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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439814/imaging-the-accumulated-intracellular-microalgal-lipids-as-a-response-to-temperature-stress
#1
Khaled N M Elsayed, Tatiana A Kolesnikova, Anja Noke, Gerd Klöck
Over the last few decades, many scientists considered microalgae as promising actors for future biofuels because of the high lipid productivity inside their cells. Moreover, much attention has been paid to algal lipids as they can be used in biodiesel production. In this study, we optimized the different suitable conditions such as incubation time, incubation temperature, Dimethylesulfoxide and Nile red concentrations of the lipophilic fluorescence dye Nile red as an excellent and fast vital stain to detect and quantify intracellular lipids...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433900/production-of-new-human-milk-fat-substitutes-by-enzymatic-acidolysis-of-microalgae-oils-from-nannochloropsis-oculata-and-isochrysis-galbana
#2
Yongjin He, Changyang Qiu, Zheng Guo, Jian Huang, Mingzi Wang, Bilian Chen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFs) with four kinds of n-3 fatty acid for infant formula were firstly synthesized using triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Nannochloropsis oculata rich in PA at the sn-2 position and free fatty acids (FFAs) from Isochrysis galbana rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs-ALA/SDA/DHA) via solvent-free acidolysis with Novozym 435, Lipozyme 435, TL-IM and RM-IM as biocatalysts. The results show that the resulting HMFs contain total n-3 PUFA of 13.92-17.12% and PA of 59.38-68.13% at the sn-2 position under the optimal conditions (mole ratio FFAs/TAG 3:1, 60°C (Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL-IM) and 50°C (Lipozyme 435 and RM-IM), lipase loading 10%, reaction time 24h)...
April 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427282/biofouling-in-photobioreactors-for-marine-microalgae
#3
Ouassim Zeriouh, José Vicente Reinoso-Moreno, Lorenzo López-Rosales, María Del Carmen Cerón-García, Asterio Sánchez-Mirón, Francisco García-Camacho, Emilio Molina-Grima
The economic and/or energetic feasibility of processes based on using microalgae biomass requires an efficient cultivation system. In photobioreactors (PBRs), the adhesion of microalgae to the transparent PBR surfaces leads to biofouling and reduces the solar radiation penetrating the PBR. Light reduction within the PBR decreases biomass productivity and, therefore, the photosynthetic efficiency of the cultivation system. Additionally, PBR biofouling leads to a series of further undesirable events including changes in cell pigmentation, culture degradation, and contamination by invasive microorganisms; all of which can result in the cultivation process having to be stopped...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423307/aspects-of-phosphorus-physiology-associated-with-phosphate-induced-polar-lipid-remodelling-in-marine-microalgae
#4
José Pedro Cañavate, Isabel Armada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado
Marine microalgae exhibit a diversified phosphorus physiology and have also been recently found to show high inter-taxa variability in their phosphate induced-polar lipids' remodelling. Identification of phosphorus physiology aspects that are more related to lipid remodelling can contribute to better understanding of such intricate phytoplankton lipid metabolism. Therefore, some aspects of phosphorus physiology related to its uptake, storage and use were evaluated in a taxonomically diversified group of nine marine microalgae that was arranged into three subgroups, each of them including species showing similar polar lipid responses to phosphate...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411052/selective-enrichment-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-20-5n-3-in-n-oceanica-casa-cc201-by-natural-auxin-supplementation
#5
Aswathy Udayan, Muthu Arumugam
The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×10(6)cells/ml than the control (215.5×10(6)cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403199/the-plastoquinone-pool-of-nannochloropsis-oceanica-is-not-completely-reduced-during-bright-light-pulses
#6
Gunvor Røkke, Thor Bernt Melø, Martin Frank Hohmann-Marriott
The lipid-producing model alga Nannochloropsis oceanica has a distinct photosynthetic machinery. This organism possesses chlorophyll a as its only chlorophyll species, and has a high ratio of PSI to PSII. This high ratio of PSI to PSII may affect the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during exposure to light, and consequently may play a role in activating photoprotection mechanisms. We utilized pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry to investigate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during and after bright light pulses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396394/the-carbonic-anhydrase-cah1-is-an-essential-component-of-the-carbon-concentrating-mechanism-in-nannochloropsis-oceanica
#7
Christopher W Gee, Krishna K Niyogi
Aquatic photosynthetic organisms cope with low environmental CO2 concentrations through the action of carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Known eukaryotic CCMs consist of inorganic carbon transporters and carbonic anhydrases (and other supporting components) that culminate in elevated [CO2] inside a chloroplastic Rubisco-containing structure called a pyrenoid. We set out to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the CCM in the emerging model photosynthetic stramenopile, Nannochloropsis oceanica, a unicellular picoplanktonic alga that lacks a pyrenoid...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395932/microalgae-fractionation-using-steam-explosion-dynamic-and-tangential-cross-flow-membrane-filtration
#8
E Lorente, M Hapońska, E Clavero, C Torras, J Salvadó
In this study, the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana was subjected to acid catalysed steam explosion treatment and the resulting exploded material was subsequently fractionated to separate the different fractions (lipids, sugars and solids). Conventional and vibrational membrane setups were used with several polymeric commercial membranes. Two different routes were followed: 1) filtration+lipid solvent extraction and 2) lipid solvent extraction+filtration. Route 1 revealed to be much better since the used membrane for filtration was able to permeate the sugar aqueous phase and retained the fraction containing lipids; after this, an extraction required a much lower amount of solvent and a better recovering yield...
