiovascular surgical field, with a goal of creating a standardized surgery database for quality improvement...
January 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170413/baseline-assessment-of-who-s-target-for-both-availability-and-affordability-of-essential-medicines-to-treat-non-communicable-diseases
#5
Margaret Ewen, Marjolein Zweekhorst, Barbara Regeer, Richard Laing
BACKGROUND: WHO has set a voluntary target of 80% availability of affordable essential medicines, including generics, to treat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in the public and private sectors of countries by 2025. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from 30 surveys in low- and middle-income countries, conducted from 2008-2015 using the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) medicine availability and price survey methodology, to establish a baseline for this target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127405/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-diabetes-in-a-large-community-based-study-in-north-india-results-from-a-steps-survey-in-punjab-india
#6
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, J S Thakur, Gursimer Jeet, Sohan Chawla, Sanjay Jain, Arnab Pal, Rajendra Prasad, Rajiv Saran
AIMS: India is the diabetes capital with home to 69.1 million people with DM, the second highest number of cases after China. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates a rising DM epidemic across all classes, both affluent and the poor in India. This article reports on the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the North Indian state of Punjab as part of a large household NCD Risk Factor Survey. METHODS: A household NCD STEPS survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112770/depressive-symptoms-increase-the-risk-of-mild-neurocognitive-disorders-among-elderly-chinese
#7
L Feng, W-S Lim, M-S Chong, T-S Lee, Q Gao, M S Z Nyunt, L Feng, E-H Kua, T-P Ng
BACKGROUND: Depression is prevalent among patients with late life neurocognitive disorders but its role as an independent risk factor is not established. We aimed to examine the longitudinal relationship between depression and the incidence of mild neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 889 community-living Chinese elderly in the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS) cohort. All subjects were cognitively normal at baseline based on their performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107465/lead-exposure-induces-weight-gain-in-adult-rats-accompanied-by-dna-hypermethylation
#8
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Xiaomin Nie, Li Zhao, Qin Li, Zhen Cang, Chi Chen, Meng Lu, Jing Cheng, Hualing Zhai, Fangzhen Xia, Lin Ye, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have revealed the association of lead (Pb) exposure with obesity. DNA methylation alteration has been suggested to be one of the regulatory mechanisms of obesity. We aimed to explore whether Pb exposure is related with weight gain and DNA methylation alteration. METHODS: Male adult 8 week Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: the normal chow diet (NCD); the NCD+0.05%Pb; the NCD+0.15%Pb; the NCD+0.45%Pb and the high fat diet. Rats were exposed to different dosages of Pb through drinking water for 21 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079809/a-comparison-of-the-surgical-mortality-due-to-colorectal-perforation-at-different-hospitals-with-data-from-10-090-cases-in-the-japanese-national-clinical-database
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Takeshi Ohki, Masakazu Yamamoto, Hiroaki Miyata, Yasuto Sato, Yoshihisa Saida, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Hiroyuki Konno, Yasuyuki Seto, Koichi Hirata
Colorectal perforation has a high rate of mortality. We compared the incidence and fatality rates of colorectal perforation among different hospitals in Japan using data from the nationwide surgical database.Patients were registered in the National Clinical Database (NCD) between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013. Patients with colorectal perforation were identified from surgery records by examining if acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP) and diseases associated with a high probability of colorectal perforation were noted...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060868/non-communicable-disease-preventive-screening-by-hiv-care-model
#10
Corinne M Rhodes, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Virginia A Triant
IMPORTANCE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038910/consumer-health-informatics-empowering-healthy-living-seekers-through-mhealth
#11
REVIEW
Anthony Faiola, Richard J Holden
People are at risk from noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and poor health habits, with interventions like medications and surgery carrying further risk of adverse effects. This paper addresses ways people are increasingly moving to healthy living medicine (HLM) to mitigate such health threats. HLM-seekers increasingly leverage mobile technologies that enable control of personal health information, collaboration with clinicians/other agents to establish healthy living practices. For example, outcomes from consumer health informatics research include empowering users to take charge of their health through active participation in decision-making about healthcare delivery...
