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Gregory L Fricchione
The greatest challenge facing medicine today involves the so-called non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This is true regardless of whether one's location is considered high-income, middle-income, or low-income. Basic research at all "OMICs" system levels will be significant in uncovering causal links that create NCD vulnerabilities in mind, brain, body, and society. Therefore, meeting this 21st century challenge by improving NCD management and prevention around the world will rely on advancement in this type of basic research...
June 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Andrea Schueck, Michael von Wolff, Norman Bitterlich, Petra Stute
Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major reason for death and morbidity worldwide. As many NCDs are initially asymptomatic, online risk calculators with easy and inexpensive access have been developed and validated in order to facilitate early NCD detection and prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness, use and applicability of NCD risk calculators among physicians in private practice in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. This was a cross-sectional cohort study of general practitioners and specialists in general internal medicine and gynaecologists...
July 2018: Maturitas
Kathryn Miranda, Xiaoming Yang, Marpe Bam, E Angela Murphy, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a pandemic disorder that is characterized by accumulation of adipose tissue and chronic low-grade inflammation that is driven primarily by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). While ATM polarization from pro-(M1) to anti-(M2) inflammatory phenotype influences insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, the mechanisms of such a switch are unclear. In the current study, we identified epigenetic pathways including microRNAs (miR) in ATMs that regulate obesity-induced inflammation...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Annemarie Lüdecke, Anja-Maria Seidel, Marcus Braun, Zdenek Lansky, Stefan Diez
Form and function of the mitotic spindle depend on motor proteins that crosslink microtubules and move them relative to each other. Among these are kinesin-14s, such as Ncd, which interact with one microtubule via their non-processive motor domains and with another via their diffusive tail domains, the latter allowing the protein to slip along the microtubule surface. Little is known about the influence of the tail domains on the protein's performance. Here, we show that diffusive anchorage of Ncd's tail domains impacts velocity and force considerably...
June 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Amy K McLennan, M Shimonovich, S J Ulijaszek, M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dietary surveys are frequently used as the basis for theorising nutritional change and diet-related non-communicable disease emergence (DR-NCD) in the Pacific islands. However, findings from historical survey data do not always align with ethnographic evidence. AIMS: This paper aims to examine the extent to which the two types of evidence can lead to similar conclusions, and draw out the implications for current theories of, and interventions addressing, nutritional change...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Hannah Flahr, Wendy J Brown, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander
Shift workers are at increased risk of a range of chronic diseases and there is evidence to suggest that these risks can be ameliorated by physical activity. Little is known however about the efficacy of physical activity interventions in shift workers. The aim was therefore to critically review the literature to improve understanding of the efficacy of physical activity promotion initiatives for this occupational group. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of physical activity in shift workers was conducted in 2016-2017 following the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kiran Saluja, Tina Rawal, Shalini Bassi, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Ankur Singh, Min Hae Park, Sanjay Kinra, Monika Arora
We aimed to identify, describe and analyse school environment assessment (SEA) tools that address behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption) for non-communicable diseases (NCD). We searched in MEDLINE and Web of Science, hand-searched reference lists and contacted experts. Basic characteristics, measures assessed and measurement properties (validity, reliability, usability) of identified tools were extracted. We narratively synthesized the data and used content analysis to develop a list of measures used in the SEA tools...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Takahiro Yoshida, Hiroaki Miyata, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiraku Kumamaru, Akira Tangoku, Yoshihito Furukita, Norimichi Hirahara, Go Wakabayashi, Mitsukazu Gotoh, Masaki Mori
Objective: Nationwide databases are expected to provide critical data to improve medical practice. The present study used such data to develop risk models for clinically important outcomes after right hemicolectomy based on preoperative risk factors. Methods: Japan's National Clinical Database (NCD) identified 38 030 cases of right hemicolectomy in the years 2011 and 2012. These were used to analyze correlations between mortality and eight selected clinical outcomes of interest by Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r )...
May 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Yoshihiro Kakeji, Arata Takahashi, Harushi Udagawa, Michiaki Unno, Itaru Endo, Chikara Kunisaki, Akinobu Taketomi, Akira Tangoku, Tadahiko Masaki, Shigeru Marubashi, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Mitsukazu Gotoh, Hiroyuki Konno, Hiroaki Miyata, Yasuyuki Seto
The National Clinical Database (NCD) of Japan started its registration in 2011 and over 9 000 000 cases from more than 5000 facilities were registered over a 6-year period. This is the report of NCD based upon gastrointestinal surgery information in excess of 3 200 000 cases from 2011 to 2016 adding data of complications. About 70% of all gastrointestinal surgeries were carried out at certified institutions, and the percentage of surgeries done at certified institutions was particularly high for the esophagus (92...
January 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Kazuhiro Yoshida, Michitaka Honda, Hiraku Kumamaru, Yasuhiro Kodera, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Naoki Hiki, Tsuyoshi Etoh, Hiroaki Miyata, Yuichi Yamashita, Yasuyuki Seto, Seigo Kitano, Hiroyuki Konno
To clarify the safety profile of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG) for gastric cancer patients, the short-term outcome of LDG was compared to that of open distal gastrectomy (ODG) by propensity score matching using data from the Japanese National Clinical Database (NCD). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing distal gastrectomy between January 2012 and December 2013. Using the data for 70 346 patients registered in the NCD, incidences of mortality and morbidities were compared between LDG patients and ODG patients in the propensity score matched stage I patients (ODG: n = 14 386, LDG: n = 14 386) and stage II-IV patients (ODG: n = 3738, LDG: n = 3738), respectively...