March 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352519/heterotrophic-cultivation-of-nannochloropsis-salina-for-enhancing-biomass-and-lipid-production
#9
Thangapandi Marudhupandi, Ramamoorthy Sathishkumar, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to enhance the biomass and lipid content in Nannochloropsis salina due to its economic importance. Preliminary screening results revealed that the heterotrophically cultivated N. salina with various carbon and nitrogen sources yielded higher biomass (0.91 ± 0.0035 g/L) and lipid content (37.1 ± 0.49 mg/L) than that of the photoautotrophical cultivation (0.21 ± 0.009 g/L and 22.16 ± 0.27 mg/L). Significant sources that greatly influenced on biomass and lipid content of the alga were optimized through RSM...
June 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346505/long-duration-effect-of-multi-factor-stresses-on-the-cellular-biochemistry-oil-yielding-performance-and-morphology-of-nannochloropsis-oculata
#10
Likun Wei, Xuxiong Huang
Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Elevating its oil-yielding capacity is conducive to cost-saving biodiesel production. However, the regulatory processes of multi-factor collaborative stresses (MFCS) on the oil-yielding performance of N. oculata are unclear. The duration effects of MFCS (high irradiation, nitrogen deficiency and elevated iron supplementation) on N. oculata were investigated in an 18-d batch culture. Despite the reduction in cell division, the biomass concentration increased, resulting from the large accumulation of the carbon/energy-reservoir...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271014/cmos-based-image-cytometry-for-detection-of-phytoplankton-in-ballast-water
#11
J M Pérez, M Jofre, P Martínez, M A Yáñez, V Catalan, A Parker, M Veldhuis, V Pruneri
We introduce an image cytometer (I-CYT) for the analysis of phytoplankton in fresh and marine water environments. A linear quantification of cell numbers was observed covering several orders of magnitude using cultures of Tetraselmis and Nannochloropsis measured by autofluorescence in a laboratory environment. We assessed the functionality of the system outside the laboratory by phytoplankton quantification of samples taken from a marine water environment (Dutch Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) and a fresh water environment (Lake Ijssel, The Netherlands)...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247254/diel-oscillation-in-the-optical-activity-of-carotenoids-in-the-absorption-spectrum-of-nannochloropsis
#12
Gabriela C Possa, Hugo Santana, Bruno S A F Brasil, Luiz F Roncaratti
In this paper we show that the absorption spectrum of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica exhibits changes in response to the modulation of incident light. A model was used to analyze the contribution of different active pigments to the total absorption in the photosynthetically active radiation region and suggested consistent diel oscillations in the optical activity of carotenoids.
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218992/differently-localized-lysophosphatidic-acid-acyltransferases-crucial-for-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-in-the-oleaginous-alga-nannochloropsis
#13
Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
The production of renewable bioenergy will be necessary to meet rising global fossil fuel demands. Members of the marine microalgae genus Nannochloropsis produce large quantities of oils (triacylglycerols; TAGs), and this genus is regarded as one of the most promising for biodiesel production. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies on Nannochloropsis have provided a foundation for understanding its oleaginous trait, but the mechanism underlying oil accumulation remains to be clarified. Here we report Nannochloropsis knock-out strains of four extraplastidic lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAT1-LPAT4) that catalyze a major de novo biosynthetic step of TAGs and membrane lipids...
May 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210816/efficient-solvothermal-wet-in-situ-transesterification-of-nannochloropsis-gaditana-for-biodiesel-production
#14
Bora Kim, Yong Keun Chang, Jae W Lee
In situ transesterification of wet microalgae is a promising, simplified alternative biodiesel production process that replaces multiple operations of cell drying, extraction, and transesterification reaction. This study addresses enhanced biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana at elevated temperatures. Compared with the previously reported in situ transesterification process of conducting the reaction at a temperature ranging from 95 to 125 °C, the present work employs higher temperatures of at least 150 °C...