December 27, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018516/2014-japan-critical-limb-ischemia-database-jclimb-annual-report
#12
(no author information available yet)
Since 2013, the Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery (JSVS) has started the project of nationwide registration and a tracking database for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who are treated by vascular surgeons. The purpose of this project is to clarify the current status of the medical practice for patients with CLI to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medical care. This database, called JAPAN Critical Limb Ischemia Database (JCLIMB), is created on the National Clinical Database (NCD) and collects data of patients' background, therapeutic measures, early results, and long-term prognosis as long as 5 years after the initial treatment...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018515/2013-japan-critical-limb-ischemia-database-jclimb-annual-report
#13
(no author information available yet)
Since 2013, the Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery (JSVS) has started the project of nationwide registration and a tracking database for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who are treated by vascular surgeons. The purpose of this project is to clarify the current status of the medical practice for patients with CLI to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medical care. This database, called JAPAN Critical Limb Ischemia Database (JCLIMB), is created on the National Clinical Database (NCD) and collects data of patients' background, therapeutic measures, early results, and long term prognosis as long as five years after the initial treatment...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011654/school-based-primary-ncd-risk-reduction-education-and-public-health-perspectives
#14
Jacquie L Bay, Rosemary Hipkins, Kamran Siddiqi, Rumana Huque, Robyn Dixon, Debra Shirley, Karen Tairea, Delaney Yaqona, Amanda Mason-Jones, Mark H Vickers
The rising global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has heightened awareness of the necessity for primary risk prevention programmes. These aim to facilitate long-term behaviour changes in children and adolescents that can reduce NCD risk factors and disease onset in later-life. School-based programmes designed to improve childhood and adolescent health behaviours and wellbeing contribute to this; however, design and impact assessment of these is complex. These programmes should be multidisciplinary, utilizing both educational and health expertise...
December 23, 2016: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003040/nutritional-and-microbiological-quality-of-commercial-and-homemade-blenderized-whole-food-enteral-diets-for-home-based-enteral-nutritional-therapy-in-adults
#15
Maricy Machado Cavalca Vieira, Valdirene Francisca Neves Santos, Andrea Bottoni, Tania Beninga Morais
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992959/allergic-sensitization-at-school-age-is-a-systemic-low-grade-inflammatory-disorder
#16
B L Chawes, J Stokholm, A-M M Schoos, N R Fink, S Brix, H Bisgaard
BACKGROUND: Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) proposing a shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. We therefore aimed to investigate the possible association with childhood allergic sensitization. METHODS: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000 ) birth cohort...
December 19, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981409/medical-image-retrieval-using-vector-quantization-and-fuzzy-s-tree
#17
Jana Nowaková, Michal Prílepok, Václav Snášel
The aim of the article is to present a novel method for fuzzy medical image retrieval (FMIR) using vector quantization (VQ) with fuzzy signatures in conjunction with fuzzy S-trees. In past times, a task of similar pictures searching was not based on searching for similar content (e.g. shapes, colour) of the pictures but on the picture name. There exist some methods for the same purpose, but there is still some space for development of more efficient methods. The proposed image retrieval system is used for finding similar images, in our case in the medical area - in mammography, in addition to the creation of the list of similar images - cases...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978839/the-impact-of-dietary-risk-factors-on-the-burden-of-non-communicable-diseases-in-ethiopia-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#18
Yohannes Adama Melaku, Awoke Misganaw Temesgen, Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Berhe W Sahle, Semaw Ferede Abera, Tolesa Bekele, Ferew Lemma, Azmeraw T Amare, Oumer Seid, Kedir Endris, Abiy Hiruye, Amare Worku, Robert Adams, Anne W Taylor, Tiffany K Gill, Zumin Shi, Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad H Forouzanfar
BACKGROUND: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. The contribution of dietary behaviours to the NCD burden in Ethiopia has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess diet-related burden of disease in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. METHOD: We used the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) data to estimate deaths, years of life lost (YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) related to eight food types, five nutrients and fibre intake...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942746/building-leadership-capacity-to-prevent-and-control-noncommunicable-diseases-evaluation-of-an-international-short-term-training-program-for-program-managers-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
Agnes Erzse, Pascal Bovet, Fred Paccaud, Oleg Chestnov, Nicholas Banatvala
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a 1-week training seminar jointly developed and conducted by the World Health Organization and the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine of Lausanne targeting senior policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries on public health aspects of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). METHODS: A short qualitative questionnaire was emailed to all participants to one of the nine seminars organized between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: From the 195 participants from 96 different countries, 122 (63%) completed the questionnaire...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941508/effectiveness-of-caregiver-provided-cognitive-interventions-on-cognition-social-functioning-and-quality-of-life-among-older-adults-with-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Rosa Silva, Daniela Cardoso, Sérgio Abrunheiro, Maria Almeida, João Apóstolo
The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of individual cognitive interventions (CIs) provided by caregivers on cognition, social functioning and quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD).The review questions are as follows:What is the best available evidence on the effectiveness of individual CIs provided by caregivers on cognitive domains such as memory, problem-solving and verbal fluency among older adults (≥65 years) with major NCD?What is the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual CIs provided by caregivers on the social functioning and quality of life among older adults (≥65 years) with major NCD?...
November 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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