January 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Liona C Poon, H David McIntyre, Jonathan A Hyett, Eduardo Borges da Fonseca, Moshe Hod
The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has identified non communicable maternal diseases (NCDs) as a new focus area. NCDs and exposures as related to pregnancy complications and later impairment of maternal and offspring health will form the basis for action in the forthcoming years. This paper summarizes recent advances, centered on the use of first-trimester testing, as a window of opportunity to predict and prevent many pregnancy complications; and for potential future prevention of NCDs in mother and offspring...
May 28, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Tabassum Firoz, Affette McCaw-Binns, Veronique Filippi, Laura A Magee, Maria L Costa, Jose G Cecatti, Maria Barreix, Richard Adanu, Doris Chou, Lale Say
The maternal health agenda is undergoing a paradigm shift from preventing maternal deaths to promoting women's health and wellness. A critical focus of this trajectory includes addressing maternal morbidity and the increasing burden of chronic and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among pregnant women. The WHO convened the Maternal Morbidity Working Group (MMWG) to improve the scientific basis for defining, measuring, and monitoring maternal morbidity. Based on the MMWG's work, we propose paradigms for conceptualizing maternal health and related interventions, and call for greater integration between maternal health and NCD programs...
May 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Max Gill, Harmeet Chhabra, Mona Shah, Cyrus Zhu, George Grunberger
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the C-peptide and β-cell autoantibody testing required by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) on costs/utilization for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) initiating continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study used propensity score-matched patients. Analysis 1 compared patients 1-year pre- and 2-year post-CSII adoption who met or did not meet CMS criteria. Analysis 2 compared Medicare Advantage patients using CSII or multiple daily injections (MDI), who did not meet CMS criteria, for 1-year pre- and 1-year post-CSII adoption...
May 31, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Kate Clouse, Molebogeng Motlhatlhedi, Kemberlee Bonnet, David Schlundt, David M Aronoff, Rosette Chakkalakal, Shane A Norris
HIV and non-communicable diseases (NCD) are co-epidemics in South Africa. Comorbid individuals must engage in lifelong care. Postpartum HIV-positive women in South Africa are at high risk of dropping out of HIV care. We explored healthcare utilization among postpartum women requiring chronic management of HIV and NCD. From August - December 2016, we enrolled 25 women in Soweto, South Africa, and conducted one-time interviews. All participants were adult (≥18 years), HIV-positive, postpartum, and diagnosed with a NCD that required further evaluation after delivery...
May 30, 2018: AIDS Care
Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Chen Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Siming Jiao, Xiaoming Zhao, Heng Yin, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidative reagent for clinical diseases, shows potential application to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, it is unknown how NAC modulates the gut microbiota of mice with metabolic syndrome. In present study, we aim to demonstrate the preventive effect of NAC on intestinal dysbiosis and glucose metabolic disorder. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow diet (NCD), NCD plus NAC, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus NAC for five months...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Veronika J Wirtz, Kristen Turpin, Richard O Laing, Carol K Mukiira, Peter C Rockers
OBJECTIVE: To assess access to non-communicable diseases (NCD) medicines in Kenya for patients diagnosed and prescribed treatment for asthma, diabetes and hypertension. METHODS: Households in eight purposively chosen counties were randomly selected. In order to be eligible a household needed to have at least one member aged 18 years or older who had been previously diagnosed and prescribed medicines for one of the following NCDs: asthma, diabetes or hypertension...
May 29, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
M Haution-Bitker, T Gilbert, A Vignoles, C Lecardonnel, S Watelet, E Blond, J Drai, M Bonnefoy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of plasmatic and erythrocyte concentrations polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with both cognitive status and decline. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. SETTING: Memory Clinic of Lyon Sud university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 140 patients, aged 60 and older, were referred to the memory clinic, and successively included in the cohort, between March 2010 and February 2014...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Michael Marmot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Yogesh N V Reddy, Thomas P Olson, Masaru Obokata, Vojtech Melenovsky, Barry A Borlaug
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to define the invasive hemodynamic correlates of peak oxygen consumption (Vo2 ) in both supine and upright exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and evaluate its diagnostic role as a method to discriminate HFpEF from noncardiac etiologies of dyspnea (NCD). BACKGROUND: Peak Vo2 is depressed in patients with HFpEF. The hemodynamic correlates of reduced peak Vo2 and its role in the clinical evaluation of HFpEF are unclear...
May 21, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
Abu P Varghese, J Prasad, K S Jacob
ABSTRACTBackground and Aims:The changes in DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for dementia (Major neurocognitive disorder (NCD)) and mild cognitive impairment (mild NCD) mandate a re-evaluation of screening instruments. This study attempted to validate screening instruments, identify optimum threshold, and describe their indices of efficacy. METHOD: Consecutive people above the age of 65 years attending the outpatient department of a general hospital were recruited. They were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Vellore Screening Instruments for Dementia and were evaluated against the DSM-5 standard...
May 25, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
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