February 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188644/rnai-based-targeted-gene-knockdown-in-the-model-oleaginous-microalgae-nannochloropsis-oceanica
#15
Li Wei, Yi Xin, Qintao Wang, Juan Yang, Hanhua Hu, Jian Xu
Microalgae are promising feedstock for renewable fuels such as biodiesel, yet development of industrial oleaginous strains has been hindered by the paucity and inefficiency of reverse genetics tools. Here we established an efficient RNAi-based targeted gene-knockdown method for Nannochloropsis spp., which are emerging model organisms for industrial microalgal oil production. The method achieved a 40-80% success rate in Nannochloropsis oceanica strain IMET1. When transcript level of one carbonic anhydrase (CA) was inhibited by 62-83% via RNAi, mutant cells exhibited photosynthetic oxygen evolution (POE) rates that were 68-100% higher than wild-type (WT) at pH 6...
November 7, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156133/phycoremediation-of-municipal-wastewater-by-microalgae-to-produce-biofuel
#16
Amit Kumar Singh, Nikunj Sharma, Humaira Farooqi, Malik Zainul Abdin, Thomas Mock, Shashi Kumar
Municipal wastewater (WW), if not properly remediated, poses a threat to the environment and human health by carrying significant loads of nutrients and pathogens. These contaminants pollute rivers, lakes and natural reservoirs where they cause eutrophication and pathogen-mediated diseases. However, the high nutrient content of WW makes it an ideal environment for remediation with microalgae that require high nutrient concentrations for growth and are not susceptible to toxins and pathogens. Given that an appropriate algal strain is used for remediation, the incurred biomass can be refined for the production of biofuel...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132190/biosynthesis-of-metal-nanoparticles-using-three-marine-plant-species-anti-algal-efficiencies-against-oscillatoria-simplicissima
#17
Hala Y El-Kassas, Mary G Ghobrial
This study aims at controlling of the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria simplicissima, those that produce neurotoxins and have negative impacts on the aquatic organisms, using biosynthesized metal nanoparticles (NPs). Silver-NPs (Ag-NPs) have been successfully biosynthesized using Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis tetrathele cultures. Also, Ag-NPs and iron oxide-NPs (Fe3O4-NPs) were synthesized by Halophila stipulacea aqueous extract. The structural composition of the different biosynthesized NPs was studied...
January 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110228/pyrolysis-characteristics-and-pathways-of-protein-lipid-and-carbohydrate-isolated-from-microalgae-nannochloropsis-sp
#18
Xin Wang, Lili Sheng, Xiaoyi Yang
Microalgal components were isolated gradually to get lipid-rich, protein-rich and carbohydrate-rich components. The aim of this work was to study pyrolysis mechanism of microalgae by real isolated real algae components. Thermogrametric analysis (DTG) curve of microalgae was fitted by single pyrolysis curves of protein, lipid and carbohydrate except special zones, which likely affected by cell disruption and hydrolysis mass loss. Experimental microalgae liquefaction without water index N was 0.6776, 0.3861 and 0...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103296/production-of-fatty-acids-and-protein-by-nannochloropsis-in-flat-plate-photobioreactors
#19
Chris J Hulatt, René H Wijffels, Sylvie Bolla, Viswanath Kiron
Nannochloropsis is an industrially-promising microalga that may be cultivated for alternative sources of nutrition due to its high productivity, protein content and lipid composition. We studied the growth and biochemical profile of Nannochloropsis 211/78 (CCAP) in optimized flat-plate photobioreactors. Eighteen cultivations were performed at two nutrient concentrations. The fatty acid, protein content and calorific values were analyzed after 8, 12 and 16 days. Neutral lipids were separated and the changes in fatty acids in triglycerides (TAGs) during nutrient depletion were recorded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092732/enhancement-of-lipid-productivity-by-adopting-multi-stage-continuous-cultivation-strategy-in-nannochloropsis-gaditana
#20
Min-Gyu Sung, Bongsoo Lee, Chul Woong Kim, Kibok Nam, Yong Keun Chang
In the present study, a novel process-based cultivation system was designed to improve lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis gaditana, an oleaginous microalga that has high potential for biofuel production. Specifically, four flat-panel photobioreactors were connected in series, and this system was subjected to continuous chemostat cultivation by feeding fresh medium to the first reactor at dilution rates of 0.028 and 0.056day(-1), which were determined based on Monod kinetics. The results show that the serially connected photobioreactor system achieved 20...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
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